A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organization and doctrine. Individual bodies, may use alternative terms to describe themselves, such as church or sometimes fellowship. Divisions between one group and another are defined by doctrine. Groups of denominations—often sharing broadly similar beliefs and historical ties—are sometimes known as "branches of Christianity"; these branches differ in many ways through differences in practices and belief. Individual denominations vary in the degree to which they recognize one another. Several groups claim to be the direct and sole authentic successor of the church founded by Jesus Christ in the 1st century AD. Others, believe in denominationalism, where some or all Christian groups are legitimate churches of the same religion regardless of their distinguishing labels and practices; because of this concept, some Christian bodies reject the term "denomination" to describe themselves, to avoid implying equivalency with other churches or denominations.
The Catholic Church which claims 1.2 billion members – over half of all Christians worldwide – does not view itself as a denomination, but as the original pre-denominational church, a view rejected by other Christians. Protestant denominations account for 37 percent of Christians worldwide. Together and Protestantism comprise Western Christianity. Western Christian denominations prevail in Western, Northern and Southern Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas and Oceania; the Eastern Orthodox Church, with an estimated 225–300 million adherents, is the second-largest Christian organization in the world and considers itself the original pre-denominational church. Unlike the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church is itself a communion of independent autocephalous churches that mutually recognize each other to the exclusion of others; the Eastern Orthodox Church, together with Oriental Orthodoxy and the Assyrian Church of the East, constitutes Eastern Christianity. Eastern Christian denominations are represented in Eastern Europe, North Asia, the Middle East, Northeast Africa and South India.
Christians have various doctrines about the Church and about how the divine church corresponds to Christian denominations. Both Catholics and Eastern Orthodox hold that their own organizations faithfully represent the One Holy catholic and Apostolic Church to the exclusion of the other. Sixteenth-century Protestants separated from the Catholic Church because of theologies and practices that they considered to be in violation of their own interpretation. Members of the various denominations acknowledge each other as Christians, at least to the extent that they have mutually recognized baptisms and acknowledge orthodox views including the Divinity of Jesus and doctrines of sin and salvation though doctrinal and ecclesiological obstacles hinder full communion between churches. Since the reforms surrounding the Second Vatican Council of 1962–1965, the Catholic Church has referred to Protestant communities as "denominations", while reserving the term "church" for apostolic churches, including the Eastern Orthodox.
But some non-denominational Christians do not follow any particular branch, though sometimes regarded as Protestants. Each group uses different terminology to discuss their beliefs; this section will discuss the definitions of several terms used throughout the article, before discussing the beliefs themselves in detail in following sections. A denomination within Christianity can be defined as a "recognized autonomous branch of the Christian Church". "Church" as a synonym, refers to a "particular Christian organization with its own clergy and distinctive doctrines". Some traditional and evangelical Protestants draw a distinction between membership in the universal church and fellowship within the local church. Becoming a believer in Christ makes one a member of the universal church; some evangelical groups describe themselves as interdenominational fellowships, partnering with local churches to strengthen evangelical efforts targeting a particular group with specialized needs, such as students or ethnic groups.
A related concept is denominationalism, the belief that some or all Christian groups are legitimate churches of the same religion regardless of their distinguishing labels and practices.. Protestant leaders differ from the views of the leaders of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church, the two largest Christian denominations; each church makes mutually exclusive claims for itself to be t
Anglican Church of Australia
The Anglican Church of Australia is a Christian church in Australia and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion. It is the second largest church in Australia, after the Roman Catholic Church. According to the 2016 census, 3.1 million Australians identify as Anglicans. For much of Australian history, the Church of England was the largest religious denomination, it remains today one of the largest providers of social welfare services in Australia. When the First Fleet was sent to New South Wales in 1787, Richard Johnson of the Church of England was licensed as chaplain to the fleet and the settlement. In 1825 Thomas Scott was appointed Archdeacon of Australia under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Calcutta. William Grant Broughton, who succeeded Scott in 1829, was consecrated the first "Bishop of Australia" in 1836. In early Colonial times, the Church of England clergy worked with the governors. Richard Johnson, a chaplain, was charged by the governor, Arthur Phillip, with improving "public morality" in the colony, but he was heavily involved in health and education.
