Xinhua News Agency
Xinhua News Agency or New China News Agency is the official state-run press agency of the People's Republic of China. Xinhua is the biggest and most influential media organization in China, as well as the largest news agency in the world in terms of correspondents worldwide. Xinhua is a ministry-level institution subordinate to the Chinese central government, is the highest ranking state media organ in the country alongside the People's Daily, its president is a member of the Central Committee of China's Communist Party. Xinhua operates more than 170 foreign bureaux worldwide, maintains 31 bureaux in China—one for each province, autonomous region and directly-administered municipality plus a military bureau. Xinhua is the sole channel for the distribution of important news related to the Communist Party and Chinese central government, its headquarters in Beijing are strategically located within close proximity to Zhongnanhai, which houses the headquarters of the Communist Party of China, the State Council and the office of the President of the People's Republic of China.
Xinhua is a publisher as well as a news agency—it owns more than 20 newspapers and a dozen magazines, it publishes in several languages, besides Chinese, including English, Spanish, Russian, Arabic and Korean publishing in cyberspace. The predecessor to Xinhua was the Red China News Agency, founded in November 1931 as the Chinese Soviet Zone of Ruijin, Jiangxi province, it republished news from its rival Central News Agency for party and army officials. The agency got its name of Xinhua in November 1935, at the end of the Long March which relocated the Communists from Jiangxi to Shaanxi. By the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, Xinhua's Reference News not only translated CNA news from the Kuomintang, but international news from agencies like TASS and Havas. Xinhua first started using letterpress printing in 1940. During the Pacific War the agency developed overseas broadcasting capabilities and established its first overseas branches, it began broadcasting to foreign countries in English from 1944.
In 1949, Xinhua followed a subscription model instead of its previous limited distribution model. In the direct aftermath of the Chinese Civil War, the agency represented the People's Republic of China in countries and territories with which it had no diplomatic representation, such as British Hong Kong. In 1956, Xinhua began reporting on other opinions critical of the party. In 1957, Xinhua switched from a journal format to a newspaper format; the agency was described by media scholars as the "eyes and tongue" of the Party, observing what is important for the masses and passing on the information. A former Xinhua director, Zheng Tao, noted that the agency was a bridge between the Party, the government and the people, communicating both the demands of the people and the policies of the Party. People's Daily, for example, uses Xinhua material for about a quarter of its stories. In 2018, the U. S. Justice Department ordered the state-run Xinhua to register as foreign agents to combat Chinese propaganda operations among other activities.
Xinhua delivers its news across the world in eight languages: Chinese, Spanish, Russian, Portuguese and Japanese, as well as news pictures and other kinds of news. It has made contracts to exchange news and news pictures with more than eighty foreign news agencies or political news departments. Xinhua is responsible for handling, in some cases, censoring reports from foreign media destined for release in China. By 2010, the agency had begun converging its news and electronic media coverage and increasing its English coverage through its wire service. Xinhua acquired commercial real estate on New York's Times Square and is developing its English-language reporting staff. Xinhua has started an English-language satellite news network; the Chinese media's internal publication system, in which certain journals are published for government and party officials, provides information and analysis which are not available to the public. The State values these internal reports because they contain much of China's most sensitive and high-quality investigative journalism.
Xinhua produces reports for the "internal" journals. Informed observers note that journalists like to write for the internal publications because they can write less polemical and more comprehensive stories without making the omissions of unwelcome details made in the media directed to the general public; the internal reports, written from a large number of countries consist of in-depth analyses of international situations and domestic attitudes towards regional issues and perceptions of China. The Chinese government's internal media publication system follows a strict hierarchical pattern designed to facilitate party control. A publication called Reference News—which includes translated articles from abroad as well as news and commentary by Xinhua reporters—is delivered by Xinhua personnel, rather than by the national mail system, to officials at the working level and above. A three-to-ten-page report called Internal Reference is distributed to officials at the ministerial level and higher.
