Stephen Bocskai or Bocskay was Prince of Transylvania and Hungary from 1605 to 1606. He was born to a Hungarian noble family, his father's estates were located in the eastern regions of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary, which developed into the Principality of Transylvania in the 1570s. He spent his youth in the court of the Holy Roman Emperor, the ruler of Royal Hungary. Bocskai's career started when his underage nephew, Sigismund Báthory, became the ruler of Transylvania in 1581. After the Diet of Transylvania declared Sigismund of age in 1588, Bocskai was one of the few members of Sigismund's council who supported his plan to join an anti-Ottoman coalition. Sigismund made Bocskai captain of Várad in 1592. After the pro-Ottoman noblemen forced Sigismund to renounce his throne in 1594, Bocskai supported him in his bid to regain it, for which Sigismund rewarded him with estates confiscated from the leaders of the opposition. On Sigismund's behalf Bocskai signed a treaty concerning the membership of Transylvania in the Holy League in Prague on 28 January 1595.
He led the Transylvanian army to Wallachia, occupied by the Ottomans. The Christian troops liberated Wallachia and defeated the retreating Ottoman army in the Battle of Giurgiu on 29 September 1595. After a series of Ottoman victories, Sigismund abdicated in early 1598; the commissioners of Maximilian's successor, took possession of Transylvania and dismissed Bocskai. Bocskai persuaded Sigismund to return, but Sigismund once again abdicated in March 1599; the new prince, Andrew Báthory, confiscated Bocskai's estates in Transylvania proper. Andrew Báthory was dethroned by Michael the Brave of Wallachia. During the following period of anarchy, Bocskai was forced to stay in Prague for several months because Rudolph's officials did not trust him, he rose up against Rudolph after his secret correspondence with the Grand Vizier, Lala Mehmed Pasha, was captured in October 1605. Bocskai defeated Rudolph's military commanders, he expanded his authority over the Partium, Transylvania proper, nearby counties with the support of the local noblemen and burghers, stirred up by Rudolph's tyrannical acts.
Bocskai was elected prince of Transylvania on 21 February 1605, prince of Hungary on 20 April. The Ottomans supported him, but his partisans thought that the Ottomans' intervention threatened the independence of Royal Hungary. To put an end to the civil war and Rudolph's representatives signed the Treaty of Vienna on 23 June 1606. Rudolph acknowledged Bocskai's hereditary right to rule the Principality of Transylvania and four counties in Royal Hungary; the treaty confirmed the Protestant noblemen and burghers' right to practise their religion. In his last will, Bocskai emphasized that only the existence of the Principality of Transylvania could secure the special status of Royal Hungary within the Habsburg Empire. Stephen was the seventh child of György Bocskai and Krisztina Sulyok, his father was a Hungarian nobleman whose inherited estates were located in Bihar and Zemplén Counties. Stephen's mother was related to the influential Héderváry families. One of her two sisters was the wife of István Dobó.
Dobó was made Voivode of Transylvania by Ferdinand I, King of Hungary, in 1553, shortly after Isabella Jagiellon was forced to leave her realm. György Bocskai accompanied Dobó to Transylvania and received new estates in the province from Ferdinand. Stephen was born in Kolozsvár on 1 January 1557. At that time, his father was being held in prison because Isabella Jagiellon had returned and ordered the imprisonment of Ferdinand's supporters. A few months after his son's birth, György Bocskai was released, he and his family settled in Kismarja, the center of his estates in Bihar County. He converted from Catholicism to Calvinism in the 1560s, he died in 1570 or 1571. Stephen Báthory, who succeeded Zápolya in 1571, protected the interests of György Bocskai's orphaned children. At Báthory's request, Ferdinand I's successor, restored to them their father's former estates in Zemplén County; the teenager Stephen Bocskai may have moved to Maximilian's court – it is known that a son of Krisztina Sulyok was living in Vienna in 1571 – but it is certain that he was living in the royal court when his elder brother, died in 1572, because he hurried back to Kismarja from Vienna to console his mother.
