click links in text for more info

Reform of the date of Easter

A reform of the date of Easter has been proposed several times because the current system for determining the date of Easter is seen as presenting two significant problems: Its date varies from year to year. It can fall on up to 35 days in April of the respective calendar. While many Christians do not consider this to be a problem, it can cause frequent difficulties of co-ordination with civil calendars, for example academic terms. Many countries have public holidays around Easter weekend or tied to the date of Easter but spread from February to June, such as Shrove Tuesday or Ascension and Pentecost. Many Eastern churches calculate the date of Easter using the Julian calendar, whereas some Eastern churches use the Revised Julian calendar and all Western churches and civil authorities have adopted the Gregorian reforms for all calendrical purposes. Hence in most years, Easter is celebrated on a date in the East than in the West. There have been controversies about the "correct" date of Easter since antiquity, leading to schisms and excommunications or executions due to heresy, but most Christian churches today agree on certain points.

Easter should therefore be celebrated: on a Sunday, after the Northward equinox, in Northern Hemisphere spring, after the nominal "Paschal" full moon. There is less agreement whether Easter should occur: so that Annunciation – celebrated 25 March, 9 months before Christmas – does not fall on any day from the Sunday before Easter to the Sunday after, on or after the 14th day of the lunar month of Nisan, not before Jewish Pesach; the disagreements have been about the determination of moon phases and the equinox, some still preferring astronomical observation from a certain location, most others following nominal approximations of these in either the Hebrew, Julian or Gregorian calendar using different lookup tables and cycles in their algorithms. Deviations may result from different definitions of the start of the day, i.e. dusk, midnight, dawn or sunrise, the decision whether the respective starts of astronomical spring, Paschal full moon and Easter Sunday may occur in a single day as long as they are observed in that order.

It has been proposed that the first problem could be resolved by making Easter occur on a date fixed relative to the western Gregorian calendar every year, or alternatively on a Sunday within a fixed range of seven or eight dates. While tying Easter to one fixed date would serve to underline the belief that it commemorates an actual historical event, without an accompanying calendar reform that changes the pattern of the days of the week or adopted a leap week, it would break the tradition of Easter always being on a Sunday, established since the 2nd century and by now embedded in the liturgical practice and theological understanding of all Christian denominations; the Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican agreed in 1963 to accept a fixed Sunday in the Gregorian calendar as the date for Easter as long as other Christian churches agreed on it as well. They agreed in principle to adopt a civil calendar reform as long as there were never any days outside the cycle of seven days per week; the Pepuzites, a 5th-century sect, celebrated Easter on the Sunday following April 6.

This is equivalent to the Sunday closest to April 9. The April 6 date was arrived at because it was equivalent to the 14th of the month of Artemisios in an earlier calendar used in the area, the 14th of the first month of spring; the two most widespread proposals for fixing the date of Easter would set it on either the second Sunday in April, or the Sunday after the second Saturday in April. They only differ in years with dominical letter AG where 1 April is a Sunday. In both schemes, account has been taken of the fact that—in spite of the many difficulties in establishing the dates of the historical events involved—many scholars attribute a high degree of probability to Friday 7 April 30, as the date of the crucifixion of Jesus, which would make 9 April the date of the Resurrection. Another date, supported by many scholars is 3 April 33, making 5 April the date of the Resurrection. In the late 1920s and 1930s, this idea gained some momentum along with other calendar reform proposals, such as the International Fixed Calendar and the World Calendar.

In 1928, a law was passed in the United Kingdom authorising an Order in Council which would fix the date of Easter in that country as the Sunday after the second Saturday in April. However, this was never implemented; the Sunday after the first Wednesday in April would always be in ISO week 14, except for leap years starting on Thursday where the week count is one higher than in otherwise equivalent common years after February. The Symmetry454 Calendar proposes a fixed date of Easter in week 14, which would agree with the aforementioned proposals in most years, but would be 1 week earlier in F/GF years and in DC, D/ED and E/FE years; the Sunday of an ordinal ISO week n is the nth Sunday of the year, except in A/AG, B/BA and C/CB years where it is the n+1st Sunday, so both major proposals put Easter on the 15th Sunday of the year except either in common years starting on Monday, where 8 April, i.e. the second Sunday in April, is the 14th Sunday of the year, or in leap years starting on Sunday, where 15 April, i.e. the Sunday after the second Saturday in April, is the 16th Sunday of the year.

