The Reformation: A History
The Reformation: A History is a history book by English historian Diarmaid MacCulloch. It is a survey of the European Reformation between 1490 and 1700, it won the 2004 National Book Critics Circle Award. English-language editions: Reformation: Europe's House Divided. Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 978-0-14-028534-5 Reformation: Europe's House Divided 1490–1700. Allen Lane. ISBN 978-0-7139-9370-7; the Reformation: A History. Viking Adult. ISBN 978-0-670-03296-9 The Reformation. Viking Books. ISBN 978-0-670-03296-9 The Reformation. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-303538-1 The Reformation. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-303538-1. Reviews The Reformation, in The Atlantic Monthly, May 2004 The Reformation, in Cercles by Detlev Maresin The Reformation, in Commonweal by Brad S. Gregory, May 21, 2004; the Reformation, in Christian Century by Hans J. Hillerbrand, February 8, 2005; the Reformation rumbles on. In HERO by Charlie Peverett, October 2004; the Varieties of Error, in Crisis Magazine by Edward Short, March 2005 When Europe fought over the nature of God, in Christian Science Monitor by Gregory M. Lamb, May 25, 2004 editionExcerptWho or what is a Catholic
The Reformation was a movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Roman Catholic church – and papal authority in particular. Although the Reformation is considered to have started with the publication of the Ninety-five Theses by Martin Luther in 1517, there was no schism between the Catholics and the nascent Lutheran branch until the 1521 Edict of Worms; the edict condemned Luther and banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas. The end of the Reformation era is disputed: it could be considered to end with the enactment of the confessions of faith which began the Age of Orthodoxy. Other suggested ending years relate to the Counter-Reformation, the Peace of Westphalia, or that it never ended since there are still Protestants today. Movements had been made towards a Reformation prior to Luther, so some Protestants in the tradition of the Radical Reformation prefer to credit the start of the Reformation to reformers such as Arnold of Brescia, Peter Waldo, Jan Hus, Tomáš Štítný ze Štítného, John Wycliffe, Girolamo Savonarola.
Due to the reform efforts of Huss and others in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, Utraquist Hussitism was acknowledged by both the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, although other movements were still subject to persecution, as were the including Lollards in England and Waldensians in Italy and France. Luther began by criticising the sale of indulgences, insisting that the Pope had no authority over purgatory and that the Treasury of Merit had no foundation in the Bible; the Reformation developed further to include a distinction between Law and Gospel, a complete reliance on Scripture as the only source of proper doctrine and the belief that faith in Jesus is the only way to receive God's pardon for sin rather than good works. Although this is considered a Protestant belief, a similar formulation was taught by Molinist and Jansenist Catholics; the priesthood of all believers downplayed the need for saints or priests to serve as mediators, mandatory clerical celibacy was ended. Simul justus et peccator implied that although people could improve, no one could become good enough to earn forgiveness from God.
Sacramental theology was simplified and attempts at imposing Aristotelian epistemology were resisted. Luther and his followers did not see these theological developments as changes; the 1530 Augsburg Confession concluded that "in doctrine and ceremonies nothing has been received on our part against Scripture or the Church Catholic", after the Council of Trent, Martin Chemnitz published the 1565–73 Examination of the Council of Trent in order to prove that Trent innovated on doctrine while the Lutherans were following in the footsteps of the Church Fathers and Apostles. The initial movement in Germany diversified, other reformers arose independently of Luther such as Zwingli in Zürich and Calvin in Geneva. Depending on the country, the Reformation had varying causes and different backgrounds, unfolded differently than in Germany; the spread of Gutenberg's printing press provided the means for the rapid dissemination of religious materials in the vernacular. During Reformation-era confessionalization, Western Christianity adopted different confessions.
Radical Reformers, besides forming communities outside state sanction, sometimes employed more extreme doctrinal change, such as the rejection of the tenets of the councils of Nicaea and Chalcedon with the Unitarians of Transylvania. Anabaptist movements were persecuted following the German Peasants' War. Leaders within the Roman Catholic Church responded with the Counter-Reformation, initiated by the Confutatio Augustana in 1530, the Council of Trent in 1545, the Jesuits in 1540, the Defensio Tridentinæ fidei in 1578, a series of wars and expulsions of Protestants that continued until the 19th century. Northern Europe, with the exception of most of Ireland, came under the influence of Protestantism. Southern Europe remained predominantly Catholic apart from the much-persecuted Waldensians. Central Europe was the site of much of the Thirty Years' War and there were continued expulsions of Protestants in central Europe up to the 19th century. Following World War II, the removal of ethnic Germans to either East Germany or Siberia reduced Protestantism in the Warsaw Pact countries, although some remain today.