He served as a page in the royal court. He received a salary from 1574, he again came back to Kismarja in the summer of 1575 to see his ailing mother and to administer his estates. About a year he returned to Vienna where he was made a steward. After being elected King of Poland in late 1575, Stephen Báthory adopted the title of prince of Transylvania and charged his brother, Christopher Báthory, with the government of the principality. Christopher was the husband of Elisabeth. Maximilian, who had a tolerant attitude towards the ideas of the Reformation, died on 12 October 1576, his devout Catholic son, succeeded him. Before long, Bocskai settled in the Principality of Transylvania, he was not appointed to higher offices during Christopher's rule. He was only made the commander of a troop of 32 horsemen and 20 foot soldiers in Várad; the dying Christopher Báthory appointed Bocskai to the council, set up to administer Transylvania during the minority of the son of Christopher Báthory and Elisabeth Bocskai, Sigismund
A Christogram is a monogram or combination of letters that forms an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, traditionally used as a religious symbol within the Christian Church. One of the oldest Christograms is the Chi-Rho, it consists of the superimposed Greek letters chi and rho, which are the first two letters of Greek χριστός "Christ". It was displayed on the labarum military standard used by Constantine I in AD 312; the IX monogram is a similar form, using the initials of the name Ἰησοῦς Χριστός "Jesus Christ", as is the ΙΗ monogram, using the first two letters of the name Ἰησοῦς "Jesus". There were a considerable number of variants of "Christograms" or monograms of Christ in use during the medieval period, with the boundary between specific monograms and mere scribal abbreviations somewhat fluid; the name Jesus, spelt "ΙΗΣΟΥΣ" in Greek capitals, has the abbreviations IHS, the name Christus, spelt "ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ", has XP. In Eastern Christian tradition, the monogram ΙϹΧϹ is used for Ἰησοῦς Χριστός in both Greek and Cyrillic tradition.
A Middle Latin term for abbreviations of the name of Christ is chrisimus. Middle Latin crismon, chrismon refers to the Chi Rho monogram specifically. In antiquity, the cross, i.e. the instrument of Christ's crucifixion, was taken to be T-shaped, while the X-shape had different connotations. There has been scholarly speculation on the development of the Christian cross, the letter Chi used to abbreviate the name of Christ, the various pre-Christian symbolism associated with the chiasmus interpreted in terms of "the mystery of the pre-existent Christ". In Plato's Timaeus, it is explained that the two bands which form the "world soul" cross each other like the letter chi referring to the ecliptic crossing the celestial equator. Justin Martyr in the 2nd century makes explicit reference to Plato's image in Timaeus in terms of a prefiguration of the Holy Cross. An early statement may be the phrase in Didache, "sign of extension in heaven". An alternate explanation of the intersecting celestial symbol has been advanced by George Latura, claiming that Plato's "visible god" in Timaeus is the intersection of the Milky Way and the Zodiacal Light, a rare apparition important to pagan beliefs.
He said. The most encountered Christogram in English-speaking countries in modern times is the Χ, representing the first letter of the word Christ, in such abbreviations as Xmas and Xian or Xtian; the Alpha and Omega symbols may at times accompany the Chi-Rho monogram. Chrismon since the 17th century has been used as a New Latin term for the Chi Rho monogram; because the chrismon was used as a kind of "invocation" at the beginning of documents of the Merovingian period, the term came to be used of the "cross-signatures" in early medieval charters. Chrismon in this context may refer to the Merovingian period abbreviation I. C. N. for in Christi nomine also I. C. for in Christo, still just C. for Christus. St Cuthbert's coffin has an exceptional realisation of the Christogram written in Anglo-Saxon runes, as ᛁᚻᛋ ᛉᛈᛋ, as it were "IHS XPS", with the chi rendered as the eolh rune and the rho rendered as the p-rune. In the Latin-speaking Christianity of medieval Western Europe, the most common Christogram became "IHS" or "IHC", denoting the first three letters of the Greek name of Jesus, ΙΗΣΟΥΣ, iota-eta-sigma, or ΙΗΣ.
The Greek letter iota is represented by I, the eta by H, while the Greek letter sigma is either in its lunate form, represented by C, or its final form, represented by S. Because the Latin-alphabet letters I and J were not systematically distinguished until the 17th century, "JHS" and "JHC" are equivalent to "IHS" and "IHC". "IHS" is sometimes interpreted as meaning "ΙΗΣΟΥΣ ΗΜΕΤΕΡΟΣ ΣΩΤΗΡ" or in Latin "Jesus Hominum Salvator", or connected with In Hoc Signo. Such interpretations are known as backformed acronyms. Used in Latin since the seventh century, the first use of IHS in an English document dates from the fourteenth century, in the vision of William concerning Piers Plowman. In the 15th century, Saint Bernardino of Siena popularized the use of the three letters on the background of a blazing sun to displace both popular pagan symbols and seals of political factions like the Guelphs and Ghibellines in public spaces; the IHS monogram with the H surmounted by a cross above three nails and surrounded by a Sun is the emblem of the Jesuits, according to tradition introduced by Ignatius of Loyola in 1541.