One example was the first reports on the SARS outbreak by Xinhua which only government officials were allowed to see. The most classified Xinhua internal reports are issued to the top dozen or so party and government officials; the Xinhua headquarters is located in Beijing, strategically located within close proximity to Zhongnanhai, which houses the headquarters of the Communist Party of China, the State Council and the office of the President of the People's Repub
In modern Chinese politics, the paramount leader of the Communist Party of China and the government of China is an informal term for the most prominent political leader in the People's Republic of China. The paramount leader is not a formal position nor an office unto itself and the term gained prominence during the era of Deng Xiaoping, able to wield power without holding any official or formally significant party or government positions at any given time. There has been significant overlap between paramount leader status and leadership core status, with a majority but not all of paramount leaders being leadership cores, though they are separate concepts; the term has been used less to describe Deng's successors, Jiang Zemin, Hu Jintao and Xi Jinping, who have all formally held the offices of General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, President of the People's Republic of China and Chairman of the Central Military Commission. Jiang, Hu and Xi are therefore referred to as President in the international scene, the title used by most other republican heads of state.
However, Deng's successors derive their real power from the post of General Secretary, the primary position in the Chinese power structure and regarded by scholars as the post whose holder can be considered paramount leader. The President is a ceremonial office according to the Constitution. Xi Jinping is considered to have become paramount leader in November 2012 upon his becoming General Secretary, rather than in March 2013 when he succeeded Hu Jintao as President. Chairman Mao Zedong was the undisputed ruler of Communist China from its beginning in 1949 and at once held three Chairman offices: Chairman of the Communist Party of China, Chairman of the Central Military Commission and Chairman of the People's Republic of China, making him the leader of the party and state, respectively. Following the Cultural Revolution, a rough consensus emerged within the party that the worst excesses were caused by the lack of checks and balances in the exercise of political power and the resulting "rule of personality" by Mao.
Beginning in the 1980s, the leadership experimented with a quasi-separation of powers, whereby the offices of general secretary and premier were held by different people. In 1985, for example, the General Secretary was Hu Yaobang, the President was Li Xiannian and the Premier was Zhao Ziyang. However, Deng Xiaoping was still recognized as the core of the leadership during this period. Both Hu and Zhao fell out of favour in the late 1980s, but Deng was able to retain ultimate political control; the paramount leader label has been applied to Deng's successors, Jiang Zemin and Hu Jintao, though it is recognized that they did not wield as much power as Deng despite their having held more offices of leadership. There has been a greater emphasis on collective leadership, whereby the top leader is a first among equals style figure, exercising power with the consensus of the Politburo Standing Committee; this was apparent during the tenure of Hu Jintao. Beginning in 1993, Jiang formally held the three offices that made him the head of the party and military: General Secretary of the Communist Party of China: the party leader and the primary position of the state.
Chairman of the Central Military Commission: Supreme Military Command of the People's Liberation Army. President of the People's Republic of China: the ceremonial head of state under the 1982 Constitution; when Jiang left the offices of General Secretary and President in 2002 and 2003 he held onto the position of Chairman of the Central Military Commission. Military power had always been an important facet in the exercise of political power in Communist-ruled China and as such holding the top military post meant that Jiang retained some formal power; when Jiang stepped down from his last formal post between 2002 and 2004, it was ambiguous who the paramount leader was at the time. Hu Jintao held the same trio of positions during his years in power. Hu transitioned all three positions onto his successor Xi Jinping between November 2012, when Xi became General Secretary of the Communist Party and Chairman of the Central Military Commission. Since Xi's ascendance to power, two new bodies, the National Security Commission and Central Leading Group for Comprehensively Deepening Reforms, have been established, ostensibly concentrating political power in the paramount leader to a greater degree than anyone since Deng.