Absence of Protestants however, does not imply a failure of the Reformation. Although Protestants were excommunicated and ended up worshipping in communions separate from Catholics contrary to the original intention of the Reformers, they were suppressed and persecuted in most of Europe at one point; as a result, some of them lived as crypto-Protestants called Nicodemites, contrary to the urging of John Calvin who wanted them to live their faith openly. Some crypto-Protestants have been identified as late as the 19th century after immigrating to Latin America; as a result Reformation impulses continued to affect the Latin Church well past the end of what is considered the Reformation era. The oldest Protestant churches, such as the Unitas Fratrum and Moravian Church, date their origins to Jan Hus in the early 15th century; as it was led by a Bohemian noble majority, recognised, for a time, by the Basel Compacts, the Hussite Reformation was Europe's first "Magisterial Reformation" because the ruling magistrates supported it, unlike the "Radical Reformation", which the state did not support.
Common factors that played a role during the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation included the rise of nationalism, the
The Story of Civilization
The Story of Civilization, by husband and wife Will and Ariel Durant, is an 11-volume set of books covering Western history for the general reader. The series was written over a span of more than four decades, it totals four million words across nearly 10,000 pages, with 2 further books in production at the time of the authors' deaths. In the first volume, Will Durant stated that he wanted to include the history of the West to the early 20th century. However, the series ends with The Age of Napoleon because the Durants both died – she in her 80s and he in his 90s – before they could complete additional volumes, they left behind notes for a 12th volume, The Age of Darwin, an outline for a 13th, The Age of Einstein, which would have taken The Story of Civilization to 1945. The first six volumes of The Story of Civilization are credited to Will Durant alone, with Ariel recognized only in the Acknowledgements. Beginning with The Age of Reason Begins, Ariel is credited as a co-author; the series won a Pulitzer Prize for General Nonfiction in 1968 with the 10th volume in the series and Revolution.
In the preface to the first volume, Durant states his intention to make the series in 5 volumes, although this would not turn out to be the case. The volumes sold well for many years, sets of them were offered by book clubs. An unabridged audiobook production of all eleven volumes was produced by the Books on Tape company and was read by Alexander Adams; this volume covers Near Eastern history until the fall of the Achaemenid Empire in the 330s BC, the history of India and Japan up to the 1930s. “Every chapter, every paragraph in this book will offend or amuse some patriotic or esoteric soul: the orthodox Jew will need all his ancestral patience to forgive the pages on Yahveh. Meanwhile a weary author may sympathize with Tai T’ung, who in the thirteenth century issued his ‘History of Chinese Writing’ with these words: ‘Were I to await perfection, my book would never be finished.’” The Establishment of Civilization The Conditions of Civilization The Economic Elements of Civilization The Political Elements of Civilization The Moral Elements of Civilization The Mental Elements of Civilization The Prehistoric Beginnings of Civilization “The moulders of the world’s myths were unsuccessful husbands, for they agreed that woman was the source of all evil.”
The Near East Sumeria Egypt Babylonia Assyria A Motley of Nations Judea Persia “For barbarism is always around civilization, amid it and beneath it, ready to engulf it by arms, or mass migration, or unchecked fertility. Barbarism is like the jungle. India and Her Neighbors The Foundations of India Buddha From Alexander to Aurangzeb The Life of the People The Paradise of the Gods The Life of the Mind The Literature of India Indian Art A Christian Epilogue On the fall of India to the Moguls: “The bitter lesson that may be drawn from this tragedy is that eternal vigilance is the price of civilization. A nation must love peace, but keep its powder dry.” The Far East The Age of the Philosophers The Age of the Poets The Age of the Artists The People and the State Revolution and Renewal On China in 1935: “No victory of arms, or tyranny of alien finance, can long suppress a nation so rich in resources and vitality. The invader will lose funds or patience. Japan The Makers of Japan The Political and Moral Foundations The Mind and Art of Old Japan The New Japan On Japan in 1935: "By every historical precedent the next act will be war."
