A bridge is a structure built to span a physical obstacle, such as a body of water, valley, or road, without closing the way underneath. It is constructed for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle something that can be detrimental to cross otherwise. There are many different designs that each serve a particular purpose and apply to different situations. Designs of bridges vary depending on the function of the bridge, the nature of the terrain where the bridge is constructed and anchored, the material used to make it, the funds available to build it. Most the earliest bridges were fallen trees and stepping stones, while Neolithic people built boardwalk bridges across marshland; the Arkadiko Bridge dating from the 13th century BC, in the Peloponnese, in southern Greece is one of the oldest arch bridges still in existence and use. The Oxford English Dictionary traces the origin of the word bridge to an Old English word brycg, of the same meaning; the word can be traced directly back to Proto-Indo-European *bʰrēw-.
The word for the card game of the same name has a different origin. Before the rise of humanity, ants have been making bridges by using their own to allow others to cross; the simplest type of a bridge is stepping stones, so this may have been one of the earliest types. Neolithic people built a form of boardwalk across marshes, of which the Sweet Track and the Post Track, are examples from England that are around 6000 years old. Undoubtedly ancient peoples would have used log bridges; some of the first man-made bridges with significant span were intentionally felled trees. Among the oldest timber bridges is the Holzbrücke Rapperswil-Hurden crossing upper Lake Zürich in Switzerland; the first wooden footbridge led across Lake Zürich, followed by several reconstructions at least until the late 2nd century AD, when the Roman Empire built a 6-metre-wide wooden bridge. Between 1358 and 1360, Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria, built a'new' wooden bridge across the lake, used to 1878 – measuring 1,450 metres in length and 4 metres wide.
On April 6, 2001, the reconstructed wooden footbridge was opened, being the longest wooden bridge in Switzerland. The Arkadiko Bridge is one of four Mycenaean corbel arch bridges part of a former network of roads, designed to accommodate chariots, between the fort of Tiryns and town of Epidauros in the Peloponnese, in southern Greece. Dating to the Greek Bronze Age, it is one of the oldest arch bridges still in use. Several intact arched stone bridges from the Hellenistic era can be found in the Peloponnese; the greatest bridge builders of antiquity were the ancient Romans. The Romans built arch bridges and aqueducts that could stand in conditions that would damage or destroy earlier designs; some stand today. An example is the Alcántara Bridge, built over the river Tagus, in Spain; the Romans used cement, which reduced the variation of strength found in natural stone. One type of cement, called pozzolana, consisted of water, lime and volcanic rock. Brick and mortar bridges were built after the Roman era.
In India, the Arthashastra treatise by Kautilya mentions the construction of bridges. A Mauryan bridge near Girnar was surveyed by James Princep; the bridge was swept away during a flood, repaired by Puspagupta, the chief architect of emperor Chandragupta I. The use of stronger bridges using plaited bamboo and iron chain was visible in India by about the 4th century. A number of bridges, both for military and commercial purposes, were constructed by the Mughal administration in India. Although large Chinese bridges of wooden construction existed at the time of the Warring States period, the oldest surviving stone bridge in China is the Zhaozhou Bridge, built from 595 to 605 AD during the Sui dynasty; this bridge is historically significant as it is the world's oldest open-spandrel stone segmental arch bridge. European segmental arch bridges date back to at least the Alconétar Bridge, while the enormous Roman era Trajan's Bridge featured open-spandrel segmental arches in wooden construction. Rope bridges, a simple type of suspension bridge, were used by the Inca civilization in the Andes mountains of South America, just prior to European colonization in the 16th century.
During the 18th century there were many innovations in the design of timber bridges by Hans Ulrich Grubenmann, Johannes Grubenmann, others. The first book on bridge engineering was written by Hubert Gautier in 1716. A major breakthrough in bridge technology came with the erection of the Iron Bridge in Shropshire, England in 1779, it used cast iron for the first time as arches to cross the river Severn. With the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century, truss systems of wrought iron were developed for larger bridges, but iron does not have the tensile strength to support large loads. With the advent of steel, which has a high tensile strength, much larger bridges were built, many using the ideas of Gustave Eiffel. In Canada and the U. S. numerous timber Covered bridges were built in the late 1700s to the late 1800s, reminiscent of earlier designs in Germany and Switzerland. In years, some were made of stone or metal but the trusses were still made of wood. Hundreds of these structures still stand in North America.