English-language interpretations of "IHS" have included "In His Service". In Eastern Christianity, the most used Christogram is a four-letter abbreviation, ΙϹ ΧϹ — a traditional abbreviation of the Greek words for "Jesus Christ", written with titlo denoting scribal abbreviation. On icons, this Christogram may be split: "ΙϹ" on "ΧϹ" on the right, it is sometimes rendered as "ΙϹ ΧϹ ΝΙΚΑ", meaning "Jesus Christ Conquers." "ΙϹΧϹ" may be seen inscribed on the Ichthys. In th
Alphonse Laverrière was a Swiss architect. He studied at the École nationale supérieure des beaux-arts and was professor at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich. In 1912, he won a gold medal together with Eugène-Edouard Monod in the art competitions of the Olympic Games, they created a "Building plan of a modern stadium". Between 1922 and 1951, Laverrière designed the Bois-de-Vaux Cemetery at Lausanne and is buried there. Lausanne railway station Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland Cantonal Botanical Museum and Gardens Profile
Roger Williams was a Puritan minister and author who founded the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. He was a staunch advocate for religious freedom, separation of church and state, fair dealings with American Indians, he was one of the first abolitionists. Williams was expelled by the Puritan leaders from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for spreading "new and dangerous ideas", he established the Providence Plantations in 1636 as a refuge offering what he called "liberty of conscience". In 1638, he founded the First Baptist Church in America known as the First Baptist Church of Providence, he studied the Indian languages and wrote the first book on the Narragansett language, he organized the first attempt to prohibit slavery in any of the American colonies. Roger Williams was born in London around 1603, though the exact date is unknown because his birth records were destroyed when St. Sepulchre's Church was burned during the Great Fire of London in 1666, his father James Williams was a merchant tailor in Smithfield and his mother was Alice Pemberton.
Williams had a spiritual conversion at an early age. He was apprenticed as a teen under Sir Edward Coke the famous jurist, he was educated at Charterhouse School under Coke's patronage, at Pembroke College, Cambridge, he seemed to have a gift for languages and early acquired familiarity with Latin, Greek and French. Years he tutored John Milton in Dutch and American Indian languages in exchange for refresher lessons in Hebrew. Williams took holy orders in the Church of England in connection with his studies, but he became a Puritan at Cambridge and thus ruined his chance for preferment in the Anglican church. After graduating from Cambridge, he became the chaplain to Sir William Masham. In April, 1629, he proposed marriage to Jane Whalley, the niece of Lady Joan Barrington, but she declined; that year, he married Mary Bernard, the daughter of Rev. Richard Bernard, a notable Puritan preacher and author, at the Church of High Laver, England, they had six children, all born in America: Mary, Providence, Mercy and Joseph.
Williams knew. He did not join the first wave, but he decided before the year ended that he could not remain in England under Archbishop William Laud's rigorous administration, he regarded the Church of England as corrupt and false, he had arrived at the Separatist position by the time that he and his wife boarded the Lyon in early December, 1630. The Boston church offered Williams a post in 1631 filling in for Rev. John Wilson while Wilson returned to England to fetch his wife. However, Williams declined the position on grounds that it was "an unseparated church". In addition, he asserted that civil magistrates must not punish any sort of "breach of the first table" of the Ten Commandments such as idolatry, Sabbath-breaking, false worship, blasphemy, that individuals should be free to follow their own convictions in religious matters; these three principles became central to his teachings and writings: separatism, liberty of conscience, separation of church and state. As a Separatist, Williams considered the Church of England irredeemably corrupt and believed that one must separate from it to establish a new church for the true and pure worship of God.
The Salem church was inclined to Separatism, they invited him to become their teacher. The leaders in Boston vigorously protested, Salem withdrew its offer; as the summer of 1631 ended, Williams moved to Plymouth Colony where he was welcomed, he informally assisted the minister there. He preached and, according to Governor William Bradford, "his teachings were well approved". After a time, Williams decided that the Plymouth church was not sufficiently separated from the Church of England. Furthermore, his contact with the Narragansett Indians had caused him to question the validity of the colonial charters that did not include legitimate purchase of Indian land. Governor Bradford wrote that Williams fell "into some strange opinions which caused some controversy between the church and him". In December 1632, Williams wrote a lengthy tract that condemned the King's charters and questioned the right of Plymouth to the land without first buying it from the Indians, he charged that King James had uttered a "solemn lie" in claiming that he was the first Christian monarch to have discovered the land.
