National Wilderness Preservation System
The National Wilderness Preservation System of the United States protects federally managed wilderness areas designated for preservation in their natural condition. Activity on formally designated wilderness areas is coordinated by the National Wilderness Preservation System. Wilderness areas are managed by four federal land management agencies, the National Park Service, the U. S. Forest Service, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Bureau of Land Management. As of 2015, there are 765 designated wilderness areas, totaling 109,129,657 acres, during the 1950s and 1960s, as the American transportation system was on the rise, concern for clean air and water quality began to grow. A conservation movement began to place with the intent of establishing designated wilderness areas. Howard Zahniser created the first draft of the Wilderness Act in 1956 and it took nine years and 65 rewrites before the Wilderness Act was finally passed in 1964. The Wilderness Act of 1964, which established the NWPS, was signed into law by President Lyndon B.
Johnson on September 3,1964, the first national forest wilderness areas were established by the Wilderness Act itself. The Great Swamp in New Jersey became the first National Wildlife Refuge with formally designated wilderness in 1968, Wilderness areas in national parks followed, beginning with the designation of wilderness in part of Craters of the Moon National Monument in Idaho in 1970. A smaller spike in 1984 came with the passage of many bills establishing national forest wilderness areas identified by the Forest Services Roadless Area Review and Evaluation process. Over 200 wilderness areas have been created within Bureau of Land Management administered lands since then, as of August 2008, a total of 704 separate wilderness areas, encompassing 107,514,938 acres, had become part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. With the passage of the Omnibus Public Lands Act in March 2009, as of September 2015, the system includes 765 wilderness areas totaling 109,129,657 acres. On federal lands in the United States, Congress may designate an area as wilderness under the provisions of the Wilderness Act of 1964.
Congress reviews these cases on a state by state basis and determines which areas, there have been multiple occasions in which congress designated more federal land than had been recommended by the nominating agency. The Wilderness Act provides criteria for lands being considered for wilderness designation, Wilderness areas are subject to specific management restrictions, human activities are limited to non-motorized recreation, scientific research, and other non-invasive activities. During these activities, patrons are asked to abide by the Leave No Trace policy and this policy sets guidelines for using the wilderness responsibly, and leaving the area as it was before usage. When closely observed, the Leave No Trace ethos ensures that wilderness areas remain untainted by human interaction, Wilderness areas fall into IUCN protected area management category Ia or Ib. Wilderness areas are parts of parks, wildlife refuges, national forests. Initially, the NWPS included 34 areas protecting 9.1 million acres in the national forests, there are 762 wilderness areas in the NWPS, preserving 108,916,684 acres
Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area
The Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area preserves the Big South Fork of the Cumberland River and its tributaries in northeastern Tennessee and southeastern Kentucky. In addition, the mining community of Blue Heron is preserved and interpreted via signage. Charit Creek Lodge is a lodge, accessible by trail. The Big South Forks most prominent feature is the river cutting through the softer Mississippian age rock beneath the hard Pennsylvanian capstone of the Cumberland Plateau. Water is the most influential agent of change in the Big South Fork region. Over time water action has many unique and amazing geologic features ranging from the river gorge with its magnificent bluffs to the natural arches. Flowing water hollows out the softer layers beneath and forms waterfalls, where there is hard capstone intact, arches can form creating natural bridges across streams or a dry ravines. Direct erosion widens a joint and forms a cavity below the more resilient rock thus creating a void between the hard capstone and the area below, as result, water eroded arches are formed in the Big South Fork.
Hoodoos are a rare but intriguing feature occurring in the Big South Fork and these hoodoos form in a similar manner to those found in the western United States. Where tough capstone still exists on the side of a hill for instance, the result is a naturally formed erect columnar rock where once was located a hill
Shiloh National Military Park
Shiloh National Military Park preserves the American Civil War Shiloh and Corinth battlefields. The Battle of Shiloh began a struggle for the key railroad junction at Corinth. Afterward, Union forces marched from Pittsburg Landing to take Corinth in a May siege, the Battle of Shiloh was one of the first major battles in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. The two-day battle, April 6 and April 7,1862, involved about 65,000 Union troops under Ulysses S. Grant and Don Carlos Buell and 44,000 Confederates under Albert Sidney Johnston and P. G. T. The battle resulted in nearly 24,000 killed, the two days of fighting did not end in a decisive tactical victory for either side —the Union held the battlefield but failed to pursue the withdrawing Confederate forces. However, it was a strategic defeat for the Confederate forces that had massed to oppose Grants. The battlefield is named after Shiloh Methodist Church, a log church near Pittsburg Landing. Pittsburgh Landing is the point on the Tennessee River where the Union Forces Landed for the Battle, after the Battle of Shiloh, the Union forces proceeded to capture Corinth and the critical railroad junction there.
