National Security Council (Taiwan)
The National Security Council is an organ of the Republic of China to advise on issues related to national security directly under the chairmanship of the President. Members of the NSC consist of the Vice President, the Premier, the heads of key ministries, the Chief of the General Staff, the NSC Secretary-General and the Director-General of the National Security Bureau. During the fourth meeting of the first session of the National Assembly in March 1966 in Taipei, the temporary provision effective during the Period of Mobilization for the Suppression of Communist Rebellion was revised; the fourth clause of this amendment authorized the President to establish organs for mobilization to suppress the rebellion of the Communist Party of China, determine policies related to the period of mobilization and deal with war politics. President Chiang Kai-shek ordered Huang Shao-ku, Wang Yun-wu, Chang Chi-yun and Chiang Ching-kuo to organize a small preparatory committee to establish a National Security Council and to draft an organizational program.
In February 1967, President Chiang promulgated an organizational outline for a National Security Council during the mobilization period. Huang Shao-ku was chosen to be the first secretary general and Chiang Ching-kuo was placed in charge of the key works; this marked the establishment of the NSC. Kuo Chi-chiao Chou Tse-jou Zhang Qun Gu Zhutong Huang Shao-ku Shen Chang-huan Wang Tao-yuan Chiang Wei-kuo Shih Chi-yang Ting Mao-shih Yin Tsung-wen Chuang Ming-yao Ting Yu-chou Chiou I-jen Kang Ning-hsiang Chiou I-jen Mark Chen Chen Chung-shin Su Chi Hu Wei-jen Jason Yuan King Pu-tsung Kao Hua-chu Joseph Wu Yen Teh-fa David Lee National Security Bureau National Security Council
Vice President of the Legislative Yuan
The Vice President of the Legislative Yuan is the deputy presiding officer of the Legislative Yuan of the Republic of China. The current Vice President is Tsai Chi-chang, a Democratic Progressive Party legislator representing the first district of Taichung; the Vice President is elected by and from among all members of the Yuan in a preparatory meeting held on the first reporting day of the first session of each Legislative Yuan, he or she shall serve a term the same length as that of other members. In absent of the President, the Vice President may presides over the Yuan Sittings and the meetings of the Committee of the Entire Yuan and is responsible for the administration of the Yuan. Kuomintang People First Party Democratic Progressive Party Legislative Yuan President of the Legislative Yuan Government of the Republic of China
2012 Taiwan presidential election
The 13th President and Vice President election of the Republic of China was held on 14 January 2012. The election was held concurrently with legislative elections, it was the fifth direct election for the President of the Republic of China. Prior to 1996, the President was elected by the ROC's National Assembly and not directly by the people. Incumbent Ma Ying-jeou was re-elected as President with 51.6% of the vote. DPP challenger Tsai Ing-wen resigned her post as chairperson of the DPP following her election defeat; the Kuomintang ticket won a landslide victory in 2008 over the incumbent Democratic Progressive Party, with a 2.2 million vote margin on 58% of the valid votes. The administration of Ma Ying-jeou has been friendlier in policy towards the People's Republic of China and signed the Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement, a preferential trade agreement between the governments of the PRC and the ROC; the Democratic Progressive Party was hit hard with former president Chen Shui-bian's corruption revelations, but new chairwoman Tsai Ing-wen rebuilt the party, leading to a series of victories in legislative by-elections and local elections.
One big election topic appears to be the "1992 consensus", a term describing the declared outcome of a meeting in 1992 between the semi-official representatives of mainland China and Taiwan. The KMT agrees that this consensus should be the basis for negotiations with the PRC and supports it during the election, while the DPP believes that no such consensus was reached and that as a policy it is equivalent to the One-China principle, which the DPP opposes. Instead, the DPP has advocated that a "Taiwan consensus" be produced in a democratic way, by the legislature and a referendum of the people of Taiwan; as determined by a random draw, the DPP's Tsai-Su ticket was listed first on Election Day ballots. Incumbent chairperson Tsai Ing-wen was the DPP nominee, she was designated the party’s candidate in April 2011 following a primary by opinion polls. Candidates for the DPP primary were Tsai, former premier Su Tseng-chang and former chairman Hsu Hsin-liang. Former Vice President Annette Lu Hsiu-lien withdrew.