Williams moved back to Salem by the fall of 1633 and was welcomed by Rev. Samuel Skelton as an unofficial assistant; the Massachusetts Bay authorities were not pleased at Williams' return. In December 1633, they summoned him to appear before the General Court in Boston to defend his tract attacking the King and the charter; the issue was smoothed out, the tract disappeared forever burned. In August 1634, Williams became the Rev. Skelton having died. In March 1635, he was again ordered to appear before the General Court, he was summoned yet again for the Court's July term to answer for "erroneous" and "dangerous opinions"; the Court ordered that he be removed from his church position. This latest controversy welled up as the town of Salem petitioned the General Court to annex some land on Marblehead Neck; the Court refused to consider the request. The church felt that this order violated their independence, sent a letter of protest to the other churches. However, the letter was not read publicly in those churches, the General Court refused to seat the delegates
Gyula Illyés was a Hungarian poet and novelist. He was one of the so-called népi writers, named so because they aimed to show – propelled by strong sociological interest and left-wing convictions – the disadvantageous conditions of their native land, he was born the son of János Illés and Ida Kállay in Tolna County. His father belonged to a rich gentry family, but his mother came from the most deprived segment of society, agricultural servants, he was their third child and spent his first nine years at his birthplace, where he finished his primary school years and when his family moved to Simontornya, he continued his education at grammar schools there and Dombóvár and Bonyhád. In 1926 his parents separated, he moved to the capital with his mother, he continued senior high school at the Budapest Munkácsy Mihály street gimnazium and at the Izabella Street Kereskedelmi school. In 1921 he graduated. From 1918 to 1919 he took part in various left-wing students and youth workers' movements, being present at an attack on Romanian forces in Szolnok during the Hungarian Republic of Councils.
On 22 December 1920 his first poem was published anonymously in the Social Democrat daily Népszava. He began studies at the Budapest University's department of languages studying French. Due to illegal political activities he was forced to escape to Vienna in December that year, moving on to Berlin and the Rhineland in 1922. Illyés arrived in Paris in April that year, he did numerous jobs including as a bookbinder. For a while he studied at the Sorbonne and published his first articles and translations in 1923, he became friends with the French surrealists, among them Paul Éluard, Tristan Tzara and René Crevel. Illyés returned to homeland in 1926 following an amnesty, his main forums of activity became Dokumentum and Munka, periodicals edited by the avant-garde writer and poet Lajos Kassák. Illyés worked for the Phoenix Insurance company from 1927 to 1936, after its bankruptcy he became press referent to the Hungarian National Bank on French agricultural matters, his first critical writing appeared in November 1927 in the review Nyugat – the most distinguished literary magazine of the time –which from 1928 featured his articles and poems.
His first book was published by Nyugat in 1928. He made friends with Attila József, László Németh, Lőrinc Szabó József Erdélyi, János Kodolányi and Péter Veres, at the time the leading talents of his generation. In 1931 he married his first wife, Irma Juvancz, a physical education teacher, whom he divorced. Illyés was invited to the Soviet Union in 1934 to take part in the international writers congress where he met André Malraux and Boris Pasternak. From that year he participated in the editorial work of the review Válasz, the forum of the young "népi" writers, he was one of the founding members of a left-wing and anti-fascist movement. Subsequently, he was invited to the editorial board of Nyugat and became a close friend of its editor, the post-symbolist poet and writer Mihály Babits. During World War II, Illyés was nominated editor-in-chief of Nyugat following the death of Mihály Babits. Having been refused by the authorities to use the name Nyugat for the magazine, he continued to publish the review under a different title: Magyar Csillag.
In 1939 he married Flóra Kozmuta, with whom he had Mária. After the Nazi invasion of Hungary in March 1944, Illyés had to go into hiding along with László Németh, both being labelled anti-Nazi intellectuals, he became a member of the parliament of Hungary in 1945, one of the leaders of the left-wing National Peasant Party. He withdrew from public life in 1947, he was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences from 1945 to 1949. He directed and edited the review Válasz from 1946 to 1949. Although Gyula lived a reclusive life in Tihany and Budapest until the early 1960s, his poetry, theater plays and essays continued to impact Hungarian public and literary life. On 2 November 1956 he published his famous poem of the Hungarian revolution of 1956, not allowed to be republished in Hungary until 1986: "One sentence on tyranny" is a long poem written in 1950. From the early 1960s he continued to express political and moral issues all through his work, but the main themes of his poetry remain love and death.
