The United States Refugee Act of 1980 is an amendment to the earlier Immigration and Nationality Act and the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act, was created to provide a permanent and systematic procedure for the admission to the United States of refugees of special humanitarian concern to the U. S. and to provide comprehensive and uniform provisions for the effective resettlement and absorption of those refugees who are admitted. The act was completed on March 3, 1980, was signed by President Jimmy Carter on March 17, 1980 and became effective on April 1, 1980; this was the first comprehensive amendment of U. S. general immigration laws designed to face up to the realities of modern refugee situations by stating a clear-cut national policy and providing a flexible mechanism to meet the shifting developments of today's world policy. The main objectives of the act were to create a new definition of refugee based on the one created at the UN Convention and Protocol on the Status of Refugees, raise the limitation from 17,400 to 50,000 refugees admitted each fiscal year, provide emergency procedures for when that number exceeds 50,000, to establish the Office of U.
S. Coordinator for Refugee Affairs and the Office of Refugee Resettlement. Most important, it established explicit procedures on how to deal with refugees in the U. S. by creating a uniform and effective resettlement and absorption policy. The Act recognizes that it has been the historic policy of the United States to respond to the urgent needs of persons subject to persecution in their homelands and to provide assistance and resettlement opportunities to admitted refugees; the goal of the Refugee Act was to create a uniform procedure with which to provide these opportunities to refugees. The Act amended the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 by defining a refugee as any person, outside his or her country of residence or nationality, or without nationality, is unable or unwilling to return to, is unable or unwilling to avail himself or herself of the protection of, that country because of persecution or a well-founded fear of persecution on account of race, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion.
The annual admission of refugees is set to a 50,000 cap per fiscal year, but in an emergency situation, the President may change the number for a period of twelve months. The Attorney General is granted power to admit additional refugees and grant asylum to current aliens, but all admissions must be reported to Congress and be limited to 5,000 people; the Act created the position of U. S. Coordinator for Refugee Affairs, now responsible to the president for the development of overall US refugee admission and resettlement policy. Title IV of the Immigration and Nationality Act was amended here when the Act created the Office of Refugee Resettlement, responsible for funding and administering federal programs for domestic resettlement and assistance to refugees; the office must make available resources for employment training and placement for refugees to be economically self-sufficient, provide opportunities for English language training, ensure cash assistance, guarantee gender equality in all training and instruction.
The Office must create grants for these projects, consult with state and local governments about sponsorship and distribution of refugees, develop a system to monitor the use of government funds using evaluations and data collection. To receive assistance for programs, the States must first explain how they plan to accomplish the goals of these programs, meet the director's standards, submit a report at the end of each fiscal year; the Secretary of State was authorized to take on the role from 1980 to 1981, the new director worked with them to develop and implement programs for existing refugees and took up the position from 1982 onward. The director must submit a congressional report at the end of each fiscal year to committees on the Judiciary of the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate; the reports should contain information on the geographic location, employment status, problems of the refugees and contain suggestions for alternative resettlement strategies.
The Office was authorized $200,000,000 during 1980 and 1981, that number is now decided at the beginning of each fiscal year based on the results received at the end of each year. It was only after World War II that the United States began to differentiate the term "refugee" from "immigrant" and began creating policy that dealt with refugees while working outside of immigration policy. Early action came in the form of the Displaced Persons Act of 1948, the Refugee Relief Act of 1953, the Refugee-Escapee Act of 1957; the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, amended in 1965 to include policy for refugees on a case by case basis, was the first Act that consolidated U. S. immigration policy into one body of text. The creation of the Refugee Act began with hearings by the United States Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on Immigration and Border Security from 1965 to 1968, which recommended for Congress create a uniform system for refugees, but received little support. Edward Kennedy began writing to propose a bill to reform refugee policy in 1978 and first introduced the idea to the United States Senate in 1979.