In 1977, some Eastern Orthodox representative

Rome I Regulation

The Rome I Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008 on the law applicable to contractual obligations) is a regulation which governs the choice of law in the European Union. It is based upon and replaces the Convention on the Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations 1980; the Rome I Regulation can be distinguished from the Brussels Regime which determines which court can hear a given dispute, as opposed to which law it should apply. The regulation applies to all EU member states except Denmark, which has an opt-out from implementing regulations under the area of freedom and justice; the Danish government planned to join the regulation if a referendum on 3 December 2015 approved converting its opt-out into an opt-in, but the proposal was rejected. While the United Kingdom opted-out of the regulation they subsequently decided to opt-in; the regulation sets out. Pursuant to its Articles 28 and 29, the regulation came into force on 17 December 2009 and applies to contracts concluded after that date.

The broad principle of Rome I was not only to harmonise choice of law rules in contract but, subject to certain safeguards, maximise the freedom of the parties to choose the law governing their contractual relations. Article 1 contains a list of exclusions from the scope of the Regulation; these include: questions involving the status or legal capacity of natural persons. Article 3 confirms the freedom of parties to choose the governing law of their contracts: The choice of law of the parties can either be expressed in the contract or implied from an agreement, "clearly demonstrated by the terms of the contract or the circumstances of the case"; the implied choice of law must be a real, but not imputed, choice of law that can be objective ascertained. It is insufficient, it provides that the parties may agree to change the governing law, or to have different laws govern different parts of the contract. Article 4 deals with contracts where the parties have made no express or implied choice of governing law.

It provides broadly that: a contract for the sale of goods shall be governed by the law of the seller's habitual residence. Article 8, which supersedes article 6 of the 1980 Convention, The significant change is that the applicable law is that of the country "from which the employee habitually carries out" his or her work, it is intended to cover workers such as airline pilots who might not work "in" any particular country, but work "from" a country. For a temporary worker posted in another country from her home country, article 8 makes the law of the home country apply, it would therefore appear that, for example, the employer of a Greek posted worker in Germany could rely on the lesser protections of Greek law. Article 7 of the 1980 Convention stated that'Nothing in this Convention shall restrict the application of the rules of the law of the forum in a situation where they are mandatory irrespective of the law otherwise applicable to the contract'. Employment law is mandatory. However, article 7 was not retained in the Rome I Regulation.

The replacement, article 9 defines mandatory provisions as, It is clear that employment law is applicable in any situation to a contract falling within its scope, though some have insisted, that employment law may not be "crucial" in this sense, following older case law of the ECJ. Article 9 states that: Article 12 provides that the applicable law shall govern: interpretation. However, in relation to the manner of performance and the steps to be taken in the event of defective performance, regard must be had to the law of the country in which performance takes place; the relationship between an assignor and an assignee under an assignment or contractual rights against another obligor under the original contract is governed by the applicable law of the contract of assignment. However, the applicable law of the original agreement will determine if those

BN-600 reactor

The BN-600 reactor is a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor, built at the Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Station, in Zarechny, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia. Designed to generate electrical power of 600 MW in total, the plant dispatches 560 MW to the Middle Urals power grid, it represents an evolution on the preceding BN-350 reactor. In 2014, its larger sister reactor, the BN-800 reactor began operation; the plant is a pool-type reactor, where the reactor, coolant pumps, intermediate heat exchangers and associated piping are all located in a common liquid sodium pool. The reactor system is housed in a concrete rectilinear building, provided with filtration and gas containment features. In the 1st 15 years of operation, there have been 12 incidents involving sodium/water interactions from tube breaks in the steam generators, a sodium-air oxidation/"fire" from a leak in an auxiliary system, a sodium "fire" from a leak in a secondary coolant loop while shut down. All these incidents were classified at the lowest level on the International Nuclear Event Scale, none of the events prevented restarting operation of the facility after repairs.