Active until his death in April 1983, he published poems, dramas and parts of his diary. His work as a translator is considerable, he translated from many languages, French being the most important, but – with the help of rough translations – his volume of translations from the ancient Chinese classics remains a milestone. In his poetry, Illyés was a spokesman for the oppressed peasant class. Typical is "People of the puszta", A puszták népe, 1936, his work is marked by a more open universality, as well as an appeal for national and individual liberty. Nehéz föld Sarjúrendek Három öreg Hősökről beszélek Ifjúság Szálló egek alatt Rend a romokban Külön világban Egy év Szembenézve Két kéz Kézfogások Új versek Dőlt vitorla Fekete-fehér Minden lehet Különös testamentum Közügy Táviratok A Semmi közelit Oroszország Petőfi Puszták népe Magyarok Ki a magyar? Lélek és kenyér Csizma az asztalon Kora tavasz Mint a darvak Hunok Párisban Franciaországi változatok (19
The Reformation was a movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Roman Catholic church – and papal authority in particular. Although the Reformation is considered to have started with the publication of the Ninety-five Theses by Martin Luther in 1517, there was no schism between the Catholics and the nascent Lutheran branch until the 1521 Edict of Worms; the edict condemned Luther and banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas. The end of the Reformation era is disputed: it could be considered to end with the enactment of the confessions of faith which began the Age of Orthodoxy. Other suggested ending years relate to the Counter-Reformation, the Peace of Westphalia, or that it never ended since there are still Protestants today. Movements had been made towards a Reformation prior to Luther, so some Protestants in the tradition of the Radical Reformation prefer to credit the start of the Reformation to reformers such as Arnold of Brescia, Peter Waldo, Jan Hus, Tomáš Štítný ze Štítného, John Wycliffe, Girolamo Savonarola.
Due to the reform efforts of Huss and others in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, Utraquist Hussitism was acknowledged by both the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, although other movements were still subject to persecution, as were the including Lollards in England and Waldensians in Italy and France. Luther began by criticising the sale of indulgences, insisting that the Pope had no authority over purgatory and that the Treasury of Merit had no foundation in the Bible; the Reformation developed further to include a distinction between Law and Gospel, a complete reliance on Scripture as the only source of proper doctrine and the belief that faith in Jesus is the only way to receive God's pardon for sin rather than good works. Although this is considered a Protestant belief, a similar formulation was taught by Molinist and Jansenist Catholics; the priesthood of all believers downplayed the need for saints or priests to serve as mediators, mandatory clerical celibacy was ended. Simul justus et peccator implied that although people could improve, no one could become good enough to earn forgiveness from God.
Sacramental theology was simplified and attempts at imposing Aristotelian epistemology were resisted. Luther and his followers did not see these theological developments as changes; the 1530 Augsburg Confession concluded that "in doctrine and ceremonies nothing has been received on our part against Scripture or the Church Catholic", after the Council of Trent, Martin Chemnitz published the 1565–73 Examination of the Council of Trent in order to prove that Trent innovated on doctrine while the Lutherans were following in the footsteps of the Church Fathers and Apostles. The initial movement in Germany diversified, other reformers arose independently of Luther such as Zwingli in Zürich and Calvin in Geneva. Depending on the country, the Reformation had varying causes and different backgrounds, unfolded differently than in Germany; the spread of Gutenberg's printing press provided the means for the rapid dissemination of religious materials in the vernacular. During Reformation-era confessionalization, Western Christianity adopted different confessions.
Radical Reformers, besides forming communities outside state sanction, sometimes employed more extreme doctrinal change, such as the rejection of the tenets of the councils of Nicaea and Chalcedon with the Unitarians of Transylvania. Anabaptist movements were persecuted following the German Peasants' War. Leaders within the Roman Catholic Church responded with the Counter-Reformation, initiated by the Confutatio Augustana in 1530, the Council of Trent in 1545, the Jesuits in 1540, the Defensio Tridentinæ fidei in 1578, a series of wars and expulsions of Protestants that continued until the 19th century. Northern Europe, with the exception of most of Ireland, came under the influence of Protestantism. Southern Europe remained predominantly Catholic apart from the much-persecuted Waldensians. Central Europe was the site of much of the Thirty Years' War and there were continued expulsions of Protestants in central Europe up to the 19th century. Following World War II, the removal of ethnic Germans to either East Germany or Siberia reduced Protestantism in the Warsaw Pact countries, although some remain today.