This volume covers the Hellenistic Near East down to the Roman conquest. Aegean Prelude: 3500–1000 BC Crete Before Agamemnon The Heroic Age The Rise of Greece: 1000–480 BC Sparta Athens The Great Migration The Greeks in the West The Gods of Greece The Common Culture of Early Greece The Struggle for Freedom"The realization of self-government was something new in the world. Out of this proud sense of independence and collective, came a powerful stimulus to every enterprise of the Greeks; the Golden Age: 480–399 BC Pericles and the Democratic Experiment Work and Wealth in Athens The Morals and Manners of the Athenians The Art of Periclean Greece The Advancement of Learning The Conflict of Philosophy and Religion The Literature of the Golden Age The Suicide of Greece"As surprising as anything else in this civilization is the fact that it was brilliant without the aid or stimulus of women." The Decline and Fall of Greek Freedom: 399–322 BC Philip Letters and Arts in the Fourth Century The Zenith of Philosophy Alexander"The class war had turned democracy into a contest in legislative looting."
The Hellenistic Dispersion: 322–146 BC Greece and Macedonia Hellenism and the Orient Egypt and the West Books The Art of the Dispersion The Climax of Greek Science The Surrender of Philosophy The Coming of Rome ”We have tried to sh
Catalytic reforming is a chemical process used to convert petroleum refinery naphthas distilled from crude oil into high-octane liquid products called reformates, which are premium blending stocks for high-octane gasoline. The process converts low-octane linear hydrocarbons into branched alkanes and cyclic naphthenes, which are partially dehydrogenated to produce high-octane aromatic hydrocarbons; the dehydrogenation produces significant amounts of byproduct hydrogen gas, fed into other refinery processes such as hydrocracking. A side reaction is hydrogenolysis, which produces light hydrocarbons of lower value, such as methane, ethane and butanes. In addition to a gasoline blending stock, reformate is the main source of aromatic bulk chemicals such as benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene which have diverse uses, most as raw materials for conversion into plastics. However, the benzene content of reformate makes it carcinogenic, which has led to governmental regulations requiring further processing to reduce its benzene content.
This process is quite different from and not to be confused with the catalytic steam reforming process used industrially to produce products such as hydrogen and methanol from natural gas, naphtha or other petroleum-derived feedstocks. Nor is this process to be confused with various other catalytic reforming processes that use methanol or biomass-derived feedstocks to produce hydrogen for fuel cells or other uses. In the 1940s, Vladimir Haensel, a research chemist working for Universal Oil Products, developed a catalytic reforming process using a catalyst containing platinum. Haensel's process was subsequently commercialized by UOP in 1949 for producing a high octane gasoline from low octane naphthas and the UOP process become known as the Platforming process; the first Platforming unit was built in 1949 at the refinery of the Old Dutch Refining Company in Muskegon, Michigan. In the years since many other versions of the process have been developed by some of the major oil companies and other organizations.
Today, the large majority of gasoline produced worldwide is derived from the catalytic reforming process. To name a few of the other catalytic reforming versions that were developed, all of which utilized a platinum and/or a rhenium catalyst: Rheniforming: Developed by Chevron Oil Company. Powerforming: Developed by Esso Oil Company known as ExxonMobil. Magnaforming: Developed by Engelhard and Atlantic Richfield Oil Company. Ultraforming: Developed by Standard Oil of Indiana, now a part of the British Petroleum Company. Houdriforming: Developed by the Houdry Process Corporation. CCR Platforming: A Platforming version, designed for continuous catalyst regeneration, developed by UOP. Octanizing: A catalytic reforming version developed by Axens, a subsidiary of Institut francais du petrole, designed for continuous catalyst regeneration. Before describing the reaction chemistry of the catalytic reforming process as used in petroleum refineries, the typical naphthas used as catalytic reforming feedstocks will be discussed.
A petroleum refinery includes many unit operations and unit processes. The first unit operation in a refinery is the continuous distillation of the petroleum crude oil being refined; the overhead liquid distillate is called naphtha and will become a major component of the refinery's gasoline product after it is further processed through a catalytic hydrodesulfurizer to remove sulfur-containing hydrocarbons and a catalytic reformer to reform its hydrocarbon molecules into more complex molecules with a higher octane rating value. The naphtha is a mixture of many different hydrocarbon compounds, it has an initial boiling point of about 35 °C and a final boiling point of about 200 °C, it contains paraffin and aromatic hydrocarbons ranging from those containing 6 carbon atoms to those containing about 10 or 11 carbon atoms. The naphtha from the crude oil distillation is further distilled to produce a "light" naphtha containing most of the hydrocarbons with 6 or fewer carbon atoms and a "heavy" naphtha containing most of the hydrocarbons with more than 6 carbon atoms.