On September 22,2000, sites associated with the Corinth battlefield were added to the park, the Siege and Battle of Corinth Sites was designated a National Historic Landmark on May 6,1991. Shiloh Military Park Landmarks Total area,3,996.64 acres Federal area,3,941.64 acres Nonfederal area,55 acres The Shiloh National Military Park was established on December 27,1894. In 1904, Basil Wilson Duke was appointed commissioner of Shiloh National Military Park by President Theodore Roosevelt, the park was transferred from the War Department to the National Park Service on August 10,1933. As with all historic areas administered by the National Park Service, the National Park Travelers Club held its 2013 convention at Shiloh. Shiloh National Cemetery is in the northeast corner of the adjacent to the visitor center. Buried within its 20.09 acres are 3584 Union dead, there are two Confederate dead interred in the cemetery. The cemetery operations were transferred from War Department to the National Park Service in 1933, the Shiloh battlefield has within its boundaries the well preserved prehistoric Shiloh Indian Mounds Site, which is a National Historic Landmark.
The site was inhabited during the Early Mississippian period from about 1000 to 1450 CE, memphis and Charleston Railroad List of Mississippian sites The National Parks, Index 2001-2003. Washington, U. S. Department of the Interior. S, geological Survey Geographic Names Information System, Shiloh National Military Park Shiloh National Military Park at Find a Grave
The Foothills Parkway is a national parkway which partly traverses the foothills of the northern Great Smoky Mountains in East Tennessee, located in the southeastern United States. If completed, the 71-mile parkway will connect U. S. Route 129 along the Little Tennessee River in the west with Interstate 40 along the Pigeon River in the east and future portions pass through parts of Blount and Cocke counties. The oldest unfinished highway project in Tennessee, the Foothills Parkway project has been stalled by funding difficulties since Congress authorized its construction in 1944. As of 2010, only one-third of the parkway had been completed and opened to vehicular traffic, the other open section is a 6-mile stretch traversing Green Mountain in Cocke county, connecting U. S.321 in Cosby with I-40 in the Pigeon River valley. The parkways are managed by the National Park Service as part of Great Smoky Mountains National Park, unlike other national parkways, they are not a separate unit of the national park system.
As with other NPS roads, construction is handled by the Federal Highway Administration through the Federal Lands Transportation Program partnership. The most prominent of the foothills are characterized by ridges, running parallel to the crest of the Smokies. Although the average elevation of the foothills is relatively low, a topographic prominence is not uncommon among these ridges. Geologically, the foothills largely consist of Cambrian Class III rocks of the Paleozoic period, Chilhowee Group rocks, which are mostly sandstones and shales, range in age from about 300 million to 500 million years old. Thus, the rocks of the foothills are much younger than the billion-year old Precambrian Ocoee Supergroup rocks that form the crest and higher ridges of the Great Smokies range. The most prominent of the include, Chilhowee Mountain — a narrow ridge stretching between the Little Tennessee River and the Little Pigeon River valley to the east. While the mountain is 35 miles long, it reaches a width of more than 3 or 4 miles.