These bodies were tasked with establishing the general policy direction for national security as well as the agenda for economic reform. Both groups are headed by the General Secretary. First administration Second administration Third administration Hu–Wen Administration Xi–Li Administration Bold offices refer to the highest position in the Communist Party of China Chairman of the Central Military Commission Generations of Chinese leadership Leadership core List of Chinese leaders List of leaders of the Communist Party of China Chairman of the Communist Party of China General Secretary of the Communist Party of China Maximum Leader Primus inter pares Orders of precedence in the People's Republic of China Supreme leader
Xi Jinping is a Chinese politician serving as general secretary of the Communist Party of China, president of the People's Republic of China, chairman of the Central Military Commission. Described as China's "paramount leader" since 2012, he received the title of "core leader" from the CPC in 2016; as general secretary, Xi holds an ex-officio seat on the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China, China's top decision-making body. Xi is the first general secretary born after the Second World War and the establishment of the People's Republic of China; the son of Chinese Communist veteran Xi Zhongxun, he was exiled to rural Yanchuan County as a teenager following his father's purge during the Cultural Revolution, lived in a cave in the village of Liangjiahe, where he organised communal labourers. After studying at the Tsinghua University as a "Worker-Peasant-Soldier student", Xi rose through the ranks politically in China's coastal provinces. Xi was governor of Fujian province from 1999 to 2002, governor party secretary of neighbouring Zhejiang province from 2002 to 2007.
Following the dismissal of Chen Liangyu, Xi was transferred to Shanghai as party secretary for a brief period in 2007. He joined the Politburo Standing Committee and central secretariat in October 2007, spending the next five years as Hu Jintao's presumed successor. Xi was vice president from 2008 to 2013 and vice chairman of the Central Military Commission from 2010 to 2012. Since assuming power, Xi has introduced far-ranging measures to enforce party discipline and to ensure internal unity, his signature anti-corruption campaign has led to the downfall of prominent incumbent and retired Communist Party officials, including members of the Politburo Standing Committee. Described as a Chinese nationalist, he has tightened restrictions over civil society and ideological discourse, advocating Internet censorship in China as the concept of "internet sovereignty". Xi has called for further socialist market economic reforms, for governing according to the law and for strengthening legal institutions, with an emphasis on individual and national aspirations under the slogan "Chinese Dream".
He has championed a more assertive foreign policy with regard to China–Japan relations, China's claims in the South China Sea, its role as a leading advocate of free trade and globalization. Xi has sought to expand China's African and Eurasian influence through the One Belt One Road Initiative; the 2015 meeting between Xi and Taiwanese President Ma Ying-jeou marked the first time the political leaders of both sides of the Taiwan Strait have met since the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1950. Considered the central figure of the fifth generation of leadership of the People's Republic, Xi has centralised institutional power by taking on a wide range of leadership positions, including chairing the newly formed National Security Commission, as well as new steering committees on economic and social reforms, military restructuring and modernization, the Internet. Said to be one of the most powerful leaders in modern Chinese history, Xi's political thoughts have been written into the party and state constitutions, under his leadership the latter was amended to abolish term limits for the presidency.
In 2018, Forbes ranked him as the most powerful and influential person in the world, dethroning Russian President Vladimir Putin who held the accolade for five consecutive years. Xi Jinping was born in Beijing on 15 June 1953, he is the second son of his wife Qi Xin. After the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 by Mao Zedong, Xi's father held a series of posts, including propaganda chief, vice-premier, vice-chairman of the National People's Congress. Xi's father is from Fuping County, Xi could further trace his patrilineal descent from Xiying in Dengzhou, Henan. In 1963, when Xi was age 10, his father was purged from the Party and sent to work in a factory in Luoyang, Henan. In May 1966, the Cultural Revolution cut short Xi's secondary education when all secondary classes were halted for students to criticise and fight their teachers. Student militants ransacked Xi Heping, was killed, his mother was forced to publicly denounce his father, as he was paraded before a crowd as an enemy of the revolution.