On 9 September 2012 candidate Tsai chose DPP secretary-general Su Jia-chyuan as her running mate. Incumbent President Ma Ying-jeou was standing for re-election. There were no challengers within the party, so no primary was necessary. Vice President Vincent Siew chose not to run for a second term, on 19 June 2011 President Ma selected Premier Wu Den-yih as his running mate. Ma's campaign was run by a former party Secretary-General. PFP chairman James Soong Chu-yu launched the party's first-ever Presidential bid on 20 September 2011. Soong had stated, that his candidacy is contingent on the success of a nationwide million signature drive, he has vowed to run and keep his candidacy active through the election if his campaign garners one million signatures throughout Taiwan. Soong chose National Taiwan University professor emeritus Lin Ruey-shiung, a career scientist and academic with no political experience, to be his running mate. Soong contended that the Taiwanese people desire a third choice outside the two main parties, despite concerns that his decision may split the Pan-Blue coalition vote to hand victory to the Pan-Green candidate as may have happened in the 2000 Presidential election.
After trailing, Ma started to pick up the lead, without Soong as a candidate, after September, 2011 in most opinion polls. However, Tsai benefited from the debates in the stages. Voting took place between 16:00 local time at 14,806 polling stations. After Ma's re-election, he announced that his victory had vindicated his policies in regards to cross-strait relations. Tsai conceded the election and resigned from her position as head of the DPP. Turnout was reported to be over 74%. Ma Ying-jeou and Wu Den-yih were inaugurated as the President and Vice President of Taiwan at the Presidential Office Building on 20 May 2012. PRC – The State Council's Taiwan Affairs Office stated Ma's reelection proved the developments in cross-strait relations during his term is "the correct path that has won the support of the majority of the Taiwanese compatriots." Hong Kong – Chief Executive candidate Henry Tang said the result reflects that Taiwanese people approve Ma's cross-strait policies, expressed his wishes for peaceful and stable situation for economic development.
Singapore – Even before the confirmation of the result, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued a statement congratulating Ma saying: "Singapore and Taiwan enjoy a close and friendly relationship which goes back many years they will continue to strengthen this relationship based on Singapore's "One China" policy." It added by wishing "all the parties success in working towards greater peace and prosperity, securing the well-being of the future generations." United States – The White House issued a statement congratulating Ma and added it congratulates "the people of Taiwan on the successful conduct of their presidential and legislative elections. Elections in Taiwan 2012 Presidential Election Press Kit, Government Information Office, Executive Yuan Ma Ying-jeou Tsai Ing-wen Su Tseng-chang Annette Lu Hsiu-lien
Taxation in Taiwan
Taxes provide an important source of revenue for various levels of the Government of the Republic of China. The tax revenue of Taiwan in 2015 amounted NT$2.1 trillion. The Ministry of Finance, part of the Executive Yuan, is the highest government entity responsible for implementing taxation policies and overseeing the leveling and collection of taxes. Taxation occurs at both the local government level. Two broad categories of taxes exist at the national level: inland taxes. Customs duties are administered by the Directorate-General of Customs, which has local offices throughout the country. Five national tax administrations who are directly subordinate to the central government handle oversight of all inland taxes. Inland taxes is a broad term: Income Tax. Rather, taxes are governed by a series of laws and regulations each related to a specific type of tax; as the chief legislative body, the Legislative Yuan plays an important role in formulating and revising tax related laws. The Income Tax Act is the primary law that governs individual income and profit-seeking enterprise income taxes.