With his proposal, he hoped to address the need for a reformed policy, not designed for people from communist regimes in Eastern Europe or repressive governments in the Middle East, as it was in the past. At the time, there was an average of 200,000 refugees coming to the United States, most of which were Indochinese and Soviet Jews; the cost of resettlement was close to $4000, but most refug
Louisiana's 11th State Senate district is one of 39 districts in the Louisiana State Senate. It has been represented by Republican Senator Patrick McMath since 2020. District 11 covers northern parts of Greater New Orleans in St. Tammany and Tangipahoa Parishes along Lake Pontchartrain, including some or all of Lacombe, Covington, Abita Springs, Hammond; the district overlaps with U. S. congressional districts 1 and 5, with Louisiana House of Representatives districts 73, 74, 77, 86, 89, 104. Louisiana uses a jungle primary system. If no candidate receives 50% in the first round of voting, when all candidates appear on the same ballot regardless of party, the top-two finishers advance to a runoff election
Johar Mehmood in Hong Kong is a 1971 Bollywood comedy film directed by S. A. Akbar; the film stars I. S. Johar. Johar Mehmood in Hong Kong is an intelligence satire, the basic of all I. S. Johar films, in which it is left to the viewer how he interprets the scenes with laughter or introspection; the film is the story of two conmen and Mahesh, whose only life purposes are to make the most money by cheating and theft. They land in the hands of a high-profile Portuguese dictator, who wants to blow up India with the formula of an atomic bomb, a Nuclear weapon developed by a scientist of Hong Kong, killed along with his daughter by high treasonous thieves in the hope of securing the formula, however, the scientist has secured in a safe deposit locker in the Bank of Hong Kong. Coincidentally, the scientist's daughter is a look-alike of a girl called Ms. Sonia / Usha Roy, who the dictator wants to act as the deceased patriotic daughter, go to the bank using her identity and take out the formula, to be secured by him, misused against India.
For this, he makes Mr. Pran, his CID officer to be close to Sonia as her engaged partner, after she wins the Beauty contest of Miss Bombay, he orders another of his cronies, Ramayan Tiwari, to pursue Ramesh and Mahesh, that they should become the love interests of Sonia, so that she could be brought to Hong Kong on some pretext or the other. The story takes a turn when Mahesh falls in love with Sonia, while posing as a blind man, out to win her sympathies, but not before she realizes the truth and is hurt, that he tried to cheat her as a blind man. Repentant Ramesh and Mahesh now becoming patriotic, decide to go to Hong Kong with Sonia and catch the culprits who want to inflict such drastic harm to India. How they manage to do this is a hilarious masterpiece, which can be understood only after watching the movie! Mehmood as Mahesh / Ms. Dhanwanti / Panditji I. S. Johar as Ramesh / Prince Of Pagdandi / Sheikh Nek Sirat / Dr. Eyewalla Sonia Sahni as Ms. Sonia / Usha Roy Aruna Irani Pran as Mr. Pran Kamal Kapoor as Boss Tun Tun as Sonia's Aunt Murad Ramayan Tiwari as Tiwari Manorama Agha Madhumati Mehmood Jr. Haroon Polson Raj Kishore Composed by Kalyanji-Anandi with assistants Laxmikant-Pyarelal.
"He Mai Jab Jab Pir Padi, O Ambe Mayyaa" - Mohammed Rafi, Mukesh "Nathaniya Haale To Bada Maza" - Shamshad Begum "Jalati Hai Duniyaa, Pyaar Ki Gaadi Chalati Rahe" - Mukesh, Usha Khanna "Tumhare Dil Ko Ulfat Ka" - Usha Timothy, Laxmi Shankar "Mehbooba Mehbooba Mehbooba" - Mohammed Rafi "Balam Calcutta Pahunch Gaye" - Asha Bhosle, Usha Mangeshkar "Tu Jane Ya Na Jane Tum Jaoge Jahan" - Mohammed Rafi, Manna DeyThe song "Mehbooba Mehbooba Mehbooba" is picturised on Jr. Mehmood in this film, but the original song is from "Sadhu Aur Shaitan and picturised on Mehmood and Bharathi. Johar Mehmood in Hong Kong on IMDb YouTube
Gregorio de Laferrère is a city in the La Matanza Partido of Buenos Aires Province. The site of cattle ranches and part of the county seat of San Justo from 1858, the city was established as a real estate development on May 4, 1911, by playwright Gregorio de Laferrère, Honorio Luque, Dr. Pedro Luro; the latter partner, a prominent area physician, had earlier developed what became the Villa Luro section of Buenos Aires. The location was chosen for a station installed by the Buenos Aires and Pacific Railway, by 1913, the first twenty chalets had been sold; the settlement had, by been renamed for La Ferrère, who had died that year. The effects of World War I on the local economy slowed the town's progress, though it resumed with the establishment of the first civic institutions in 1922; the community grew in its initial decades due to recurring flooding from the Río Matanza, east of the town. The growth of manufacturing in the county around San Justo and other points north of Laferrère, during the 1940s made the town a primary destination for migrants from the underdeveloped north of the country, thousands of lots were auctioned from 1949 onwards.