Samuel Marsden had magisterial duties, so was equated with the authorities by the convicts. He became known as the "flogging parson" for the severity of his punishments; some of the Irish convicts had been transported to Australia for political crimes or social rebellion in Ireland, so the authorities were suspicious of Roman Catholicism for the first three decades of settlement and Roman Catholic convicts were compelled to attend Church of England services and their children and orphans were raised by the authorities as Anglicans. The Church of England lost its legal privileges in the Colony of New South Wales by the Church Act of 1836. Drafted by the reformist attorney-general John Plunkett, the act established legal equality for Anglicans, Roman Catholics and Presbyterians and was extended to Methodists. A mission to the Aborigines was established in the Wellington Valley in New South Wales by the Church Missionary Society in 1832, but it ended in failure and indigenous people in the 19th century demonstrated a reluctance to convert to the religion of the colonists who were seizing their lands.
In 1842 the Diocese of Tasmania was created. In 1847 the rest of the Diocese of Australia was divided into the four separate dioceses of Sydney, Adelaide and Melbourne. Over the following 80 years the number of dioceses increased to 25. Sectarianism in Australia tended to reflect the political inheritance of Ireland; until 1945, the vast majority of Roman Catholics in Australia were of Irish descent, causing the Anglo-Protestant majority to question their loyalty to the British Empire. The Australian Constitution of 1901 provided for freedom of religion. Australian society was predominantly Anglo-Celtic, with 40% of the population being Anglican, it remained the largest Christian denomination until the 1986 census. After World War II, the ethnic and cultural mix of Australia diversified and Anglicanism gave way to Roman Catholicism as the largest denomination; the number of Anglicans attending regular worship began to decline in 1959 and figures for occasional services started to decline after 1966.
In recent times, the Anglican and other Christian churches of Australia have been active in ecumenical activity. The Australian Committee for the World Council of Churches was established in 1946 by the Anglican and mainline Protestant churches; the movement evolved and expanded with Eastern and Oriental Orthodox churches joining and by 1994 the Roman Catholic Church was a member of the national ecumenical body, the National Council of Churches in Australia. Since 1 January 1962 the Australian church has headed by its own primate. On 24 August 1981 the church changed its name from the Church of England in Australia and Tasmania to the Anglican Church of Australia. Although the Book of Common Prayer remains the official standard for Anglican belief and worship in Australia, An Australian Prayer Book was published in 1978 after a prolonged revision of liturgy. Another alternative service book, A Prayer Book for Australia, was published in 1995. In 1985 the general synod of the Australian church passed a canon to allow the ordination of women as deacons.
In 1992 the general synod approved legislation allowing dioceses to ordain women to the priesthood. Dioceses could choose to adopt the legislation. In 1992, 90 women were ordained in the Anglican Church of Australia and two others, ordained overseas were recognised. After decades of debate the issue of women's ordination as bishops, continues to divide traditionalists and reformers within the church; as of November 2013 five dioceses had not ordained women as priests and two had not ordained women as deacons. The most recent diocese to vote in favour of ordaining women as priests was the Ballarat diocese in October 2013. In 2008, Kay Goldsworthy was ordained as an assistant bishop for the Diocese of Perth, thus becoming the first woman consecrated as a bishop of the Anglican Church of Australia. Sarah Macneil was elected in 2013 to be the first female diocesan bishop in Australia. In 2014 she was installed as the first female diocesan bishop in Australia; the church remains a major provider of welfare services in Australia.