As of 1997, there had been 27 sodium leaks, 14 of which resulted in sodium-air oxidations/"fires". The steam generators are separated in modules so they can be repaired without shutting down the reactor; as of 2013, the cumulative "energy Availability factor" recorded by the IAEA was 74.6%. The reactor core is 1.03 meters tall with a diameter of 2.05 meters. It has 369 fuel assemblies, mounted vertically, each consisting of 127 fuel rods enriched to between 17–26% 235U. In comparison, normal enrichment in other Russian reactors is between 3–4% 235U; the control and scram system comprises 27 reactivity control elements including 19 shimming rods, two automatic control rods, six automatic emergency shut-down rods. On-power refueling equipment allows for charging the core with fresh fuel assemblies and turning the fuel assemblies within the reactor, changing control and scram system elements remotely; the unit employs a three-circuit coolant arrangement. Water and steam flow in the third circuit; the sodium is heated to a maximum of 550 °C in the reactor during normal operations.

This heat is transferred from the reactor core via three independent circulation loops. Each comprises a primary sodium pump, two intermediate heat exchangers, a secondary sodium pump with an expansion tank located upstream, an emergency pressure discharge tank; these feed a steam generator. There is a lot of international interest in the fast-breeder reactor at Beloyarsk. Japan has its own prototype fast-breeder reactors. Japan paid 1 billion for the technical documentation of the BN-600; the operation of the reactor is an international study in progress. The reactor has been licensed to operate up to 2025. Generation IV reactor BN-Reactor BN-350 reactor BN-800 reactor BN-1200 reactor Rosenergoatom the Reactor BN-600 Overview of Fast Reactors in Russia and the Former Soviet Union BN-600 Hybrid Core Benchmark Analyses BN-600 Fuel Liquid Metal Cooled Reactors: Experience in Design and Operation Operating experience from the BN600 sodium fast reactor, IAEA Assessment of changes to the BN-600 to operate with a plutonium burner core

Cultural references to donkeys

There are many cultural references to donkeys, in myth and religion, in language and in literature. Due to its widespread domestication and use, the donkey is referred to in myth and folklore around the world. In classical and ancient cultures, donkeys had a part; the donkey was the symbol of the Egyptian sun god Ra. In Greek myth, Silenus is pictured in Classical Antiquity and during the Renaissance drunken and riding a donkey, Midas was given the ears of an ass after misjudging a musical competition. Donkeys are mentioned many times in the Bible, beginning in the first book and continuing through both Old and New Testaments, so they became part of Judeo-Christian tradition, they are portrayed as work animals, used for agricultural purposes, transport and as beasts of burden, terminology is used to differentiate age and gender. In contrast, horses were represented only in the context of war, ridden by cavalry or pulling chariots. Owners were protected by law from loss caused by the death or injury of a donkey, showing their value in that time period.

Narrative turning points in the Bible are marked through the use of donkeys — for instance, saddling, or mounting/dismounting a donkey are used to show a change in focus or a decision having been made. They are used as a measure of wealth in Genesis 30:43, in Genesis chapter 34, the prince of Shechem is named Hamor. According to Old Testament prophecy, the Messiah is said to arrive on a donkey: "Behold, your King is coming to you. According to the New Testament, this prophecy was fulfilled when Jesus entered Jerusalem riding on the animal. Jesus appeared to be aware of this connection. In the Jewish religion, the donkey is not a kosher animal. In the Zohar, it is considered avi avot hatuma or the ultimate impure animal, doubly "impure", as it is both non-ruminant and non-cloven hoofed. However, it is the only impure animal that falls under the mitzvah of firstborn consecration that applies to humans and pure animals. In Jewish Oral Tradition, the son of David was prophesied as riding on a donkey if the tribes of Israel are undeserving of redemption.

In contemporary Israel, the term "Messiah's Donkey" stands at the centre of a controversial religious-political doctrine, under which it was the Heavenly-imposed "task" of secular Zionists to build up a Jewish State, but once the state is established they are fated to give place to the Religious who are ordained to lead the state. The secularists in this analogy are "The Donkey" while the religious who are fated to supplant them are a collective "Messiach". A book on the subject, published in 1998 by the militant secularist Sefi Rechlevsky, aroused a major controversy in the Israeli public opinion. With the rise of Christianity, some believers came to see the cross-shaped marking present on donkeys' backs and shoulders as a symbol of the animal's bearing Jesus into Jerusalem on Palm Sunday. During the Middle Ages, Europeans used hairs from this cross as folk remedies to treat illness, including measles and whooping cough. Around 1400 AD, one physician listed riding backwards on a donkey as a cure for scorpion stings.