Both residents and non-residents are assessed individual income tax on Taiwan-sourced income unless an exception is provided in the Income Tax Act and related laws. Individuals are considered residents of Taiwan for tax purposes if they are either domiciled there, or spend for 183 days or longer in a taxable year. Income received in exchange for services rendered while physically present in Taiwan is considered to be Taiwan-sourced income regardless of if the payer is a local or offshore person or entity. One major exception to this rule exists for non-residents who are physically present in Taiwan for less than 91 calendar days in a year and who are only paid compensation by offshore entities. Taiwan has implemented a progressive tax system for individual income taxes. For the 2017 tax year, the tax rates were as follows: By default, the tax year for all individuals and profit-seeking enterprises follows the calendar year. Income tax returns are due with no extension of time allowed. Taxpayers, including foreigners, are able to complete and file their tax return electronically through software provided by the local taxing authority.
All profit-seeking businesses in Taiwan are subject to the Profit-Seeking Enterprise Income Tax. Sole proprietors and partners must file a return. However, their portion of the taxable income is reported on their individual income tax return. In 2010, the top tax rate was reduced from 25% to 17%, the threshold below which no tax is owed was raised from NT$50,000 to NT$120,000. Therefore, the current profit-seeking enterprise tax rates are as follows: The amount of tax payable shall not exceed half of the amount of the taxable income in excess of NT$120,000. Tax amount = * tax rate In 2017, tax rate is 5%; this tax is paid by sellers of Republic of China securities at a rate of 0.3% of the gross proceeds from the sale of shares issued by companies. A rate of 0.1% applies on the gross proceeds of corporate bonds, however, an exemption has been put in place through 2016. This tax is governed by the regulations set forth in the Securities Transaction Tax Act. Aimed at cooling off real estate speculation, driving up the cost of living in Taipei City and other urban areas, the Republic of China government implemented a new luxury tax in June 2011.
The law imposes a 15 % sales tax on owners of second homes. Additionally, a 10% sales tax is charged against properties sold after being owned for between one and two years. Data provided by the Republic of China government in late 2011 showed that the luxury tax was having the desired effect, causing the average housing price in Taipei to fall nearly 12% while reducing overall volume of real estate transactions island-wide by nearly 15% in the June–October time period. First conceived in the 1950s, the Taiwan government created a uniform invoice system to encourage honest reporting of sales and prevent underpayment of taxes by businesspeople. To provide an incentive, the government launched a receipt lottery system; each receipt is coded with an alphanumeric number, every two months a lottery drawing is held with prizes ranging up to NT$10 million depending on how many numbers match. The lottery is governed by the Uniform Invoice Award Regulations. Ministry of Finance Guide to ROC Taxes 2015, Taxation and Tariff Committee Taxation Agency Taipei National Tax Administration Kaohsiung National Tax Administration National Tax Administration of Northern Taiwan Province National Tax Administration of Central Taiwan Province National Tax Administration of Southern Taiwan Province Directorate General of Customs Local Tax Bureau
President of the Legislative Yuan
The President of the Legislative Yuan is the presiding officer of the Legislative Yuan of the Republic of China. The current president is Su Jia-chyuan, a Democratic Progressive Party at-large legislator and the first DPP President of the Legislative Yuan; the president is elected by and from among all members of the Yuan in a preparatory meeting held on the first reporting day of the first session of each Legislative Yuan, he shall serve a term the same length as that of other members. The president presides over the Yuan Sittings and the meetings of the Committee of the Entire Yuan and is responsible for the administration of the Yuan. In the cases in which the President of the Legislative Yuan is unable to attend to his or her duties, the vice president acts in his or her place. Kuomintang Democratic Progressive Party Legislative Yuan Legislative elections in Taiwan Government of the Republic of China
The Executive Yuan is the executive branch of the government of the Republic of China on Taiwan. The Executive Yuan is headed by a President, has a Vice President, twelve cabinet ministers, various chairpersons of commissions, five to nine ministers without portfolio as its members; the vice premier and chairpersons are appointed by the President of the Republic of China on the recommendation of the premier. Its formation, as one of five Yuans of the government, stemmed from the Three Principles of the People, the constitutional theory of Sun Yat-sen, but was adjusted constitutionally over the years to adapt to the situation in the ROC by changes in the laws and the Constitution of the Republic of China. Empowered by various laws, or the Constitution, under the Executive Yuan Council several individual boards are formed to enforce different executive functions of the government. Unless regulated otherwise, the chairs are answer to the Premier; the committee members of the boards are governmental officials for the purpose of interdepartmental coordination and cooperation.