They were brought to the attention of the general public in
Emergency medical services
Emergency medical services known as ambulance services or paramedic services, are emergency services which treat illnesses and injuries that require an urgent medical response, providing out-of-hospital treatment and transport to definitive care. They may be known as a first aid squad, FAST squad, emergency squad, rescue squad, ambulance squad, ambulance corps, life squad or by other initialisms such as EMAS or EMARS. In most places, the EMS can be summoned by members of the public via an emergency telephone number which puts them in contact with a control facility, which will dispatch a suitable resource to deal with the situation. Ambulances are the primary vehicles for delivering EMS, though some use cars, aircraft or boats. EMS agencies may operate the non-emergency patient transport service, some have units for technical rescue operations such as extrication, water rescue, search and rescue; as a first resort, the EMS provide treatment on the scene to those in need of urgent medical care.
If it is deemed necessary, they are tasked with transferring the patient to the next point of care. This is most an emergency department of a hospital. Ambulances only transported patients to care, this remains the case in parts of the developing world; the term "emergency medical service" was popularised when these services began to emphasise diagnosis and treatment at the scene. In some countries, a substantial portion of EMS calls do not result in a patient being taken to hospital. Training and qualification levels for members and employees of emergency medical services vary throughout the world. In some systems, members may be present who are qualified only to drive ambulances, with no medical training. In contrast, most systems have personnel who retain at least basic first aid certifications, such as basic life support. In English-speaking countries, they are known as emergency medical technicians and paramedics, with the latter having additional training such as advanced life support skills.
Physicians and nurses provide pre-hospital care to varying degrees in different countries. Emergency care in the field has been rendered in different forms since the beginning of recorded history; the New Testament contains the parable of the Good Samaritan, in which a man, beaten is cared for by a passing Samaritan. Luke 10:34 – "He went to him and bandaged his wounds, pouring on oil and wine, he put the man on his own donkey, took him to an inn and took care of him." During the Middle Ages, the Knights Hospitaller were known for rendering assistance to wounded soldiers in the battlefield. The first use of the ambulance as a specialized vehicle, in battle came about with the ambulances volantes designed by Dominique Jean Larrey, Napoleon Bonaparte's chief surgeon. Larrey was present at the battle of Spires, between the French and Prussians, was distressed by the fact that wounded soldiers were not picked up by the numerous ambulances until after hostilities had ceased, set about developing a new ambulance system.
Having decided against using the Norman system of horse litters, he settled on two- or four-wheeled horse-drawn wagons, which were used to transport fallen soldiers from the battlefield after they had received early treatment in the field. Larrey's projects for'flying ambulances' were first approved by the Committee of Public Safety in 1794. Larrey subsequently entered Napoleon's service during the Italian campaigns in 1796, where his ambulances were used for the first time at Udine and Milan, he adapted his ambulances to the conditions developing a litter which could be carried by a camel for a campaign in Egypt. A major advance was made with the introduction of a transport carriage for cholera patients in London during 1832; the statement on the carriage, as printed in The Times, said "The curative process commences the instant the patient is put in to the carriage. This tenet of ambulances providing instant care, allowing hospitals to be spaced further apart, displays itself in modern emergency medical planning.
The first known hospital-based ambulance service operated out of Commercial Hospital, Ohio by 1865. This was soon followed by other services, notably the New York service provided out of Bellevue Hospital which started in 1869 with ambulances carrying medical equipment, such as splints, a stomach pump and brandy, reflecting contemporary medicine. Another early ambulance service was founded by Jaromir V. Mundy, Count J. N. Wilczek, Eduard Lamezan-Salins in Vienna after the disastrous fire at the Vienna Ringtheater in 1881. Named the "Vienna Voluntary Rescue Society," it served as a model for similar societies worldwide. In June 1887 the St John Ambulance Brigade was established to provide first aid and ambulance services at public events in London, it was modelled on a military-style discipline structure. In the late 19th century, the automobile was being developed, in addition to horse-drawn models, early 20th century ambulances were powered by steam and electricity, reflecting the competing automotive technologies in existence.
However, the first motorized ambulance was brought into service in the last year of the 19th century, with the Michael Reese Hospital, Ch
Claude R. Kirk Jr.