Absence of Protestants however, does not imply a failure of the Reformation. Although Protestants were excommunicated and ended up worshipping in communions separate from Catholics contrary to the original intention of the Reformers, they were suppressed and persecuted in most of Europe at one point; as a result, some of them lived as crypto-Protestants called Nicodemites, contrary to the urging of John Calvin who wanted them to live their faith openly. Some crypto-Protestants have been identified as late as the 19th century after immigrating to Latin America; as a result Reformation impulses continued to affect the Latin Church well past the end of what is considered the Reformation era. The oldest Protestant churches, such as the Unitas Fratrum and Moravian Church, date their origins to Jan Hus in the early 15th century; as it was led by a Bohemian noble majority, recognised, for a time, by the Basel Compacts, the Hussite Reformation was Europe's first "Magisterial Reformation" because the ruling magistrates supported it, unlike the "Radical Reformation", which the state did not support.
Common factors that played a role during the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation included the rise of nationalism, the
A statue is a free-standing sculpture in which the realistic, full-length figures of persons or animals or non-representational forms are carved in a durable material like wood, metal, or stone. Typical statues are close to life-size. Statues have been produced in many cultures from prehistory to the present. Statues represent many different people and animals and mythical. Many statues are placed in a public places as public art; the world's tallest statue, Statue of Unity, is 182 metres tall and is located near the Narmada dam in Gujarat, India. Ancient statues survive showing the bare surface of the material of which they are made. For example, many people associate Greek classical art with white marble sculpture, but there is evidence that many statues were painted in bright colors. Most of the color has weathered off over time. A travelling exhibition of 20 coloured replicas of Greek and Roman works, alongside 35 original statues and reliefs, was held in Europe and the United States in 2008: Gods in Color: Painted Sculpture of Classical Antiquity.
Details such as whether the paint was applied in one or two coats, how finely the pigments were ground, or which binding medium would have been used in each case—all elements that would affect the appearance of a finished piece—are not known. Richter goes so far as to say of classical Greek sculpture, "All stone sculpture, whether limestone or marble, was painted, either wholly or in part." Medieval statues were usually painted, with some still retaining their original pigments. The coloring of statues ceased during the Renaissance, as excavated classical sculptures, which had lost their coloring, became regarded as the best models; the Löwenmensch figurine from the Swabian Alps in Germany is the oldest known statue in the world, dates to 30,000-40,000 years ago. The Venus of Hohle Fels, from the same area, is somewhat later. Throughout history, statues have been associated with cult images in many religious traditions, from Ancient Egypt, Ancient India, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome to the present.
Egyptian statues showing kings as sphinxes have existed since the Old Kingdom, the oldest being for Djedefre. The oldest statue of a striding pharaoh dates from the reign of Senwosret I and is the Egyptian Museum, Cairo; the Middle Kingdom of Egypt witnessed the growth of block statues which became the most popular form until the Ptolemaic period. The oldest statue of a deity in Rome was the bronze statue of Ceres in 485 BC; the oldest statue in Rome is now the statue of Diana on the Aventine. The wonders of the world include several statues from antiquity, with the Colossus of Rhodes and the Statue of Zeus at Olympia among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. While Byzantine art flourished in various forms and statue making witnessed a general decline. An example was the statue of Justinian which stood in the square across from the Hagia Sophia until the fall of Constantinople in the 15th century. Part of the decline in statue making in the Byzantine period can be attributed to the mistrust the Church placed in the art form, given that it viewed sculpture in general as a method for making and worshiping idols.
While making statues was not subject to a general ban, it was hardly encouraged in this period. Justinian was one of the last Emperors to have a full-size statue made, secular statues of any size became non-existent after iconoclasm. Starting with the work of Maillol around 1900, the human figures embodied in statues began to move away from the various schools of realism that been followed for thousands of years; the Futurist and Cubist schools took this metamorphism further until statues still nominally representing humans, had lost all but the most rudimentary relationship to the human form. By the 1920s and 1930s statues began to appear that were abstract in design and execution; the notion that the position of the hooves of horses in equestrian statues indicated the rider's cause of death has been disproved. UK Public Monument and Sculpture Association