There would be, independent executive commissions under the Executive Yuan Council. The chiefs of these five institutions would not be affected by any change of the Premier. However, the related organic laws are under revision. Due to periodical restructuring of the government body, there are some agencies which may be dissolved or be merged with other bigger and more active agencies. Based on Executive Yuan website, the following bodies are no longer the agencies under Executive Yuan: Aviation Safety Council, since 20 May 2012 Consumer Protection Committee, since 1 January 2012 National Disaster Prevention and Protection Commission: a task-force-grouped committee authorized by the law of Disaster Prevention and Protection. National Unification Council on 27 February 2006 Government Information Office on 20 May 2012 Council for Economic Planning and Development on 21 January 2014 Research and Evaluation Commission on 21 January 2014 Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission on 15 September 2017 In the Executive Yuan Council, the current ministers without portfolio are: Audrey Tang Chang Ching-sen Chen Mei-ling serving as Minister of National Development Council John Deng Kung Ming-hsin Lo Ping-cheng Lin Wan-i Wu Tsung-tsong Wu Tze-cheng serving as Minister of Public Construction Commission The Executive Yuan Council referred to as "The Cabinet", is the chief policymaking organ of the ROC government.
It consists of the premier, who presides over its meetings, the vice premier, ministers without portfolio, the heads of the ministries, the heads of the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission and the Overseas Chinese Affairs Commission. The secretary-general and the deputy secretary-general of the Executive Yuan attend, as well as heads of other Executive Yuan organizations by invitation, but they have no vote. Article 58 of the Constitution empowers the Executive Yuan Council to evaluate statutory and budgetary bills concerning martial law, declarations of war, conclusion of peace or treaties, other important affairs before submission to the Legislative Yuan; the Executive Yuan Council must present the Legislators with an annual policy statement and an administrative report. The Legislative Committee may summon members of the Executive Yuan Council for questioning. Whenever there is disagreement between the Legislative Council and Executive Yuan Council, the Legislative Committee may pass a resolution asking the Executive Yuan Council to alter the policy proposal in question.
The Executive Yuan may, in turn, ask the Legislators to reconsider. Afterwards, if the Legislative Council upholds the original resolution, the premier must abide by the resolution or resign; the Executive Yuan Council may present an alternative budgetary bill if the one passed by the Legislative Committee is deemed difficult to execute. The Executive Yuan building is accessible within walking distance east of Taipei Railway Station or west of Shandao Temple Station of the MRT. Politics of the Republic of China Government of the Republic of China Official website Official website
Su Tseng-chang is a Taiwanese politician. He was the chairman of the Democratic Progressive Party from 2012 to 2014. Su served as Premier of the Republic of China from 2006 to 2007 and again since January 2019 and was Chief of Staff to President Chen Shui-bian in 2004. Su campaigned for the DPP presidential nomination In 2008, but finished second to Frank Hsieh. Su teamed with Hsieh as the vice presidential nominee. Su ran for Taipei City Mayor in November 2010, but lost to the incumbent Hau Lung-pin by a 12-point margin. Su campaigned for the 2012 presidential candidacy of the DPP in 2011, but lost to Tsai Ing-wen by a narrow margin. Following the loss of Tsai to Ma Ying-jeou, Su was elected to succeed Tsai as DPP chairman in 2012. Su, along with politicians Annette Lu, Frank Hsieh and Yu Shyi-kun are collectively known as the "Big Four of the Democratic Progressive Party". Su is nicknamed the "Lightbulb" by the Taiwanese media and DPP voters, a nickname he earned in the 1980s for his charismatic approach to campaigning during election season, in addition to being an affectionate reference to the balding Su.