Xi was aged 15. Without the protection of his father, Xi was sent to work in Liangjiahe Village, Wen'anyi Town, Yanchuan County, Yan'an, Shaanxi, in 1969 in Mao Zedong's Down to the Countryside Movement. After a few months, unable to stand rural life, he ran away to Beijing, he was arrested during a crackdown on deserters from the countryside and sent to a work camp to dig ditches. He became the Party branch secretary of the production team, leaving that post in 1975; when asked about this experience by Chinese state television, Xi recalled, "It was emotional. It was a mood, and when the ideals of the Cultural Revolution could not be realised, it proved an illusion."From 1975 to 1979, Xi studied chemical engineering at Beijing's Tsinghua University as a "Worker-Peasant-Soldier student". There engineering majors spent about one-fifth of their time studying Marxism–Leninism–Mao Zedong thought, doing farm work and "learning from the People's Liberation Army". From 1979 to 1982, Xi served as secretary for his father's former subordinate Geng Biao, the vice premier and secretary-general of the Central Military Commission.
This gained Xi some military background. In 1985, as part of a Chinese delegation to study U. S. agriculture, he stayed in the hom
19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China
The 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China was held at the Great Hall of the People, between 18 and 24 October 2017. 2,280 delegates represented the party's estimated 89 million members. Preparations for the 19th National Congress began in 2016 and ended with a plenary session of the Central Committee a few days prior to the Congress. In 2016, local and provincial party organizations began electing delegates to the congress as well as receiving and amending party documents. During the congress, a new guiding ideology, labelled Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, was written into the party's constitution, it marked the first time since Mao Zedong Thought that a living party leader has enshrined into the party constitution an ideology named after himself. The Congress emphasized strengthening socialism with Chinese characteristics, party-building, socialist rule of law, setting concrete timelines for achieving development goals, such as building a moderately prosperous society and achieving "socialist modernization."
It was noted for rallying China to play a more substantial role internationally. The 19th National Congress endorsed the membership list of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection and elected the Central Committee, which in turn approved the members of the Politburo and its Standing Committee. Five members of the 18th Politburo Standing Committee left the body due to having reached retirement age, five new members joined the 19th Standing Committee: Li Zhanshu, Wang Yang, Wang Huning, Zhao Leji, Han Zheng; the drafting process of the Report of the 18th Central Committee began in mid-to-late 2016 before the 6th Plenary Session. Normal procedure is that the sitting Politburo appoints a drafting committee, responsible for researching major topics and can establish investigative research teams; the Draft Report is sent to party groups, such as the provincial party organisation, to government institutions, the People's Liberation Army and select mass organisations while the drafting committee consults with leading specialists.
The 6th Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee, which sat 24–27 October 2016, in its communique stated that the 19th National Congress would be held in Beijing in the second half of 2017. The drafting process continued after the 6th Plenary Session, by summer 2017, forums for party and non-party members in Beijing were established to review the draft report. At some point in the process, retired party elders are consulted; the 7th Plenary Session convened on 11 October and was in session until 14 October 2017. 191 CC full members and 141 CC alternate members attended the session, with CCDI members attended in a non-voting capacity. The 7th Plenary Session laid the groundworks for the 19th National Congress, publicised the date of its convocation; the 18th Politburo put forward a motion to the 7th Plenary Session of sending three documents to the 19th National Congress. Xi Jinping presented the report of the 18th Central Committee while Liu Yunshan presented the amendments to the CPC constitution to the 7th Plenary Session.