It provides chaplains to the Australian Defence Force, schools and prisons. Senior clergy such as Peter Jensen, former Archbishop of Sydney, have a high profile in discussions on a diverse range of social issues in contemporary national debates. In recent times the church has encouraged its leaders to talk on such issues as
Howard West Kilvinton Mowll was the Anglican Archbishop of Sydney from 1933 until his death in 1958. Mowll was born in Dover and attended Dover College until 1903 and matriculated at the King's School, Canterbury; as a staunch evangelical, upon returning from the mission field of China, Mowll experienced early difficulties in a predominantly liberal church before rising to national prominence during the war years. In 1947 he was elected Primate of Australia. One of his final achievements was the purchase of a 60 hectare property at Castle Hill on Sydney’s rural fringes on which the first retirement village in Australia was created in 1958 for missionaries returning from China. Today the site remains the flagship for Anglican Retirement Villages, Diocese of Sydney
The Nicene Creed is a statement of belief used in Christian liturgy. It is called Nicene because it was adopted in the city of Nicaea by the First Council of Nicaea in 325. In 381, it was amended at the First Council of Constantinople, the amended form is referred to as the Nicene or the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed; the Oriental Orthodox and Assyrian churches use this profession of faith with the verbs in the original plural, but the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic churches convert those verbs to the singular. The Anglican and many Protestant denominations use the singular form, sometimes the plural; the earlier Apostles' Creed is used in the Latin West, but not in the Eastern liturgies. On Sundays and solemnities, one of these two creeds is recited in the Roman Rite Mass after the homily; the Nicene Creed is part of the profession of faith required of those undertaking important functions within the Catholic Church. In the Byzantine Rite, the Nicene Creed is sung or recited at the Divine Liturgy preceding the Anaphora, is recited daily at compline.
The purpose of a creed is to provide a doctrinal statement of correct orthodoxy. The creeds of Christianity have been drawn up at times of conflict about doctrine: acceptance or rejection of a creed served to distinguish believers and deniers of particular doctrines. For that reason, a creed was called in Greek a σύμβολον, which meant half of a broken object which, when fitted to the other half, verified the bearer's identity; the Greek word passed through Latin symbolum into English "symbol", which only took on the meaning of an outward sign of something. The Nicene Creed was adopted to resolve the Arian controversy, whose leader, Arius, a clergyman of Alexandria, "objected to Alexander's apparent carelessness in blurring the distinction of nature between the Father and the Son by his emphasis on eternal generation". In reply, Alexander accused Arius of denying the divinity of the Son and of being too "Jewish" and "Greek" in his thought. Alexander and his supporters created the Nicene Creed to clarify the key tenets of the Christian faith in response to the widespread adoption of Arius' doctrine, henceforth marked as heresy.
The Nicene Creed of 325 explicitly affirms the co-essential divinity of the Son, applying to him the term "consubstantial". The 381 version speaks of the Holy Spirit as glorified with the Father and the Son; the Athanasian Creed describes in much greater detail the relationship between Father and Holy Spirit. The earlier Apostles' Creed does not explicitly affirm the divinity of the Son and the Holy Spirit, but in the view of many who use it, this doctrine is implicit in it; the original Nicene Creed was first adopted in 325 at the First Council of Nicaea. At that time, the text ended with the words "We believe in the Holy Spirit", after which various anathemas against Arian propositions were added. F. J. A. Hort and Adolf von Harnack argued that the Nicene creed was the local creed of Caesarea recited in the council by Eusebius of Caesarea, their case relied on a specific interpretation of Eusebius' own account of the Council's proceedings. More recent scholarship has not been convinced by their arguments.
The large number of secondary divergences from the text of the creed quoted by Eusebius make it unlikely that it was used as a starting point by those who drafted the conciliar creed. Their initial text was a local creed from a Syro–Palestinian source into which they awkwardly inserted phrases to define the Nicene theology; the Eusebian Creed may thus have been either a second or one of many nominations for the Nicene Creed. Soon after the Council of Nicaea, new formulae of faith were composed, most of them variations of the Nicene Symbol, to counter new phases of Arianism; the Catholic Encyclopedia identifies at least four before the Council of Sardica, where a new form was presented and inserted in the Acts of the Council, though it was not agreed on. What is known as the "Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed" or the "Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed" received this name because of a belief that it was adopted at the Second Ecumenical Council held in Constantinople in 381 as a modification of the original Nicene Creed of 325.