Little River cuts a gap in the middle of the mountain. The highest point on eastern section is 2,843 feet,35. 73047°N83. 81993°W /35.73047, -83.81993 Bates Mountain — a low, bulky ridge between Miller Cove and Tuckaleechee Cove. Bates highest point is just over 1,700 feet, although Bates lacks the dramatic backbone formation of Chilhowee, a rocky gorge on its south flank cut by Carr Creek has presented numerous construction challenges for the parkway project. 35. 7227°N83. 75161°W /35.7227, -83.75161 Cove Mountain — a large ridge situated between Wears Valley to the west, Gatlinburg to the east, and Pigeon Forge to the north. The national park boundary traverses part of the crest of Cove Mountain, the mountains elevation reaches 4,077 feet at its summit. Webb Mountain dominates the north of U. S.321 between Pittman Center and Cosby
Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area
The Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area is a United States National Recreation Area located in Kentucky and Tennessee between Lake Barkley and Kentucky Lake. The area was designated a recreation area by President John F. Kennedy in 1963. The recreation area was managed by the Tennessee Valley Authority. It was designated as a UNESCO Biosphere reserve in 1991, the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers flow very close to each other in the northwestern corner of Middle Tennessee and Western Kentucky, separated by a rather narrow and mostly low ridge. The area of land separates the two bodies of water by only a few miles became known as Between the Rivers since at least the 1830s or 1840s. After the Cumberland River was impounded in the 1960s and a canal was constructed between the two lakes, Land Between the Lakes became the largest inland peninsula in the United States. Downstream from this area, the courses of the two rivers diverge again, with the mouth of the Cumberland emptying into the Ohio River approximately 4 mi from that of the Tennessee, the site of the last dam downstream on the Tennessee was to be Gilbertsville, Kentucky.
This was very unpopular with some of those affected, while others seemed happy to get an opportunity to sell their land and this would considerably lessen the shipping distances for goods going to ports on the Gulf of Mexico for products leaving the Cumberland Valley. This was completed in the 1960s and the impoundment was referred to as Lake Barkley, after Alben W. Barkley. The plan called for a new dam and the evacuation of the entire former Between the Rivers area, the area was to become Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area – a TVA experiment designed to show a multiple-use approach to recreational lands. Unlike a national park, there were to be areas where hunting would be allowed, the road through the Tennessee portion was renamed from State Route 49 to The Trace, which is what many roads and paths were called in pioneer times. Many area residents resented the condemnation of their lands, especially when it was explained to them that most of the area was not to be flooded, the former settlements of Tharpe, Model and Golden Pond, were forcibly abandoned.
The remains of an iron furnace, manned in the 1850s by slave labor, are about all that remains of Model. Golden Pond was replaced by the headquarters of the area and retained as the address for it. There is a museum, a planetarium, and an education area there. The area has miles of hiking trails, many boat ramps, an off-road vehicle area, many campgrounds, and group lodges. The area was burned and reseeded with grasses, and elk. In 1996 the Elk & Bison Prairie was officially inaugurated and is now open to driving tours where visitors see a typical 18th century landscape, in the 1990s, the directors of the TVA decided to get out of most activities requiring direct taxpayer funding
Great Smoky Mountains National Park
The border between Tennessee and North Carolina runs northeast to southwest through the centerline of the park. It is the most visited park in the United States with over 11.3 million recreational visitors in 2016. On its route from Maine to Georgia, the Appalachian Trail passes through the center of the park, the park was chartered by the United States Congress in 1934 and officially dedicated by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1940. It encompasses 522,419 acres, making it one of the largest protected areas in the eastern United States, the main park entrances are located along U. S. Highway 441 at the towns of Gatlinburg and Cherokee, North Carolina. It was the first national park land and other costs were paid for in part with federal funds. Due to the 2016 Great Smoky Mountains wildfires, the Park was under orders, along with some towns. Before the arrival of European settlers, the region was part of the homeland of the Cherokees, frontiers people began settling the land in the 18th and early 19th century.
Many of the Cherokee left, but some, led by renegade warrior Tsali, some of their descendants now live in the Qualla Boundary to the south of the park. Cut-and-run-style clearcutting was destroying the beauty of the area, so visitors. The U. S. National Park Service wanted a park in the eastern United States, though Congress had authorized the park in 1926, there was no nucleus of federally owned land around which to build a park. Slowly, mountain homesteaders and loggers were evicted from the land and timbering operations were abolished to establish the protected areas of the park. Travel writer Horace Kephart, for whom Mount Kephart was named, former Governor Ben W. Hooper of Tennessee was the principal land purchasing agent for the park, which was officially established on June 15,1934. It was a site for filming of parts of Disneys hit 1950s TV series, Davy Crockett, King of the Wild Frontier. This park was designated an International Biosphere Reserve in 1976, was certified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983, a 75th anniversary re-dedication ceremony was held on September 2,2009.