Claude Roy Kirk Jr. was the 36th Governor of the U. S. state of Florida. He was the first Republican Governor of Florida since Reconstruction. Kirk was born in California, he lived in Chicago and Montgomery, where he attended Sidney Lanier High School. After graduating at age seventeen, he enlisted in the U. S. Marine Corps reserve and rose to the rank of second lieutenant, having served stateside during World War II, he attended Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia before he transferred to Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, where he earned a Bachelor of Science degree. Kirk was accepted at the University of Alabama School of Law in Tuscaloosa and graduated in 1949, he was recalled to the Marines for the Korean War and was assigned to the 1st Marine Division. He served aboard the battleship USS New Jersey and was discharged as a first lieutenant in 1952. Kirk worked as an insurance salesman and sold building supplies before partnering with W. Ashley Verlander in 1956 to start the American Heritage Life Insurance Company in Jacksonville, Florida.
He had no money of his own, so he recruited investors and his brother-in-law to bankroll the venture. The firm catered to the wealthy and became one of the most successful in the industry, earning Kirk a fortune. Six years he left American Heritage Life and purchased a partnership in the New York securities firm, Hayden Stone, selling investments to Floridians. In 1960, Kirk switched his party affiliation from Democrat to Republican and headed the "Floridians for Nixon" campaign, which helped the Republican Party win the state's ten electoral votes for the third consecutive time. In 1964, Kirk ran as a Republican against veteran Democratic US Senator Spessard Holland, a former governor and epitome of the Florida Democratic establishment, he was considered a placeholder on the ballot, with Republican Presidential nominee Barry M. Goldwater losing Florida to U. S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. Kirk polled 36.1 percent of the vote. Thereafter, Kirk became embroiled in an intraparty squabble with US Representative William C.
Cramer of St. Petersburg. Cramer recalled Kirk having "begged me" to allow him to address meetings held during the 1964 delegate and national committeeman races. Thus, Kirk became acquainted with Republican activists who could be helpful to him his career. In 1966, Kirk scored a huge upset to become governor, defeating Democrat Robert King High, the mayor of Miami, 55-45 percent. High had unseated incumbent Governor Haydon Burns, a Conservative Democrat, in the Democratic primary. In the general election, Kirk won majorities in 56 of the state's 67 counties. Burns's refusal to support High was a major factor in Kirk's decisive victory in the general election. Upon taking the oath of office on January 3, 1967, he became the state's first Republican governor in 90 years. During his single four-year term in office, a new Florida Constitution went into effect in 1968; the governor was at odds with both Democrats and his Republican colleagues in the legislature on issues such as growth and taxes. He earned the nickname Claudius Maximus because of his brash, acerbic style of leadership and opinionated, colorful personality.
A significant event of his tenure was a controversial statewide teachers' strike in 1968. One of the major themes of Kirk's campaign was his strong support for the death penalty, in contrast to Collins', Bryant's and Burns' opposition to capital punishment. Kirk promised to resume executions, but no executions occurred during his administration because of an informal nationwide moratorium. Kirk made headlines when, during the campaign, he visited Florida State Prison and, after shaking hands with several death row inmates, said, "If I'm elected, I may have to sign your death warrants."Kirk's management style was described as flamboyant and confrontational. He opposed court-ordered mandatory busing. In 1970, as he geared for a reelection bid, he tried to halt a desegregation plan in Manatee County, he quipped that the pro-busing judges of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit, based in New Orleans, were "drinking in the French Quarter and reading dirty books."Although he had a Democratic-controlled legislature, Democrats did not have a veto-proof majority during Kirk's term of office.
During Kirk's term, the Dade County Port Authority began secretly buying land in the Everglades to build an airport. Governor Kirk turned a ceremonial shovel of dirt at the groundbreaking. Kirk was a strong supporter of what would have been the world's largest airport despite evidence that it would destroy the water-recharge area South Florida needed, his transportation secretary, Michael O'Neil, stated, "I call the Everglades a swamp. My children can't play in it." The work was halted on September 17, 1969, after an Interior Department study ordered by Nixon. After the publication of John Filo's photograph showing Mary Ann Vecchio of Florida kneeling over the body of Jeffrey Miller at the Kent State University shootings on May 4, 1970 Governor Kirk publicly labeled Vecchio a dissident "communist"; the schism between Cramer and Kirk accelerated in 1966 to the point that in a 1988 interview, Kirk said that he could not recall Cramer having rendered him any assistance at all in either the 1964 or 1966 campaigns: "Cramer never helped me do anything.