In that light, it came to be commonly known as the "Nicene Creed". It is the only authoritative ecumenical statement of the Christian faith accepted by the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and the major Protestant denominations, it differs in a number of respects, both by addition and omission, from the creed adopted at the First Council of Nicaea. The most notable difference is the additional section "And in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and Giver-of-Life, who proceedeth from the Father, who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified, who spake by the prophets, and in one, holy and Apostolic Church. We acknowledge one Baptism for the remission of sins, we look for the resurrection of the dead and the life of the world to come. Amen."Since the end of the 19th century, scholars have questioned the traditional explanation of the origin of this creed, passed down in the name of the council, whose official acts have been lost over time. A local council of Constantinople in 382 and the third ecumenical council made no mention of it, with the latter affirming the 325 creed of Nicaea as a valid
Evangelical Anglicanism or evangelical Episcopalianism is a tradition or church party within Anglicanism that shares affinity with broader evangelicalism. Evangelical Anglicans share with other evangelicals the attributes of "conversionism, activism and crucicentrism" identified by historian David Bebbington as central to evangelical identity; the emergence of evangelical churchmanship can be traced back to the First Great Awakening in America and the Evangelical Revival in Britain in the 18th century. In the 20th century, prominent figures have included John Stott and J. I. Packer. In contrast to the high-church party, evangelicals emphasize experiential religion of the heart over the importance of liturgical forms; as a result, evangelicals are described as being low church, but these terms are not always interchangeable because low church can describe individuals or groups that are not evangelical. In contrast to Anglo-Catholics, evangelical Anglicans stress the Reformed, Protestant nature of Anglicanism.
Evangelicals have come from both moderate Calvinist as well as Arminian backgrounds. Evangelicals stress the importance of evangelism. Evangelical Anglicans have been fierce critics of ritualism and sacerdotalism. With respect to baptismal regeneration, evangelicals hold baptism to be "part of a process of regeneration, a step before eventual'rebirth'." Evangelical Anglicans hold a Reformed view of baptism understood in light of covenant theology in which baptism seals or pledges the blessings of the New Covenant to the individual Christian. However, regeneration is not simultaneous with baptism. In the case of infant baptism, the sacrament "signifies and seals to them graces which they still need to receive by faith."Evangelicals maintain a Reformed view of Holy Communion, believing that Christ is spiritually present in the Eucharist, rather than corporeally present. According to this view, known as receptionism, the body and blood of Christ are received spiritually by faith. Evangelicalism emerged from the religious revivals of the 18th century.
While previous movements in the Church of England had revolved around issues of church order and authority, evangelicals stressed lifestyle and conduct. Evangelicals emphasized domestic religion family prayer. Evangelical concern for the moral reform of society manifested itself in large scale support for missions, charitable societies for the poor, the formation of the Society for the Suppression of Vice, it was demonstrated by political campaigns in the British Parliament, the most important being the movement to abolish slavery led by William Wilberforce. Wilberforce was a prominent figure in a network of evangelical social reformers nicknamed the Clapham Sect. Charles Simeon was the most influential leader of evangelical Anglicanism, he established a fund that became a major source of evangelical patronage. By the time of his death, the Trust controlled the livings of 42 churches, including Bath Abbey, he helped to found the Church Missionary Society in 1799, meant to be an evangelical alternative to the high-church Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts.
The society sponsored mission work in India and Australia. In 1804, the British and Foreign Bible Society was founded to provide Bibles in different languages to accompany the missionary work. Nineteenth-century evangelicals were fascinated with biblical prophecy as it related to future events, they promoted Christian Zionism, the belief in the restoration of the Jews to Palestine; the London Society for Promotion of Christianity Amongst the Jews was created in 1809. In the 1830s, the 7th Earl of Shaftesbury, a leading evangelical, helped persuade Lord Palmerston, the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, to sponsor Jewish settlement. In 1841, Edward Bickersteth published The Restoration of the Jews to Their Own Land and the Final Blessedness of the Earth; the first evangelical bishop, Henry Ryder, was appointed to Gloucester in 1815 by the Earl of Liverpool after initial objections that he was a "religious bishop". The second evangelical bishop, Charles Sumner, Bishop of Winchester, was not appointed until 1826, over ten years later.
His brother John became Bishop of Chester and was elevated to Archbishop of Canterbury in 1848. The number of evangelical bishops grew afterwards during Lord Palmerston's time as Prime Minister since he relied on Shaftesbury's advice when making appointments. In the latter half of the 19th century, the leading evangelical was J. C. Ryle, first Bishop of Liverpool. Ryle helped to found evangelical theological institutions such as Wycliffe Hall at the University of Oxford and Ridley Hall as alternatives to the diocesan-run colleges, which by this time were dominated by the ritualists. Evangelical insistence on the necessity of conversion provoked controversy within the Church of England over the doctrine of baptismal regeneration. Evangelicals rejected this doctrine, a position summarized by the Bishop of Winchester, who wrote, "I must look, notwithstanding his baptism, for the Scriptural evidence of his being a child of God." The controversy came to a head in the late 1840s in. In 1847, Henry Phillpotts, Bishop of Exeter, refused to induct George Cornelius Gorham as vicar of a parish in Devon on the grounds that Gorham did not believe in baptismal regeneration.
