Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Jesse Philip Flis is a former Canadian politician. He served in the House of Commons of Canada from 1979 to 1984, from 1988 to 1997, as a member of the Liberal Party of Canada. Flis was born in Saskatchewan, he took his Bachelor of Arts degree at the University of Toronto, received a Master of Education from the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. He worked as an educator and school principal, was a member of the Toronto Board of Education from 1956 to 1979. Flis was a founding director of Operation Go Home, is the recipient of a Gold Award from the Canadian Polish Congress, he was first elected to the House of Commons in the 1979 election, defeating Progressive Conservative candidate Yuri Shymko by seventy-four votes in the Toronto riding of Parkdale—High Park. The Progressive Conservatives under Joe Clark won a minority government in this election, Flis served as a member of the Official Opposition in the parliament which followed; the Clark government was subsequently defeated on a motion of non-confidence, another federal election was called for 1980.
Flis was re-elected over Progressive Conservative candidate Andrew Witer by 5,097 votes, as the Liberals won a majority government under Pierre-Elliott Trudeau. He served as parliamentary secretary to the Minister of Transport from 1982 to 1984. Flis supported John Turner's successful bid for the party leadership in 1984; the Progressive Conservatives won a majority government under Brian Mulroney in the 1984 election, Flis lost his seat to Witer by 1,460 votes. He served as Coordinator of Special Education for Toronto's Secondary Schools between 1984 and 1988, defeated Witer by 3,196 votes in the 1988 election to return as a parliamentarian, he supported Paul Martin's bid for the Liberal Party leadership in 1990. The Liberals returned to power in the 1993 election after nine years in opposition, Flis was re-elected by a landslide in Parkdale—High Park. After his victory, he commented "I'd like nothing better than to be in cabinet where you can not only make decisions, but implement them", he was not appointed to cabinet and instead served as parliamentary secretary to the Secretary of State for External Affairs from 1993 to 1995, to the Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1995 to 1996.
He did not seek re-election in 1997. Flis endorsed Dalton McGuinty's bid to lead the Liberal Party of Ontario in 1996. Chapters dedicated to Jesse Flis were included in: Aleksandra Ziolkowska-Boehm: "Dreams and Reality", Toronto 1984, ISBN 0-9691756-0-4. Warszawa 1986, ISBN 83-7021-006-6. Jesse Flis Jesse Flis – Parliament of Canada biography
Parry Sound—Muskoka is a federal electoral district in Ontario, represented in the House of Commons of Canada since 1949. The riding consists of the Territorial District of Parry Sound, the District Municipality of Muskoka, the part of the Town of Kearney lying in the Territorial District of Nipissing. In 2004, Liberal Andy Mitchell was elected Member of Parliament for the district, was the Minister of Agriculture, he was narrowly defeated in the 2006 election by Conservative Tony Clement, the President of the Treasury Board until November 4, 2015. Parry Sound—Muskoka was created in 1947 from parts of Muskoka and Parry Sound ridings It consisted of the territorial districts of Parry Sound and Muskoka, the following townships in the territorial district of Nipissing: Ballantyne, Pentland, Paxton, Osler, Butt, Bishop, Freswick, McCraney, Hunter, McLaughlin, Finlayson, Peck and Sproule. In 1966, it was redefined to consist of the territorial districts of Muskoka and Parry Sound, Georgian Bay Islands National Park except Flower Pot Island.
In 1976, it was redefined to consist of the Territorial District of Parry Sound, the District Municipality of Muskoka, the part of Territorial District of Nipissing lying south and west of and including the townships of Ballantyne, Lauder, Lister, Freswick and Sproule. In 1987, the Nipissing portions of the riding were removed. In 1996, the riding was expanded to include the townships of Sherborne, McClintock, Livingstone and Nightingale in the County of Haliburton; the towns of Powassan and Trout Creek and the townships of Nipissing, North Himsworth and South Himsworth in the Territorial District of Parry Sound were excluded from the riding. In 2003, it was given its current boundaries. There were no changes after the 2012 electoral redistribution; this riding has elected the following Members of Parliament: Note: NDP vote is compared to CCF vote in 1958 election. List of Canadian federal electoral districts Past Canadian electoral districts " Census Profile". 2011 census. Statistics Canada. 2012.
Retrieved 2011-03-03. Riding history from the Library of Parliament 2011 results from Elections Canada
Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge
Stelco Holdings Inc. is a steel company based in Hamilton, Canada. Stelco was founded in 1910 from the amalgamation of several smaller firms, it continued on for 100 years, until it filed for bankruptcy in 2007 and was bought by U. S. Steel. In 2016, the company was sold to Bedrock Industries of the United States, which took the company public; the company made its debut on the Toronto Stock Exchange on Nov. 3, 2017. The Hamilton plant has not produced steel since 2011, but its coke ovens and cold rolling finishing works remain in operation; the company employs 1,400 in Nanticoke, Ontario. The Steel Company of Canada was established in 1910, it was founded after the merging of the Hamilton Steel and Iron Company with the Canada Screw Company, Montreal Rolling Mills, the Dominion Wire Manufacturing Company and the Canada Bolt and Nut Company. Charles S. Wilcox, president of the Hamilton Steel and Iron Company at the time of the consolidation, was appointed the first president of Stelco, he held the position until 1916, continuing on with the company as chairman of the board until his death in 1938.