At all times he was a total combatant."Kirk claimed that Cramer wanted the 1966 gubernatorial nomination himself after Burns, the primary loser, refused to endorse Mayor High, an ally of U. S. Senator Robert F. Kennedy of New York. Kirk said that Cramer's legislative assistant, Jack P. Inscoe a real estate developer from Tampa, could verify that C
Interstate 4 is an Interstate Highway in the U. S. state of Florida, maintained by the Florida Department of Transportation. Spanning 133 miles along a west–east axis, I-4 is concurrent with State Road 400. In the west, they begin at an interchange with I-275 in Tampa, they intersect with several major expressways as they traverse Central Florida, including US 41 in Tampa. In the east, I-4 ends at an interchange with I-95 in Daytona Beach, while SR 400 continues for another 4 miles and ends at an intersection with US 1 on the city line of Daytona Beach and South Daytona. Construction on I-4 began in 1958; the "I-4 Ultimate" project in progress, will oversee the construction of variable-toll express lanes and numerous redevelopments through the 21-mile stretch of highway extending from Kirkman Road in Orlando to SR 434 in Longwood. The project broke ground in 2015, is scheduled to be completed in 2021; the median of I-4 between Tampa and Orlando was the planned route of a now-cancelled high-speed rail line.
From a political standpoint, the "I-4 corridor" is a strategic region given the large number of undecided voters in a large swing state. I-4 maintains a diagonal, northeast–southwest route for much of its length, although it is signed east–west; the 132-mile-long highway's western terminus is with an interchange with Interstate 275—known as "Malfunction Junction"—near downtown Tampa and is the starting point for mile markers and exit numbers. Just east of Malfunction Junction, I-4 passes along the north side of Tampa's Ybor City district, where a mile-long connector links to the Lee Roy Selmon Expressway and Port Tampa Bay. I-4 continues east past the Florida State Fairgrounds towards a turbine interchange with Interstate 75. After passing near the eastern suburbs of Hillsborough County—including Brandon and Plant City—it enters Polk County, where I-4 crosses along the north side of Lakeland; the Polk Parkway forms a semi-loop through Lakeland's southern suburbs and returns to I-4 at the Florida Polytechnic University campus, near Polk City.
Just after the western junction with the Polk Parkway, I-4 turns from an eastward to a northeastward heading. Between SR 33 and US 27, I-4 passes through the fog-prone Green Swamp, although the landscape beside the highway is forest as opposed to water-logged swampland. Ten variable-message signs and dozens of cameras & vehicle detection systems monitor this stretch of mostly-rural highway as a result of several large, deadly pile-ups caused by dense fog. At mile 57, I-4 enters Osceola County and soon thereafter intersects the Orlando area's beltways: the incomplete Western Expressway on the western side and the Central Florida GreeneWay which rounds the eastern side before returning to I-4 in Sanford. Additionally, an exit to World Drive runs north as a limited-access highway into the Walt Disney World Resort and an electric pylon in the shape of Mickey Mouse can be seen on the southwest corner of the intersection; the single GreeneWay/World Drive exit marks an abrupt change from rural to suburban/urban landscape.
The highway passes beside Celebration and Kissimmee on the east side and Walt Disney World Resort on the west side. For the next 40 mi, I-4 passes through the Orlando metropolitan area, where the highway forms the main north-south artery, it enters Orange County, passes through Walt Disney World, by SeaWorld Orlando, & Universal Orlando—and intersects all of the area's major toll roads, including the Beachline Expressway and Florida's Turnpike. Orlando's main tourist strip—International Drive—runs parallel and no more than 1.5 mi from I-4 between Kissimmee and Florida's Turnpike. Between Michigan St. and Kaley Ave. I-4 changes to a north heading past downtown Orlando and its northern suburbs. A 21-mile section of I-4 from west of Kirkman Road to east of SR 434 is undergoing a $2.3 billion reconstruction, expected to be completed in 2021, that replaces most bridges, changes the configuration of many intersections, adds two express toll lanes—named 4 Express—in each direction. After passing along the west side of Downtown Orlando, I-4 continues through the city's northern suburbs—including Winter Park, Altamonte Springs, Sanford.