Gorham appealed the case all the way to the Privy Council, which in 1850 ruled in Gorham's favour. From the 1870s into the early 20t
Anglican Diocese of Sydney
The Diocese of Sydney is a diocese within the Province of New South Wales of the Anglican Church of Australia. The majority of the diocese is low church in tradition; the diocese goes as far as Lithgow in the west and the Hawkesbury River in the north, it includes much of the New South Wales south coast. It encompasses Australia's largest city as well as the city of Wollongong, it is, among the larger Anglican dioceses in the world, though the smallest diocese in the state of New South Wales and one of the smaller dioceses in Australia. Glenn Davies, an assistant bishop of the diocese, was elected at a synod on 6 August 2013 as the Archbishop of Sydney; the Anglican ministry has been present in Sydney since its foundation in 1788. An Evangelical cleric, Richard Johnson, was the first chaplain to the new colony of New South Wales and was sponsored by the London Missionary Society. Other chaplains, notably Samuel Marsden and William Cowper, were sent, their positions were unusual as their stipends were paid by the colonial government and some received large grants of land from the governor of the colony.
Some were magistrates. The early chaplains were under the authority of the governor, as per their commissions. In 1825 Thomas Hobbes Scott the former secretary to J. T. Bigge, the commissioner of the inquiry into the administration of the colony of New South Wales by Governor Lachlan Macquarie, was appointed the first Archdeacon of Australia while still under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Calcutta; the archdeaconry was created as a corporation sole. In his position as archdeacon, Scott was a member of the Legislative Council and had complete control of all church matters; the Colonial Office appointed him King's Visitor to schools and so he became responsible for public education throughout the colony. His educational policy was guided by the principle that the church and education were inseparably connected and the funds to sustain them were administered by the same trustees. Since this view was shared by the Colonial Office, the Governor Bathurst, in March 1826, created the Corporation of the Trustees of Church and School Lands, granting one-seventh of the lands of New South Wales to the corporation for the purposes of the Church of England and education in the colony.
Scott became the ex officio Vice-President It was the combination of Archdeacon Scott's official positions as a member of the Legislative Council, as King's Visitor and as Vice-President of the Corporation of Church and School Lands and of the substantial nature of the granting of the lands to the Corporation that led to Courts holding that at this time the Church of England was the established church in the Colony of New South Wales. Scott was succeeded by William Grant Broughton. Scott was shipwrecked while returning to England and assisted the Anglican ministry in the new colony of Western Australia and in establishing a Church of England chaplaincy in Batavia in the Dutch East Indies. William Grant Broughton succeeded Scott in 1828. During the time that Broughton was the archdeacon the corporation was abolished and the Church of England lost its favoured place and other Christian churches were awarded glebe land in towns in the colony; the Diocese of Australia was formed by letters patent dated 18 January 1836 and Broughton was enthroned as Bishop of Australia on 5 June 1836.
He lost the ex officio position on the Legislative Council. He established The King's School, Sydney; the Diocese of Tasmania separated from the Diocese of Australia in 1842. By letters patent of 25 June 1847, the Diocese of Australia was divided into the four separate dioceses of Sydney, Adelaide and Melbourne. Broughton remained as Bishop of Sydney; the Diocese of Sydney has been led by an archbishop since 1897. The diocese relied upon priests and bishops who were trained in and had migrated from England and Ireland. Broughton had attempted to found a theological college but it closed in 1849. In 1856, Moore Theological College opened, the official theological college for Sydney Anglicans. Since that time it has grown in stature. In 2006 it had in excess of 450 students, many of whom end up in ministry outside the ecclesiastical and geographical boundaries of the Sydney diocese. Since the beginning of the 20th century, Evangelicals within the diocese were concerned about growing Anglo-Catholicism and Modernism within the church and fought hard to preserve Sydney's Evangelical nature—especially as Tractarian clergy had started arriving from England in the 19th century.