Among those in attendance were all four US Senators, the three US Representatives whose districts include the park, the governors of states, and Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar. Tennessee native and actress Dolly Parton attended and performed, the majority of rocks in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park are Late Precambrian rocks that are part of the Ocoee Supergroup. This group consists of metamorphosed sandstones, schists, early Precambrian rocks are not only the oldest rocks in the park but the dominant rock type in sites such as the Raven Fork Valley and upper Tuckasegee River between Cherokee and Bryson City. They primarily consist of gneiss and schist
The trail is about 2,200 miles long, though the exact length changes over time as parts are modified or rerouted. More than 2 million people are said to do at least one day-hike on the each year. The idea of the Appalachian Trail came about in 1921, the trail itself was completed in 1937 after more than a decade of work, although improvements and changes continue. It is maintained by 31 trail clubs and multiple partnerships, and managed by the National Park Service, United States Forest Service, the majority of the trail is in forest or wild lands, although some portions traverse towns and farms. The trail conservancy claims that the Appalachian Trail is the longest hiking-only trail in the world. It passes through 14 states, North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine. Many books, memoirs and fan organizations are dedicated to these pursuits, other separate extensions continue the southern end of the Appalachian range in Alabama and continue south into Florida, creating what is known as the Eastern Continental Trail.
The Appalachian Trail, the Continental Divide Trail, and the Pacific Crest Trail form what is known as the Triple Crown of Hiking in the United States. The trail was conceived by Benton MacKaye, a forester who wrote his original plan—called An Appalachian Trail, macKayes idea detailed a grand trail that would connect a series of farms and wilderness work/study camps for city-dwellers. The idea was adopted by the new Palisades Interstate Park Trail Conference as their main project. On October 7,1923, the first section of the trail, from Bear Mountain west through Harriman State Park to Arden, MacKaye called for a two-day Appalachian Trail conference to be held in March 1925 in Washington, D. C. This meeting inspired the formation of the Appalachian Trail Conference, a retired judge named Arthur Perkins and his younger associate Myron Avery took up the cause. Andersons efforts helped spark renewed interest in the trail, and Avery was able to bring other states on board, upon taking over the ATC, Avery adopted the more practical goal of building a simple hiking trail.
He and MacKaye clashed over the ATCs response to a commercial development along the trails path, MacKaye left the organization. Avery reigned as Chairman of the ATC from 1932 to 1952, Avery became the first to walk the trail end-to-end, though not as a thru-hike, in 1936. In August 1937, the trail was completed to Sugarloaf Mountain in Maine, the ATCs trail crews and volunteer trail-maintaining clubs have relocated or rehabilitated miles of trail since that time. The completed thru-hike was much recorded and accepted by the Appalachian Long Distance Hikers Association, in 1948, Earl Shaffer of York, brought a great deal of attention to the project by publicizing the first claimed thru-hike. The claim was criticized for the hikes omission of significant portions due to short-cuts
Fulton County, Kentucky
Fulton County is the westernmost county of the U. S. state of Kentucky, with its western boundary the Mississippi River. As of the 2010 census, the population was 6,813, the county was formed in 1845 from Hickman County and named for Robert Fulton, the inventor of the steamboat. Fulton County residents were largely pro-Confederate during the American Civil War, forces from both armies passed through the county during different periods of the conflict. Because of imprecise early surveying of Kentuckys southern border, Fulton County is divided into two non-contiguous parts, an exclave on the peninsula in the Kentucky Bend of the Mississippi River can be reached only by road through Tennessee. Fulton County is part of the Union City, TN–KY Micropolitan Statistical Area, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 231 square miles, of which 206 square miles is land and 25 square miles is water. Travelers going there have to pass into Tennessee by road and go north to reach the Kentucky Bend exclave.