The heavy naphtha has an initial boiling point of about 140 to 150 °C and a final boiling point of about 190 to 205 °C. The naphthas derived from the distillation of crude oils are referred to as "straight-run" naphthas, it is the straight-run heavy naphtha, processed in a catalytic reformer because the light naphtha has molecules with 6 or fewer carbon atoms which, when reformed, tend to crack into butane and lower molecular weight hydrocarbons which are not useful as high-octane gasoline blending components. The molecules with 6 carbon atoms tend to form aromatics, undesirable because governmental environmental regulations in a number of countries limit the amount of aromatics that gasoline may contain, it should be noted that there are a great many petroleum crude oil sources worldwide and each crude oil has its own unique composition or "assay". Not all refineries process the same crude oils and each refinery produces its own straight-run naphthas with their own unique initial and final boiling points.
In other words, naphtha is a generic term rather than a specific term. The table just below lists some typical straight-run heavy naphtha feedstocks, available for catalytic reforming, derived from various crude oils, it can be seen that they differ in their content of paraffins and aromatics: Some refinery naphthas include olefinic hydrocarbons, such as naphthas derived from the fluid catalytic cracking and coking processes used in many refineries. Some r
The Scottish Reformation was the process by which Scotland broke with the Papacy and developed a predominantly Calvinist national Kirk, Presbyterian in outlook. It was part of the wider European Protestant Reformation. From the late fifteenth century the ideas of Renaissance humanism, critical of aspects of the established Catholic Church, began to reach Scotland through the contacts between Scottish and continental scholars. In the earlier part of the sixteenth century, the teachings of Martin Luther began to influence Scotland. Important was the work of the Lutheran Scot Patrick Hamilton, executed in 1528. Unlike his uncle Henry VIII in England, James V avoided major structural and theological changes to the church and used it as a source of income and for appointments for his illegitimate children and favourites, his death in 1542 left the infant Mary, Queen of Scots as his heir, allowing a series of English invasions known as the Rough Wooing. The English supplied books and distributed Bibles and Protestant literature in the Lowlands when they invaded in 1547.
The execution of the Zwingli-influenced George Wishart in 1546, burnt at the stake on the orders of Cardinal David Beaton, stimulated the growth of these ideas in reaction. Wishart's supporters, who included a number of Fife lairds, assassinated Beaton soon after and seized St. Andrews Castle, which they held for a year before they were defeated with the help of French forces; the survivors, including chaplain John Knox, were condemned to serve as galley slaves. Their martyrdom stirred resentment of the French and inspired additional martyrs for the Protestant cause. In 1549, the defeat of the English with French support led to the marriage of Mary to the French dauphin and a regency over Scotland for the queen's mother, Mary of Guise. Limited toleration and the influence of exiled Scots and Protestants in other countries, led to the expansion of Protestantism, with a group of lairds declaring themselves Lords of the Congregation in 1557 and representing Protestant interests politically; the collapse of the French alliance and the death of the regent, followed by English intervention in 1560, meant that a small but influential group of Protestants had the power to impose reform on the Scottish church.
The Scottish Reformation Parliament of 1560 approved a Protestant confession of faith, rejecting papal jurisdiction and the Mass. Knox, having escaped the galleys and having spent time in Geneva, where he became a follower of Calvin, emerged as the most significant figure; the Calvinism of the reformers led by Knox resulted in a settlement that adopted a Presbyterian system and rejected most of the elaborate trappings of the Medieval church. When her husband Francis II died in 1560, the Catholic Mary returned to Scotland to take up the government, her six-year personal reign was marred by a series of crises caused by the intrigues and rivalries of the leading nobles. Opposition to her third husband Bothwell led to the formation of a coalition of nobles, who captured Mary and forced her abdicate in favour of her son, who came to the throne as James VI in 1567. James resisted Presbyterianism and the independence of the Kirk; the Reformation resulted in major changes in Scottish society. These included a desire to plant a school in every parish and major reforms of the university system.
The Kirk discouraged many forms of plays, as well as poetry, not devotional in nature. Scotland's ecclesiastical art paid a heavy toll as a result of Reformation iconoclasm. Native craftsmen and artists turned to secular patrons, resulting in the flourishing of Scottish Renaissance painted ceilings and walls; the Reformation revolutionised church architecture, with new churches built and existing churches adapted for reformed services by placing the pulpit centrally in the church, as preaching was at the centre of worship. The Reformation had a severe impact on church music, with song schools closed down, choirs disbanded, music books and manuscripts destroyed, organs removed from churches; these were replaced by the congregational singing of psalms, despite attempts of James VI to refound the song schools and choral singing. Women gained new educational possibilities and religion played a major part in the lives of many women, but women were treated as criminals through prosecutions for scolding and witchcraft.