Born in Pingtung, Su studied at the National Taiwan University. During his college years, he was vice captain of the rugby team, he was a practicing lawyer from 1973 to 1983 and became a defense lawyer in the Kaohsiung Incident trials. In September 1986, Su and seventeen others founded the Democratic Progressive Party, he was the magistrate of Pingtung County and magistrate of Taipei County. His first election as the Taipei magistrate was aided by a split between the New Party and the Kuomintang, his subsequent reelection occurred by a wide margin despite the ability of the Pan-Blue Coalition to present a united candidate, Wang Chien-shien. He was Secretary-General to the Office of the President of the Republic of China under President Chen Shui-bian. After President Chen resigned as DPP chairman following the 2004 legislative elections, he was elected the 10th-term DPP chairman. Following DPP losses in the 2005 municipal elections on December 3, Su announced that he would, pursuant to a pre-election promise, resign from the chairmanship.
Su is married to Chan Hsiu-ling with whom he has three daughters, one of, Su Chiao-hui. Su was announced as the new premier on January 19, 2006 and took his oath of office, along with his cabinet, on January 25, 2006. Soon after, Su promised to step down. Su faced calls for his resignation after the Rebar Chinese Bank run, but refused to leave his post at the time. Su was a contender for the DPP nomination in the 2008 presidential election, he formally announced his candidacy on Feb. 25. In the DPP primary vote on May 6, 2007, Su received 46,994 votes, coming in second to former Premier Frank Hsieh. Conceding defeat in the primary, Su announced. On May 12, 2007, Su submitted his letter of resignation to President Chen Shui-bian, ending his tenure on May 21. With the resignation of Su and with ten months left in Chen's presidency, that would mean Chen's eight years as President will have seen at least six Premiers. Su stated that he submitted resignations numerous times over his sixteen-month tenure, but all were rejected by President Chen.
Su ran for Vice President alongside Frank Hsieh, the DPP Nomination. Together, Su and Hsieh ran against Siew. On March 22, they lost in Siew's 7,659,014 votes with their 5,444,949 votes. Although Su had been considered a strong candidate to helm the newly created New Taipei City, because he had served the area as Taipei County Magistrate, he instead ran for the mayoralty of Taipei City. Su vowed that should he win, he would serve out the entire term ending any talks of a presidential run in 2012. Su lost the race to the incumbent mayor Hau Lung-pin. Su declared his candidacy for the 2012 presidential candidacy, but lost a DPP party primary held in April 2011 to Tsai Ing-wen and Hsu Hsin-liang, by a margin of 1.35 percent. He was subsequently elected DPP chairman in May 2012, was succeed by Tsai in 2014, after dropping out of the chairmanship election in the wake of the Sunflower Student Movement. On 14 February of 2019, Su is approved by Legislative Yuan as the Premier of Taiwan, to succeed William Lai, who had resigned because his poor performance in 2018 Taiwanese Local Elections.
It is Su's second tenure of Premier, the first tenure being from 2006 to 2007. Due to his poor popularity, his nomination was not in favour of the people, he air pollution affairs. In the past, He supported with Taiwan Independence, but in his two premierships, he is more moderate on the communication between PRC and ROC, he is one of the oldest person to assume the office, at the age of 71. Politics of the Republic of China Su Tseng-chang on Facebook Premier biography timeline at the Government Information Office, Republic of China ]]|after=Chang Chun-hsiung|years=2006–2007}}