The lowest point in the state of Kentucky is located on the Mississippi River in Kentucky Bend in Fulton County, where it flows past Kentucky and between Tennessee and Missouri. It is expected that over time, the river will cut across the neck of the peninsula, cutting it off entirely from Kentucky. The population density was 37 per square mile, there were 3,697 housing units at an average density of 18 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 75. 12% White,23. 19% Black or African American,0. 12% Native American,0. 31% Asian,0. 32% from other races,0. 72% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 32. 30% of all households were made up of individuals and 16. 20% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.92. In the county, the population was out with 24. 90% under the age of 18,8. 90% from 18 to 24,25. 50% from 25 to 44,23. 20% from 45 to 64. The median age was 38 years, for every 100 females there were 87.70 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.00 males, the median income for a household in the county was $24,382, and the median income for a family was $30,788. Males had an income of $26,401 versus $19,549 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,309, about 20. 10% of families and 23. 10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32. 30% of those under age 18 and 16. 00% of those age 65 or over
National Historic Site (United States)
A National Historic Site is a protected area of national historic significance in the United States. An NHS usually contains a historical feature directly associated with its subject. As of 2015, there are 50 NHPs and 90 NHSs, most NHPs and NHSs are managed by the National Park Service. Some federally designated sites are owned by local authorities or privately owned, one property, Grey Towers National Historic Site, is managed by the U. S. Forest Service. As of October 15,1966, all areas, including NHPs and NHSs. There are about 80,000 NRHP sites, the majority of which are neither owned nor managed by the NPS. Of these, about 2,500 have been designated at the highest status as National Historic Landmark sites, National Historic Sites are generally federally owned and administered properties, though some remain under private or local government ownership. There are currently 90 NHSs, of which 78 are official NPS units,11 are NPS affiliated areas, one is managed by the US Forest Service, and one by the Bureau of Land Management.
Derived from the Historic Sites Act of 1935, a number of NHSs were established by United States Secretaries of the Interior, in 1937, the first NHS was created in Salem, Massachusetts in order to preserve and interpret the maritime history of New England and the United States. There is one International Historic Site in the US park system, the title, given to the site of the first permanent French settlement in America, recognizes the influence that has had on both Canada and the United States. The NPS does not distinguish among these designations in terms of their preservation or management policies, in the United States, sites are historic, while parks are historical. The NPS explains that a site can be intrinsically historic, while a park is a legal invention. As such, a park is not itself historic, but can be called historical when it contains historic resources and it is the resources which are historic, not the park. Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park was formally established in 1998 by the United States and Canada, the park comprises Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park in Washington and Alaska, and Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site in British Columbia.
It was this trail which so many prospectors took in hopes of making their fortunes in the Klondike River district of Yukon, list of World Heritage Sites in the Americas Designation of National Park System Units
National Military Park
The designation applies to sites where historic battles were fought on American soil during the armed conflicts that shaped the growth and development of the United States. There are 11 National Battlefields, nine National Military Parks, four National Battlefield Parks, the National Park Service does not distinguish among the four designations in terms of their preservation or management policies. In 1890, Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park was the first such site created by Congress, originally these sites were maintained by the War Department, but were transferred to the National Park Service on August 10,1933. The different designations appear to represent Congressional attitudes at the time of authorization of each individual site, only Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield Site, which is small, still bears that designation, others have since been redesignated. As with all areas in the National Park System, these battle sites are automatically listed on the National Register of Historic Places
United States Fish and Wildlife Service
The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is an agency of the federal government within the U. S. Department of the Interior dedicated to the management of fish and natural habitats. The mission of the agency is working with others to conserve and enhance fish, wildlife and their habitats for the continuing benefit of the American people. The leader of the FWS is the director of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Daniel M. Ashe, of Maryland, bavin National Fish and Wildlife Forensic Laboratory Landscape Conservation Cooperatives The vast majority of fish and wildlife habitat is on non-federal lands. The FWS employs approximately 9,000 people and is organized into an administrative office, eight regional offices. Spencer Fullerton Baird was appointed its first commissioner, in 1903, the Fish Commission was reorganized as the United States Bureau of Fisheries. In 1885–1886, the Division of Economic Ornithology and Mammalogy was established within the United States Department of Agriculture, in 1896 it became the Division of Biological Survey.
Its early work focused on the effect of birds in controlling pests and mapping the geographical distribution of plants. Clinton Hart Merriam headed the Bureau for 25 years and became a figure for improving the scientific understanding of birds. Under Darlings guidance, the Bureau began a legacy of protecting vital natural habitat throughout the country. The USFWS was finally created in 1940, when the Bureaus of Fisheries, these exceptions often only apply to Native Americans that are registered with the federal government and are enrolled with a federally recognized tribe. Therefore, many people that wish to practice their religion continue to face persecution. This has become a source of conflict between many tribes and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the USFWS began to incorporate the research of scientists into conservation decisions. Additionally, other natural resource agencies within the United States government, such as the USDA, have taken steps to be inclusive of tribes, native people.
This has marked a transition to a relationship of more cooperation rather than the tension between tribes and government agencies seen historically, these agencies work closely with tribal governments to ensure the best conservation decisions are made and that tribes retain their sovereignty