Scottish Protestantism was focused on the Bible, starting in the seventeenth century there would be efforts to stamp out popular activities viewed as superstitous or frivolous. The Kirk became the subject of many Scots saw their country as a new Israel. Christianity spread in Scotland from the sixth century, with evangelisation by Irish-Scots missionaries and, to a lesser extent, those from Rome and England; the church in Scotland attained clear independence from England after the Papal Bull of Celestine III, by which all Scottish bishoprics except Galloway became formally independent of York and Canterbury. The whole Ecclesia Scoticana, with individual Scottish bishoprics, became the "special daughter of the see of Rome", it was run by special councils made up of all the Scottish bishops, with the bishop of St Andrews emerging as the most important figure. The administration of parishes was given over to local monastic institutions in a process known as appropriation. By the time of the Reformation in the mid-sixteenth century 80 per cent of Scottish parishes were appropriated, leaving few resources for t
The Bohemian Reformation, preceding the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century, was a Christian movement in the late medieval and early modern Kingdom and Crown of Bohemia striving for a reform of the Roman Catholic Church. Lasting for more than 200 years, it had a significant impact on the historical development of Central Europe and is considered one of the most important religious, social and political movements of the early modern period; the Bohemian Reformation produced the first national church separate from Roman authority, the first apocalyptic religious movement of the early modern period, the first pacifist Protestant church. The Bohemian Reformation was not an internally unified movement and did not remain immutable. Although it split into many groups, some characteristics were shared by all of them – communion under both kinds, distaste for the wealth and power of the church, emphasis on the Bible preached in a vernacular language and on an immediate relationship between man and God.
The Bohemian Reformation included the efforts to reform the church before Hus, the Hussite movement, the Unity of the Brethren and Utraquists or Calixtines. Together with the Waldensians and the Lollards, the Bohemian Reformation's Hussite movement is considered to be the precursor to the Protestant Reformation; these movements are sometimes referred to as the First Reformation in the Czech historiography. Despite the influence of the German and Swiss Reformations, the Bohemian Reformation did not bleed into them, although many Czech Utraquists grew closer and closer to the Lutherans; the Bohemian Reformation kept its own development until the suppression of the Bohemian Revolt in 1620. The victorious restored King Ferdinand II decided to force every inhabitant of Bohemia and Moravia to become Roman Catholic in accordance with the principle cuius regio, eius religio of the Peace of Augsburg; the Bohemian Reformation ended up being diffused in the Protestant world and lost its distinctiveness.
The Patent of Toleration issued in 1781 by Emperor Joseph II did not lead to a restoration of the Bohemian Reformation. Joseph II did not respect the Bohemian religious tradition and therefore only Lutheran and Eastern Orthodox faiths were made legal in the Crown of Bohemia and other parts of his realm. In spite of the extinction of the Bohemian Reformation as a distinctive Christian movement, its tradition did not disappear. Many churches do not forget their legacy, refer to the Bohemian Reformation and try to continue its tradition, e. g. the Moravian Church, Protestant Church of Czech Brethren, Czechoslovak Hussite Church, Church of Brethren, Unity of Brethren Baptists and other denominations. The Bohemian Reformation started in Prague in the second half of the 14th century. In that time Prague was not only the seat of the King of Bohemia but that of the Holy Roman Emperor. Prague was one of Europe's largest cities and after Avignon and Paris was the city with the highest concentration of clergy in Western Christendom.
The beginnings of the Bohemian Reformation were related to the criticism of the lavish lifestyle of many priests. In the late 1370s and early 1380s the Prague university theologians and intellectuals called for the reform of the decadent priesthood in the spirit of emerging conciliarism, for education of unsatisfactorily educated priests, for more frequent accepting of the Eucharist in the spirit of Devotio Moderna; the most significant representatives of the university reform movement were Henry of Bitterfeld and Matthew of Cracow. Apart from the university theologians there were reform preachers, such as Conrad Waldhauser, an Austrian Augustinian from a monastery in Waldhausen who preached in the Old Town of Prague in German and Latin against simony and low morals. Another influential preacher was Milíč of Kroměříž who preached in Latin and German, he helped many prostitutes to begin a new life. He served the Eucharist daily, uncommon because the laymen took communion only once a year; this practice of frequent communion became popular.