The first parish and the first local football club, Deportivo Laferrere, were established in 1956. The new parish priest, Monsignor Leopoldo López May, founded a local institution of higher learning in 1958; the city had grown to nearly 70,000 inhabitants by 1970, outstripping public road and water and sanitation systems in its outlying areas. Laferrère was declared a city by the Provincial Legislature on September 18, 1973, it surpassed the county seat, San Justo, in population, by 1980, with nearly 120,000 people, became the largest municipality in La Matanza County, as well as the fourth-largest in Greater Buenos Aires. Located near the southwestern edge of the metro area, Laferrère remains, with its neighboring communities of Isidro Casanova, González Catán, Rafael Castillo, among the most economically disadvantaged urban areas in the country, continues to suffer from inadequate infrastructure
An amphidromic point called a tidal node, is a geographical location which has zero tidal amplitude for one harmonic constituent of the tide. The tidal range for that harmonic constituent increases with distance from this point; the term amphidromic point derives from the Greek words amphi and dromos, referring to the rotary tides running around them. Amphidromic points occur because the Coriolis effect and interference within oceanic basins and bays creates a wave pattern — called an amphidromic system — which rotates around the amphidromic point. At the amphidromic points of the dominant tidal constituent, there is no vertical movement from tidal action. There can be tidal currents since the water levels on either side of the amphidromic point are not the same. A separate amphidromic system is created by each periodic tidal component. In most locations the "principal lunar semi-diurnal", known as M2, is the largest tidal constituent, with an amplitude of half of the full tidal range. Having cotidal points means they reach high tide at the same time and low tide at the same time.
In the accompanying figure, the low tide leads by 1 hr 2 min from its neighboring lines. Where the lines meet are amphidromes, the tide rotates around them. Based on the accompanying figure, the set of clockwise amphidromic points includes: north of the Seychelles near Enderby Land off Perth east of New Guinea south of Easter Island west of the Galapagos Islands north of Queen Maud LandCounterclockwise amphidromic points include: near Sri Lanka north of New Guinea at Tahiti between Mexico and Hawaii near the Leeward Islands east of Newfoundland midway between Rio de Janeiro and Angola east of IcelandThe islands of Madagascar and New Zealand are amphidromic points in the sense that the tide goes around them in about 12 and a half hours, but the amplitude of the tides on their coasts is in some places large. Kelvin wave Tides Theory of tides
The Best of Fritz Leiber is a collection of short stories by American writer Fritz Leiber. It was first published in the United Kingdom by Sphere Books in paperback in May 1974, in the United States in hardcover by Doubleday in June 1974; the Sphere edition was reprinted in June 1977, the Ballantine edition in September 1979. The collection contains short stories; the British and American editions differ from each other. The former credits Angus Wells as editor. Both contain the same stories, but the British edition arranges these chronologically in the order of their original publication, while the American edition presents the novelette "Gonna Roll the Bones" first, out of its chronological order; the British edition includes an introduction by the author and a bibliography of his published books as of 1973. The stories were published in the magazines Astounding Science Fiction for April 1944, February 1945, October 1950 and March 1958, Fantastic Adventures for September 1950, Galaxy Science Fiction for November 1950, July 1951, December 1951 and October 1965, Thrilling Wonder Stories for June 1952, The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction for January 1953, October 1957, April 1958, May 1958, December 1958 and March 1962, Fantastic Science Fiction Stories for February 1960, the collection Night's Black Agents, the anthologies Star Science Fiction Stories, Star Science Fiction Stories No.
4, Dangerous Visions, The Year 2000. The book won the 1975 Locus Poll Award for Best Single Author Collection; the story "Gonna Roll the Bones" won both the 1967 Nebula Award and the 1968 Hugo Award for Best Novelette. As of July 5, 2009, Night Shade Press was planning a new Leiber collection to be issued under the same title, but covering the whole of his writing career through his death in 1992. Publication was projected for 2010; the Best of Fritz Leiber title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Fantastic Fiction entry