Out of this came the Anglican Church League, a body of Evangelicals who worked in the politics of the diocese to further the Evangelical cause. All bishops and most senior officeholders in the diocese are members of the Anglican Church League. In response to the dominance of Evangelicalism and Calvinism in the diocese, a number of other Anglicans and parishes identified with different Anglican traditions of churchmanship, such as Anglo-Catholicism and Broad Church, have joined in the formation of an organisation called Anglicans Together; the organisation supports traditional forms of Anglican liturgy, such as the Book of Common Prayer, as well as encouraging a broader spectrum of theological perspective. Members of Anglicans Together
Jesmond Parish Church
Jesmond Parish Church is a parish church in the Church of England situated in Brandling Village in the Jesmond suburb of Newcastle upon Tyne, England. The church's official name is the Clayton Memorial Church and is unusual among Anglican parish churches in not being named after either a saint who appears in the church's calendar or a person of the Trinity; this reflects the church's conservative Evangelical roots. The church had a unusual beginning. 1856 saw the death of the Revd Richard Clayton, Master of St Thomas' Church in Haymarket and a local Evangelical luminary. In his place the church authorities wished to appoint a high church successor, out of sympathy with Clayton's Reformed Evangelical principles. A large number of the congregation of St Thomas's were unhappy. A committee was formed with the intention of planting a new church nearby, which "will form a central point for the maintenance and promulgation of sound scriptural and evangelical truth in a large and populous town." At the time, much of the land around the site was open fields.
1861-1882 Canon Berkeley Addison 1882-1888 Canon Somerset Pennefather 1889-1894 Theodore Charles Chapman 1894-1897 Edwin Savage 1898-1907 Canon Thomas Brocas Waters 1907-1916 Canon James Inskip 1916-1927 Canon George Oakley 1927-1947 Canon George Goddard 1947-1959 Harry Bates 1960-1972 Roger Frith 1973–present David Holloway The church houses a pipe organ by the notable builder James Jepson Binns of Leeds which dates from 1913. It contains pipework from an organ by T. C. Lewis of 1895. A specification of the organ can be found on the National Pipe Organ Register. Charles Chambers 1882-1890 John Murray 1890 -???? Claud H. Hill J. E. Hutchinson 1903- 947 George Henry Sutcliffe 1947-1978 -???? Chris Foy Chris Edwards 1996-2011 Clifford Harker 1928-1930 Graham Steed 1934-1941 Miles Cragg 2006-Present Jesmond Parish Church is a conservative evangelical Anglican church of 1,100 people; the leadership team of the church includes David Holloway, Jonathan Pryke, Jonathan Redfearn, Ian Garrett and Alan Munden.
The church is noted for its preaching, which aims to be evangelistic. Liturgically the church is conservative, adopting the north side position at services of Holy Communion. ASB Rite A is used. Services of Morning and Evening Prayer are based on the Series 3 forms. Hymns are from Hymns for Today's Church, published by the evangelical Anglican "Jubilate" group; the church has a close relationship with the Christian Institute whose national headquarters are in Newcastle. David Holloway is a prominent member of the institute. Both organisations take a strong stance against homosexual practice, in more recent times in relation to the legislation on civil partnerships, which has led to the church's services being picketed on a number of occasions by gay rights activists. In October 1999 the church was vandalised with graffiti opposing the church's stance on human sexuality. Jesmond Parish Church is a member of Reform, a network of evangelical churches within the Church of England which includes some of the largest Anglican churches in UK.
Other churches with similar theology include: St Andrew The Great, Cambridge St Ebbe's, Oxford St Helen's Bishopsgate Christ Church, SheffieldOn 2 May 2017, Jonathan Pryke, a minister of Jesmond Parish Church, was consecrated a bishop by Glenn Lyons, the Presiding Bishop of the Reformed Evangelical Anglican Church of South Africa. This was controversial due to REACH-SA's status outside of the Anglican Communion, because the consecration occurred "without the knowledge of the diocese or its Bishop". A Light in a Dark Place by Alan Munden is a history of the church. Jesmond Parish Church website Clayton.tv website