Although it was unique elsewhere in Europe, it became usual in Bohemia until the end of the 14th century. The matter of the Eucharist became crucial for the nascent Bohemian Reformation and in the 1410s communion under both kinds and infant communion were introduced into Bohemian liturgical practice. Matthias of Janov who studied at the University of Prague and at the University of Paris wrote Regulae Veteris et Novi Testamenti, an essential book of the early Bohemian Reformation movement; the Bible was the only reliable authority in all matters of faith for him and only sincere followers of Christ were true Christians in his opinion. The complete translation of the Bible into Czech in the mid-14th century contributed to the origin of the Bohemian Reformation. After French and Italian the Czech language became the third modern European language in which the whole Bible was translated; the best-known representative of the Bohemian Reformation is Jan Hus. He was an influential university teacher and a popular preacher in Bethlehem Chapel in the Old Town of Prague.
The chapel was founded in 1391 in the spirit of the nascent Bohemian Reformation. It was intended for sermons
The Counter-Reformation called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence, initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation. It began with the Council of Trent and ended with the 1781 Patent of Toleration, although smaller expulsions of Protestants continued into the 19th century. Initiated to preserve the power and material wealth enjoyed by the Catholic Church and to present a theological and material challenge to Reformation, the Counter-Reformation was a comprehensive effort composed of apologetic and polemical documents, ecclesiastical reconfiguration as decreed by the Council of Trent, a series of wars, political maneuvering including the efforts of Imperial Diets of the Holy Roman Empire, exiling of Protestant populations, confiscation of Protestant children for Catholic institutionalized upbringing, heresy trials and the Inquisition, anti-corruption efforts, spiritual movements, the founding of new religious orders; such reforms included the foundation of seminaries for the proper training of priests in the spiritual life and the theological traditions of the church, the reform of religious life by returning orders to their spiritual foundations, new spiritual movements focusing on the devotional life and a personal relationship with Christ, including the Spanish mystics and the French school of spirituality.
It involved political activities that included the Roman Inquisition and the expulsion of hundreds of thousands of Protestants. One primary emphasis of the Counter-Reformation was a mission to reach parts of the world, colonized as predominantly Catholic and try to reconvert areas such as Sweden and England that were at one time Catholic, but had been Protestantized during the Reformation. Various Counter-Reformation theologians focused only on defending doctrinal positions such as the sacraments and pious practices that were attacked by the Protestant reformers, up to the Second Vatican Council in 1962–1965. One of the "most dramatic moments" at that council was the intervention of Belgian Bishop Émile-Joseph De Smed when, during the debate on the nature of the church, he called for an end to the "triumphalism and juridicism" that had typified the church in the previous centuries. Key events of the period include: the Council of Trent; the 1530 Confutatio Augustana was the Catholic response to the Augsburg Confession.
Pope Paul III is considered the first pope of the Counter-Reformation, he initiated the Council of Trent, a commission of cardinals tasked with institutional reform, addressing contentious issues such as corrupt bishops and priests, the sale of indulgences, other financial abuses. The council upheld the basic structure of the medieval church, its sacramental system, religious orders, doctrine, it rejected all compromise with the Protestants. The council upheld salvation appropriated by grace through faith and works of that faith because "faith without works is dead", as the Epistle of James states. Transubstantiation, according to which the consecrated bread and wine are held to have been transformed and into the body, blood and divinity of Christ, was reaffirmed, as were the traditional seven sacraments of the Catholic Church. Other practices that drew the ire of Protestant reformers, such as pilgrimages, the veneration of saints and relics, the use of venerable images and statuary, the veneration of the Virgin Mary were reaffirmed as spiritually commendable practices.
The council, in the Canon of Trent accepted the Vulgate listing of the Old Testament Bible, which included the deuterocanonical works on a par with the 39 books found in the Masoretic Text. This reaffirmed the previous Council of Rome and Synods of Carthage, which had affirmed the Deuterocanon as scripture; the council commissioned the Roman Catechism, which served as authoritative church teaching until the Catechism of the Catholic Church. While the traditional fundamentals of the church were reaffirmed, there were noticeable changes to answer complaints that the Counter-Reformers were, willing to admit were legitimate. Among the conditions to be corrected by Catholic reformers was the growing divide between the clerics and the laity; these rural priests did not know Latin and lacked opportunities for proper theological training. Addressing the education of priests had been a fundamental focus of the humanist reformers in the past. Parish priests were to be better educated in matters of theology and apologetics, while Papal authorities sought to educate the faithful about the meaning and value of art and liturgy in monastic churches