The Work Report of the 18th CCDI had been presented by Wang Qishan at the 8th CCDI Plenary Session on 9 October, sent to the 7th Plenary Session for approval. The Draft Report of the 18th Central Committee was sent to more than 4,700 individuals for review, who represented various regions and departments. Six symposiums to hear opinions and suggestions on the draft report were organised, Xi attended them; the 7th Plenary Session approved the documents. Three days on 17 October, the preparatory meeting was convened and presided over by Xi. 2,307 of the 19th National Congress delegates attended the meeting. It elected 22 individuals to the Credential Committee, 243 members to the Presidium of the 19th National Congress and Liu Yunshan was elected as the Secretary-General of the 19th National Congress. In addition, the attendees approved the organizational setup and tasks of the secretariat of the congress. Tuo Zhen, the Deputy Head of the Publicity Department and main spokesperson for the 19th National Congress, publicised the agenda of the 19th National Congress, approved by the preparatory meeting.
The agenda was: To examine a report submitted by the 18th CPC Central Committee. The election of delegates to the 19th National Congress started on 8 November 2016 and ended in June 2017, when the 18th Central Committee had approved the quota, needed qualifications and the election procedure; the criteria of becoming a delegate became "tougher" due to the ongoing anti-corruption campaign. As set forth by the 18th central Committee, a delegate is required to "be qualified politically and ideologically, have good work and life styles, be competent in discussing state affairs, have been successful in their work."The delegates are elected from 40 electoral units. Of the 40 electoral units, 34 are divided by a defined geographical area and six units are for the central party and government; the People's Liberation Army makes up one of the six central units and is the largest in term of delegate quota. One electoral unit represents the departments directly subordinate to the Central Committee and another state-owned economy.
The quote on the number of delegates can elect does not reflect population size or party size in the given region
Leader of the Communist Party of China
The leader, now the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, is by right of office the Chairman of the Central Military Commission and the President of the People's Republic of China. Since its formation in 1921, the leader's post has been titled as Secretary of the Central Bureau and General Secretary. By custom the party leader has either been elected by the Central Committee or the Central Politburo. There were several name changes until Mao Zedong formalised the office of Chairman of the Central Committee. Since 1982, the CPC National Congress and its 1st CC Plenary Session has been the main institutional setting in which the CPC leadership are elected. From 1992 onwards every party leader has been elected by a 1st CC Plenary Session. In the period 1928–45 the CPC leader was elected by conference, meetings of the Central Committee or by decisions of the Politburo; the last exception to this rule is Jiang Zemin, elected at the 4th Plenary Session of the 13th Central Committee in the aftermath of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.
To be nominated for the office of General Secretary, one has to be a member of the Politburo Standing Committee. Despite breaching the party's constitution, several individuals have been de facto leaders of the CPC without holding formal positions of power. Wang Ming was in charge in 1931 after Xiang Zhongfa was jailed by Kuomintang forces, while Li Lisan is considered to have been the real person in-charge for most of Xiang's tenure. Deng Xiaoping is the last CPC official to achieve this. Paramount Leader Orders of precedence in the People's Republic of China List of leaders of the Kuomintang List of leaders of the Democratic Progressive Party List of national leaders of the People's Republic of China
Communist Party of China
The Communist Party of China referred to as the Chinese Communist Party, is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China. The Communist Party is the sole governing party within mainland China, permitting only eight other, subordinated parties to co-exist, those making up the United Front, it was founded in 1921, chiefly by Li Dazhao. The party grew and by 1949 it had driven the nationalist Kuomintang government from mainland China after the Chinese Civil War, leading to the establishment of the People's Republic of China, it controls the world's largest armed forces, the People's Liberation Army. The CPC is organised on the basis of democratic centralism, a principle conceived by Russian Marxist theoretician Vladimir Lenin which entails democratic and open discussion on policy on the condition of unity in upholding the agreed upon policies; the highest body of the CPC is the National Congress, convened every fifth year. When the National Congress is not in session, the Central Committee is the highest body, but since the body meets only once a year most duties and responsibilities are vested in the Politburo and its Standing Committee.