Donkeys are referred to in the writings and imagery of the Hinduism, where the goddess Kalaratri's vahana is a donkey. Donkeys appear multiple times in Indian folklore as the subject of stories in both the Hitopadesha and the Panchatantra. In Islam, eating the meat of a domestic donkey is not allowed. Donkeys hold a significant place in literature in Western cultures; the original representations of donkeys in Western literature come from the Bible and Ancient Greece. Donkeys were represented in a negative form by the Greeks, but perceptions changed due to donkeys becoming symbolically connected to Christianity. Donkeys were found in the works of Homer and Apuleius, where they were portrayed as stupid and stubborn, or servile at best, represented the lower class, they were contrasted with horses, which were seen as powerful and beautiful. Aesop's The Ass in the Lion's Skin, representational of the 20 of his fables that portray donkeys, shows the donkey as a fool. Apuleius's The Golden Ass, where the narrator is turned into a donkey, is notable for its portrayal of donkeys as stubborn, foolish and lowly.

This work had a large influence on the portrayal of donkeys in cultures, including medieval and renaissance Europe. During this time, donkeys continued to be shown as stupid and slow. Shakespeare popularised the use of the word "ass" as an insult meaning stupid or clownish in many of his plays, including Bottom's appearance in A Midsummer Night's Dream. In contrast, a few years Cervantes' Don Quixote shows a more positive slant on the donkey as Sancho Panza's mount, portraying them as steady and loyal companions; this difference is due to donkeys being an important aspect of many Spaniards' lives at this point in time. In contrast to Grecian works, donkeys were portrayed in Biblical works as symbols of service, suffering and humility, they are associated with the theme of wisdom in the Old Testament story of Balaam's ass, are seen in a positive light through the story of Jesus riding into Jerusalem on a donkey. By the 19th century, the donkey was portrayed with more positive attributes by popular authors.

William Wordsworth portrayed the donkey a

Saulsbury, Tennessee

Saulsbury is a town in Hardeman County, Tennessee. It is located along State Highway 57 in southwest Hardeman County; the population was 99 at the 2000 census and 81 at the 2010 census showing a decrease of 18. Saulsbury is the least-populated incorporated municipality in Tennessee. Saulsbury's historical roots stem from a former settlement named Berlin, TN, located one mile south of the current location of Saulsbury. Two regional mail roads - one from Bolivar to Ripley and another from LaGrange to Corinth, Mississippi; these mail roads met at an intersection. In 1839 a post office was established there, Berlin would be incorporated in 1846, within five years it would be home to 351 people. Upon the completion of the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, Berlin was bypassed due to one landowner's refusal to sell their property to the railroad. A track was instead laid one mile north of Berlin, on land, owned by Burrell Sauls and Berry Futrell; the finished railroad station and track would be called Sauls-Berry Depot.

Berlin would be deserted as people moved to the new settlement and in 1856 Saulsbury was incorporated. Just after the taking of Memphis in 1862, the Union Army took Saulsbury. Skirmishes continued throughout the area, Saulsbury would return to Confederate control. Confederate soldiers used Saulsbury as a rally point to travel to Corinth to join their regiments. After the Civil War, Saulsbury maintained itself as a town, unlike others in the area which survived the war. Saulsbury's cotton production survived the war as well, Saulsbury emerged as a leader in cotton production in the region; the town became a producer of eggs, turkeys and hogs. Sand mining became a major industry in the 1870s, providing 47 different types of sand for brass molding. On January 17, 1999, an F1 tornado formed just southwest of Saulsbury, moved northeast until dissipating near Rogers Springs. One person was killed, four others were injured. Fourteen houses and mobile homes were destroyed, twenty-seven others were damaged.

Power lines and trees sustained significant damage. As a result, the town of Saulsbury installed a tornado siren at the local fire station, the only one in the area at the time. Saulsbury is located at 35°2′57″N 89°5′20″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.4 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 99 people, 43 households, 26 families residing in the town; the population density was 271.7 people per square mile. There were 53 housing units at an average density of 145.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 85.86% White, 12.12% African American, 2.02% from two or more races. There were 43 households out of which 25.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.8% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.5% were non-families. 30.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.92.