Around mile 91, I-4 soon thereafter shifts to a northeast heading. The Seminole Expressway, after passing around the east side of the Orlando metropolitan area, has its northern terminus at I-4 in Sanford; this intersection will connect with the Wekiva Parkway under construction, when it is completed in 2021, at which point a full beltway around the Orlando metro area will be available. North of Sanford, I-4 is carried by the St. Johns River Veterans Memorial Bridge over the St. Johns River at the mouth of Lake Monroe. Along the bridge, I-4 enters passes Deltona & DeLand; the segment north of SR 44 has been widened from four to six lanes. Completed in winter 2016-17, the entire length of I-4 has at least 6 lanes. I-4 terminates at a junction with I-95 in Daytona Beach. SR 400 continues east into Daytona Beach 4 mi to US 1. I-4 has two pair
Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of a surface's water and sub-surface water from an area with excess of water. The internal drainage of most agricultural soils is good enough to prevent severe waterlogging, but many soils need artificial drainage to improve production or to manage water supplies; the Indus Valley Civilization had advanced drainage systems. All houses in the major cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro had access to water and drainage facilities. Waste water was directed to covered gravity sewers; the invention of hollow-pipe drainage is credited to Sir Hugh Dalrymple, who died in 1753. New drainage systems incorporate geotextile filters that retain and prevent fine grains of soil from passing into and clogging the drain. Geotextiles are synthetic textile fabrics specially manufactured for civil and environmental engineering applications. Geotextiles are designed to retain fine soil particles while allowing water to pass through. In a typical drainage system, they would be laid along a trench which would be filled with coarse granular material: gravel, sea shells, stone or rock.
The geotextile is folded over the top of the stone and the trench is covered by soil. Groundwater flows through the stone to an outfell. In high groundwater conditions a perforated plastic pipe is laid along the base of the drain to increase the volume of water transported in the drain. Alternatively, a prefabricated plastic drainage system made of HDPE incorporating geotextile, coco fiber or rag filters can be considered; the use of these materials has become more common due to their ease of use which eliminates the need for transporting and laying stone drainage aggregate, invariably more expensive than a synthetic drain and concrete liners. Over the past 30 years geotextile, PVC filters and HDPE filters have become the most used soil filter media, they are cheap to produce and easy to lay, with factory controlled properties that ensure long term filtration performance in fine silty soil conditions. Seattle's Public Utilities created; the project focuses on designing a system "to provide drainage that more mimics the natural landscape prior to development than traditional piped systems".
The streets are characterized by ditches along the side of the roadway, with plantings designed throughout the area. An emphasis on non curbed sidewalks allows water to flow more into the areas of permeable surface on the side of the streets; because of the plantings, the run off water from the urban area does not all directly go into the ground, but can be absorbed into the surrounding environment. Monitoring conducted by Seattle Public Utilities reports a 99 percent reduction of storm water leaving the drainage projectDrainage has undergone a large-scale environmental review in the recent past in the United Kingdom. Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems are designed to encourage contractors to install drainage system that more mimic the natural flow of water in nature. Since 2010 local and neighbourhood planning in the UK is required by law to factor SUDS into any development projects that they are responsible for. Slot drainage has proved the most breakthrough product of the last twenty years as a drainage option.
As a channel drainage system it is designed to eliminate the need for further pipework systems to be installed in parallel to the drainage, reducing the environmental impact of production as well as improving water collection. Stainless steel, concrete channel, PVC and HDPE are all materials available for slot drainage which have become industry standards on construction projects; the civil engineer is responsible for drainage in construction projects. They set out from the plans all the roads, street gutters, drainage and sewers involved in construction operations. During the construction process he/she will set out all the necessary levels for each of the mentioned factors. Civil engineers and construction managers work alongside architects and supervisors, quantity surveyors, the general workforce, as well as subcontractors. Most jurisdictions have some body of drainage law to govern to what degree a landowner can alter the drainage from his parcel. Drainage options for the construction industry include: Point drainage, which intercepts water at gullies.
Gullies connect to drainage pipes beneath the ground surface and deep excavation is required to facilitate this system. Support for deep trenches is required in the shape of strutting or shoring. Channel drainage. Channel drainage is manufactured from concrete, polymer or composites; the interception rate of channel drainage is greater than point drainage and the excavation required is much less deep. The surface opening of channel drainage comes in the form of gratings or a single slot that runs along the ground surface. Earth retaining structures such as retaining walls need to consider groundwater drainage. Typical retaining walls are constructed of impermeable material which can block the path of groundwater; when groundwater flow is obstructed, hydrostatic water pressure buildups against the wall and may cause significant damage. If the water pressure is not drained appropriately, retaining walls can bow, move and seams separate; the water pressure can erode soil particles leading to voids behind the wall and sinkholes in the above soil.