The party's leader holds the offices of General Secretary, Chairman of the Central Military Commission and State President. Through these posts, the party leader is the country's paramount leader; the current paramount leader is Xi Jinping, elected at the 18th National Congress held in October 2012. The CPC is committed to communism and continues to participate in the International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties each year. According to the party constitution, the CPC adheres to Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, socialism with Chinese characteristics, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the Three Represents, the Scientific Outlook on Development and Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese characteristics for a New Era; the official explanation for China's economic reforms is that the country is in the primary stage of socialism, a developmental stage similar to the capitalist mode of production. The command economy established under Mao Zedong was replaced by the socialist market economy, the current economic system, on the basis that "Practice is the Sole Criterion for the Truth".
Since the collapse of Eastern European communist governments in 1989–1990 and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the CPC has emphasised its party-to-party relations with the ruling parties of the remaining socialist states. While the CPC still maintains party-to-party relations with non-ruling communist parties around the world, since the 1980s it has established relations with several non-communist parties, most notably with ruling parties of one-party states, dominant parties in democracies and social democratic parties; the CPC has its origins in the May Fourth Movement of 1919, during which radical Western ideologies like Marxism and anarchism gained traction among Chinese intellectuals. Other influences stemming from the Bolshevik revolution and Marxist theory inspired the Communist Party of China. Li Dazhao was the first leading Chinese intellectual who publicly supported Leninism and world revolution. In contrast to Chen Duxiu, Li did not renounce participation in the affairs of the Republic of China.
Both of them regarded the October Revolution in Russia as groundbreaking, believing it to herald a new era for oppressed countries everywhere. The CPC was modeled on Vladimir Lenin's theory of a vanguard party. Study circles were, according to Cai Hesen, "the rudiments ". Several study circles were established during the New Culture Movement, but "by 1920 skepticism about their suitability as vehicles for reform had become widespread."The founding National Congress of the CPC was held on 23–31 July 1921. With only 50 members in the beginning of 1921, the CPC organization and authorities grew tremendously. While it was held in a house in the Shanghai French Concession, French police interrupted the meeting on 30 July and the congress was moved to a tourist boat on South Lake in Jiaxing, Zhejiang province. Only 12 delegates attended the congress, with neither Li nor Chen being able to attend, the latter sending a personal representative in his stead; the resolutions of the congress called for the establishment of a communist party and elected Chen as its leader.
The communists dominated the left wing of the KMT, a party organized on Leninist lines, struggling for power with the party's right wing. When KMT leader Sun Yat-sen died in March 1925, he was succeeded by a rightist, Chiang Kai-shek, who initiated moves to marginalize the position of the communists. Fresh from the success of the Northern Expedition to overthrow the warlords, Chiang Kai-shek turned on the communists, who by now numbered in the tens of thousands across China. Ignoring the orders of the Wuhan-based KMT government, he marched on Shanghai, a city controlled by communist militias. Although the communists welcomed Chiang's arrival, he turned on them, massacring 5000 with the aid of the Green Gang. Chiang's army marched on Wuhan, but was prevented from taking the city by CPC General Ye Ting and his troops. Chiang's allies attacked communists; that May, tens of thousands of communists and their sympathizers were killed by nationalists, with the CPC losing 15,000 of its 25,000 members.
The CPC continued supporting the Wuhan KMT government, but on 15 July 1927 the Wuhan government expelled all communis
The Hu–Wen Administration, or Hu–Wen New Administration is the name given to the Chinese leadership that succeeded Jiang Zemin, Li Peng and Zhu Rongji in 2003. Using the two leaders' surnames, it is abbreviated as Hu–Wen; this phrase is named after the new Party General Secretary and President Hu Jintao and Government Premier Wen Jiabao, who are considered the 4th generation Chinese leaders and are viewed as, at least ostensibly, more reform-oriented and more open-minded and have been praised by political observers. Their dominant political ideology is termed the Scientific Development Concept. Generations of Chinese leadership Xi–Li Administration