In the town, the population was spread out with 24.2% under the age of 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 15.2% from 25 to 44, 29.3% from 45 to 64, 21.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 46 years. For every 100 females, there were 110.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.4 males. The median income for a household in the town was $30,000, the median income for a family was $41,250. Males had a median income of $26,250 versus $28,125 for females; the per capita income for the town was $10,335. There were 22.2% of families and 29.7% of the population living below the poverty line, including 48.8% of under eighteens and none of those over 64. Most of those living below the poverty line receive federal aid. Saulsbury's climate is similar to the rest of the Mid-South; the summer months are persistently hot and humid with afternoon temperatures above 90 degrees Fahrenheit. Afternoon thunderstorms are frequent during some summers, but brief, lasting no longer than an hour.

Early autumn can remain hot until late October. Abrupt but short-lived cold snaps are common. Late autumn is rainy and colder, December being the third rainiest month of the year. Winters are mild. Snowfall is not abundant but does occur during most winters, with one or two major winter weather events occurring by the end of March. Spring begins in late February or early March, following the onset of a sharp warmup; this season is known as "severe weather season" due to the higher frequency of tornadoes and thunderstorms producing strong winds. Average rainfall is higher during the spring months than the rest of the year. April is the month with the highest frequency of tornadoes, though tornadoes have occurred every month of the year. Saulsbury-area historical tornado activity is above Tennessee state average, it is 155% greater than the overall U. S. average. The area is sunny about 62.5% of the time. In the 1970s the Saulsbury Methodist Church, built in 1913, was deeded to town for the community library.

Upon the completion of fundraising, the town was able to renovate the building. A number of antebellum homes and buildings are preserved in Saulsbury; the town has three active community clubs: the Saulsbury Community Club, the Nifty Needles Women's Club, the Friendship Club. Saulsbury hosts three major events each year: a Christmas tree-lighti


Vaassen is one of four villages in the Dutch municipality of Epe. Vaassen is situated between Apeldoorn and Zwolle, on the eastern edge of the Veluwe in the province of Gelderland and has 12,719 inhabitants. Vaassen was an independent municipality up to 1 January 1818; the earliest signs of residents in this area are the burial mounds and "Celtic Fields" northwest of Vaassen in the Veluwe, between the Elburgerweg and Gortelseweg. There is a large complex of these fields in Vaassen, around Gortelseweg; the German inhabitants lived there during the Roman era. They inhabited wooden huts and lived from agriculture, cultivation of herbs, hunting deer and boar; the town was mentioned for the first time in a certificate from the Codex Laureshamnensis of the monastery of Lorschin in the year 891 or 892, when someone called Brunhilde gave a farmhouse and the church to Lorsch. The name Vaassen derives from "Fasna", an old word for a specific rough type of grass. From 2 September 1887 up to 8 October 1950 there was a railway station in Vaassen.

The station was part of the so-called Baron line between Zwolle. In 1950 the station was closed; the former railway station is now used as a dwelling. Vaassen is characterized by a centuries-long coexistence of Protestant and Roman Catholic populations. In the 1950s, groups of Moluccans were housed in Vaassen. Berkenoord Camp was used for housing. On October 14, 1976, friction with the government regarding housing led to the evacuation of the Moluccans from this dwelling place. Today there is still a considerable Moluccan community in Vaassen. Vaassen's most remarkable historical building is the 16th century Cannenburgh Castle, once home to the knight Maarten van Rossum. Berkenoord, Berkenoord II, The Oosterhof, Oranjebuurt, Vogelbuurt, Industriewijk and Vossenhoek. De Hegge, De Jonas, Hafkamp, Kortenbroek,'t Laar, Vaassense Broek and De Uulenberg. Daams' Mill. An 8-sail wind mill with a corn mill function, restored in 1989. To ensure adequate wind for the mill, the development of the center of Vaassen, the mill was raised by 4.9 meters by mid-2012.

The raising had to be done because of the so-called wind rights. Cannenburgh Castle. Cannenburger Mill, a water mill. J. Kuyper, Gemeente Atlas van Nederland, 1865-1870, "Vaassen". Map of the former municipality, around 1868. Site of the town of Vaassen Municipality Epe Historical association Ampt Epe Museum Vaassen History Soccer club SV Vaassen Cavente Children's Village Broken Wings Vaaassen Friends of the Daams' Mill Association