Traditional retaining wall drainage systems
A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places, paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, bicycle, or horse. Roads consist of one or two roadways, each with one or more lanes and any associated sidewalks and road verges. There is sometimes a bike path. Other names for roads include parkways, freeways, interstates, highways, or primary and tertiary local roads. Many roads were recognizable routes without any formal construction or maintenance; the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development defines a road as "a line of communication using a stabilized base other than rails or air strips open to public traffic for the use of road motor vehicles running on their own wheels", which includes "bridges, supporting structures, crossings and toll roads, but not cycle paths". The Eurostat, ITF and UNECE Glossary for Transport Statistics Illustrated defines a road as a "Line of communication open to public traffic for the use of road motor vehicles, using a stabilized base other than rails or air strips.
Included are paved other roads with a stabilized base, e.g. gravel roads. Roads cover streets, tunnels, supporting structures, junctions and interchanges. Toll roads are included. Excluded are dedicated cycle lanes."The 1968 Vienna Convention on Road Traffic defines a road as the entire surface of any way or street open to public traffic. In urban areas roads may diverge through a city or village and be named as streets, serving a dual function as urban space easement and route. Modern roads are smoothed, paved, or otherwise prepared to allow easy travel. In the United Kingdom The Highway Code details rules for "road users", but there is some ambiguity between the terms highway and road. For the purposes of the English law, Highways Act 1980, which covers England and Wales but not Scotland or Northern Ireland, road is "any length of highway or of any other road to which the public has access, includes bridges over which a road passes"; this includes footpaths and cycle tracks, road and driveways on private land and many car parks.
Vehicle Excise Duty, a road use tax, is payable on some vehicles used on the public road. The definition of a road depends on the definition of a highway. A 1984 ruling said. Another legal view is that while a highway included footpaths, driftways, etc. it can now be used to mean those ways that allow the movement of motor-vehicles, the term rights of way can be used to cover the wider usage. In the United States, laws distinguish between public roads, which are open to public use, private roads, which are controlled. Maintenance is becoming an increasing problem in the United States. Between 1997 and 2018, the number of existing roads too bumpy to drive on compared to roads with decent surfaces has increased by 11% due to potholes that are not being properly addressed; the assertion that the first pathways were the trails made by animals has not been universally accepted. Some believe; the Icknield Way may examplify this type of road origination, where human and animal both selected the same natural line.
By about 10,000 BC human travelers used rough roads/pathways. The world's oldest known paved road was constructed in Egypt some time between 2600 and 2200 BC. Stone- paved streets appear in the city of Ur in the Middle East dating back to 4000 BC. Corduroy roads are found dating to 4000 BC in England; the Sweet Track, a timber track causeway in England, is one of the oldest engineered roads discovered and the oldest timber trackway discovered in Northern Europe. Built in winter 3807 BC or spring 3806 BC, it was claimed to be the oldest road in the world until the 2009 discovery of a 6,000-year-old trackway in Plumstead, London. Brick-paved streets appeared in India as early as 3000 BC. c. 1995 BC: an early subdividing of roadways evidenced with sidewalks built in Anatolia. In 500 BC, Darius I the Great started an extensive road system for the Achaemenid Empire, including the Royal Road, one of the finest highways of its time, connecting Sardis to Susa; the road remained in use after Roman times.
These road systems reached as far east as India. In ancient times, transport by river was far easier and faster than transport by road considering the cost of road construction and the difference in carrying capacity between carts and river barges. A hybrid of road transport and ship transport beginning in about 1740 is the horse-drawn boat in which the horse follows a cleared path along the river bank. From about 312 BC, the Roman Empire built straight strong stone Roman roads throughout Europe and North Africa, in support of its military campaigns. At its peak the Roman Empire was connected by 29 major roads moving out from Rome and covering 78,000 kilometers or 52,964 Roman miles of paved roads. In the 8th century AD, many roads were built throughout the Arab Empire; the most sophisticated roads were those in Baghdad, which were paved wit