Several union drives at the plant were unsuccessful until the founding strike of Local 1005 of the United Steelworkers of America in 1946. In 2004, Stelco had financial difficulties and went under court-ordered protection from its creditors, including the Deutsche Bank. Stelco exited Companies' Creditors Arrangements Act protection on March 31, 2006. Several non-core operations were divested, including Stelwire and Welland Pipe; the CCAA exit has seen the remaining operations restructured into 9 separate operating businesses, held by the corporate entity of Stelco. On August 27, 2007, U. S. Steel purchased assuming $800 million in debt; the company was renamed Hamilton Works – US Steel Canada. The deal closed on October 31, 2007; the company was renamed U. S. Steel Canada Inc. and its shares were delisted from the Toronto Stock Exchange. In an effort to streamline operations, U. S. Steel announced on March 3, 2009, that it would be temporarily shutting down its Hamilton plant and most of its Lake Erie plant putting more than 2,000 people out of work.
This announcement came four months after U. S. Steel laid off 700 employees at the Hamilton plant. Market conditions and declining customer orders prompted U. S. Steel to shut down the Hamilton Works on October 1, 2010. 100 jobs were restored when the German Max Aicher steel company bought two steel mills from US Steel, opened them as "Max Aicher North America". More jobs are expected to be created; the Hamilton steel-making and iron-making operations were permanently closed on December 31, 2013. On September 16, 2014, U. S. Steel Canada announced. US Steel stated that it intended to sell all of its remaining operations in Hamilton in the next two months. U. S. Steel Canada was severed from U. S. Steel Corporation in 2015 after it entered Companies' Creditors Arrangement Act protection in 2014. In November 2016, a deal was struck to sell U. S. Steel Canada to Bedrock Industries. On December 2, 2016, the company took the "Stelco" name again. In 2017, an initial public offering raised CA$200 million for the company.
The company operates the main Hilton Works in Hamilton, named after the late company president Hugh Hilton, the Lake Erie Works in Nanticoke on Lake Erie. Until the 2006 restructuring, Stelco's operations included Stelco McMaster Works in Contrecœur, Stelwire; the Nanticoke plant was notable because it is of a newer design, uses far less water. Stelco Tower, associated with Lloyd D. Jackson Square in downtown Hamilton, had an office building for the company and others since the 1970s, but has been vacated by Stelco and renamed 100 King St. West. Hamilton Steel Photos from the Stelco Steel mill Lake Erie Steel Hamilton Coke Lake Erie Coke Hamilton Energy Lake Erie Energy Hamilton Land Lake Erie Land HLE Mining
Scarborough Southwest is a federal electoral district in Toronto, Canada, represented in the House of Commons of Canada since 1968. It covers the southwestern part of the Scarborough part of Toronto, it stretches from Lake Ontario in the south to Eglinton Avenue in the north. It consists of the part of the City of Toronto bounded on the west by Victoria Park Avenue, on the south by Lake Ontario, on the north by Eglinton Avenue and on the east by Markham Road; the riding includes the neighbourhoods of Birch Cliff, Cliffside, Kennedy Park, Clairlea and parts of Scarborough Village and the Golden Mile. Scarborough West riding was created in 1966 and from parts of Danforth and York—Scarborough ridings, it consisted of the part of the borough of Scarborough west of a line formed by Midland Avenue the Canadian National Railway line and Brimley Road and south of Eglinton Avenue. It included the part of the city west of Birchmount Road and south of Lawrence Avenue East. In 1976, it was redefined to consist of the part of the Borough of Scarborough south Eglinton Avenue East and west of Bellamy Road South, the part south of Kingston Road and east of Bellamy Ravine Creek.
In 1987, it was redefined to consist of the part of the City of Scarborough south Eglinton Avenue East and west of Markham Road. The electoral district was abolished in 1996 when it was redistributed when all of the riding was transferred to Scarborough Southwest riding. A new riding named Scarborough Southwest was created out of Scarborough West and a small part of Scarborough East in 1996, it consisted of the part of the City of Scarborough lying south and west of a line drawn from the western city limit east along Eglinton Avenue East, north along Markham Road, east along the Canadian National Railway, southwest along Kingston Road, south along Scarborough Golf Club Road, southwest along Hill Crescent, southeast along Bellamy Ravine Creek. This riding lost territory to Scarborough Centre and gained territory from Scarborough—Guildwood during the 2012 electoral redistribution; this riding has elected the following member of the House of Commons of Canada: All electoral information is taken from Elections Canada.
Italicized expenditures from elections after 1997 refer to candidate submissions, are presented when the final reviewed totals are not available. Expenditures from 1997 refer to submitted totals; the +/- figures from 1997 and 2004 are adjusted for redistribution. List of Canadian federal electoral districts Past Canadian electoral districts " Census Profile". 2011 census. Statistics Canada. 2012. Retrieved 2011-03-03. Riding history from the Library of Parliament Campaign expense data from Elections Canada
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h