Aransas National Wildlife Refuge
Aransas National Wildlife Refuge is a 114,657 acre protected area situated on the southwest side of San Antonio Bay along the Gulf Coast of the U. S. state of Texas. It is located in parts of Aransas and Calhoun counties; the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge was established by Executive Order 7784 on 31 December 1937 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt as the Aransas Migratory Waterfowl Refuge as a refuge and breeding ground for migratory birds and other wildlife. Roosevelt issued a proclamation in 1940 changing the name to the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge. In October 1938, Civilian Conservation Corps Company 880 established camp south of Texas, they built roads, ditches and the residence facilities for the refuge. They constructed part of the spillway for Burgentine Lake, which serves as a major resting area for migratory waterfowl, they graded the road to Austwell. Bird life includes ducks, egrets, roseate spoonbills, the endangered whooping crane, whose population has recovered since the 1940s.
Other fauna include American alligators, collared peccaries and bobcats, which inhabit the refuge's grasslands, blackjack oak thickets, freshwater ponds, marshes. Great Texas Coastal Birding Trail Wildlife refuge McNulty, The Wildlife Stories of Faith McNulty, Chap.6 "The Whooping Crane", Doubleday 1980. Much of her account deals with the work of Robert Porter Allen; this article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Media related to Aransas National Wildlife Refuge at Wikimedia Commons U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service: official Aransas National Wildlife Refuge website Wildtexas.com: Review of Aransas NWR
Aransas County, Texas
Aransas County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 23,158, its county seat is Rockport. The county was organized the following year, it was named for a Spanish outpost in early Texas. Aransas County is part of the Corpus Christi Metropolitan Statistical Area. Aransas County was formed in 1871 from portions of Refugio County, it was named after a Spanish outpost in early Texas. The first European to see this land was Alonso Álvarez de Pineda, who sailed along the coast of Texas in the summer of 1519 and who discovered the Aransas Bay. Hurricane Harvey caused tremendous damage to the county in August 2017. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 528 square miles, of which 252 square miles is land and 276 square miles is water. Calhoun County Gulf of Mexico Nueces County San Patricio County Refugio County Aransas National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 22,497 people, 9,132 households, 6,401 families residing in the county.
The population density was 89 people per square mile. There were 12,848 housing units at an average density of 51 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 87.44% White, 1.43% Black or African American, 0.58% Native American, 2.77% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 5.33% from other races, 2.39% from two or more races. 20.32% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 9,132 households out of which 27.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.00% were married couples living together, 9.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.90% were non-families. 25.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.90. As of the 2010 census, there were about 5.9 same-sex couples per 1,000 households in the county. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.80% under the age of 18, 6.20% from 18 to 24, 23.20% from 25 to 44, 27.10% from 45 to 64, 19.70% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 98.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,702, the median income for a family was $34,915. Males had a median income of $31,597 versus $20,289 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,560. About 15.50% of families and 19.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.00% of those under age 18 and 10.20% of those age 65 or over. Most county residents, including the cities of Rockport and Fulton, are served by the Aransas County Independent School District; some residents are served by the Aransas Pass Independent School District. State Highway 35 State Highway 188 Aransas County Airport is located in Fulton, north of Rockport. Aransas Pass Corpus Christi Rockport Fulton Holiday Beach Lamar Aransas City List of museums in the Texas Gulf Coast National Register of Historic Places listings in Aransas County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Aransas County Aransas County government Aransas County from the Handbook of Texas Online Aransas County from the Texas Almanac Aransas County from the TXGenWeb Project Historic Photographs of Aransas County
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Goliad County, Texas
Goliad County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population is 7,210, its county seat is Goliad. The county is named for Father Miguel Hidalgo; the county was created in 1836 and organized the next year. Goliad County is a part of TX Metropolitan Statistical Area; the first declaration of independence for the Republic of Texas was signed in Goliad on December 20, 1835, although the formal declaration was made by the Convention of 1836 at Washington-on-the-Brazos. Goliad County was the site of two battles in the Texas Revolution; the Battle of Goliad was a minor skirmish early in the war. However the subsequent battle of Coleto was an important battle that culminated on March 27, 1836. Col. James Fannin and his Texan soldiers were executed by the Mexican army, under orders from Gen. Antonio López de Santa Anna, in what became known as the Goliad Massacre; this event led to the Texas Revolutionary battle cry "Remember the Alamo! Remember Goliad!" Although many remember the Alamo today, fewer remember Goliad.
The site of the massacre is located near Presidio la Bahia, just south of the town of Goliad. In 1874, Juan Moya, a prominent Tejano landowner and Mexican army captain who fought in the Texas Revolution, was lynched, along with his two sons, by a mob who suspected them of murdering a neighboring family in Goliad County. Goliad County is the birthplace of General Ignacio Zaragoza, who led the Mexican army against the invading forces of Napoleon III in the Battle of Puebla on May 5, 1862. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 859 square miles, of which 852 square miles is land and 7.4 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 59 Interstate 69W is under construction and will follow the current route of U. S. 59 in most places. U. S. Highway 77 Alternate/U. S. Highway 183 State Highway 119 State Highway 239 Farm to Market Road 81 Farm to Market Road 622 Farm to Market Road 833 DeWitt County Victoria County Refugio County Bee County Karnes County As of the census of 2000, there were 6,928 people, 2,644 households, 1,975 families residing in the county.
The population density was 8 people per square mile. There were 3,426 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 82.62% White, 4.82% Black or African American, 0.55% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 10.05% from other races, 1.73% from two or more races. 35.20% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,644 households out of which 33.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.10% were married couples living together, 8.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.30% were non-families. 22.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.02. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.90% under the age of 18, 6.50% from 18 to 24, 25.00% from 25 to 44, 25.20% from 45 to 64, 17.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years.
For every 100 females, there were 98.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $34,201, the median income for a family was $40,446. Males had a median income of $30,954 versus $20,028 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,126. About 11.90% of families and 16.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.70% of those under age 18 and 11.10% of those age 65 or over. Goliad County is served by the Goliad Independent School District. Goliad List of museums in South Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Goliad County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Goliad County Texas Cart War Goliad County Government Goliad County Chamber of Commerce Goliad County in Handbook of Texas Online "Goliad County Profile" from the Texas Association of Counties
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf