Świdwin is a town in West Pomeranian Voivodeship of northwestern Poland. It is the capital of Świdwin County established 1999 having been in Koszalin Voivodeship, the administrative seat - though not part - of the Gmina Świdwin. Świdwin is situated in the historic Pomerania region on the left banks of the Rega river, about 100 km east of the regional capital Szczecin and 44 km south of the Baltic coast at Kołobrzeg. In 2010 the town had a population of 15,503. In the 13th century the settlement belonged to the Duchy of Pomerania under the Griffin duke Barnim I. In 1248 the duke ceded the area to the Bishop of Cammin, who shortly afterwards sold it to the Ascanian margraves of Brandenburg. Schivelbein was incorporated as the northeastern outpost of the Neumark region and, though temporarily pawned to the State of the Teutonic Order, remained a Brandenburg possession until the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. In 1816 it became part of the Prussian province of Pomerania; the Battle of Świdwin took place south of the town during 6–7 March 1945, in which a German SS corps was encircled and destroyed by two Soviet and one Polish armies.
After the town was captured, a Soviet general was killed by a member of the Hitler Youth. The reprisals that followed saw the men shot, the women and girls raped by Soviet troops. At the end of World War II Schivelbein with Farther Pomerania became part of the Republic of Poland and its name changed to Świbowina, renamed to Świdwin in 1946; the totality of the town's native population was expelled and arriving Polish citizens took their place and property. 1960: 10,000 inhabitants 1970: 12,600 inhabitants 1975: 13,500 inhabitants 1980: 14,000 inhabitants 2004: 17,000 inhabitants 2005: 16,240 inhabitants 2008: 15,486 inhabitants 2009: 15,621 inhabitants 2010: 15,503 inhabitants Rudolf Virchow a German physician, pathologist, biologist, writer and politician Otto Georg Bogislaf von Glasenapp, Vice president of the Reichsbank Johannes Poeppel a general in the German Bundeswehr Grzegorz Halama a Polish parodist and cabaret actor. Świdwin is twinned with: Sanitz, Germany The military airport operated by the Polish Air Force is located about 5 km from the city centre.
Civilians are not permitted to enter, but this airport is used for government's aircraft. The runway is 60 m width. Werwolf!: The History of the National Socialist Guerrilla Movement, 1944-1946, Perry Biddiscombe, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998. ISBN 0802008623. Boje Polskie 1939-1945, Krzysztof Komorowski et al. Warszawa: Bellona, 2009. ISBN 978-83-11-10357-3. Municipal website History of town History photo
The Pomerania euroregion or EUROREGION POMERANIA was set up in 1995 as one of the euroregions, thought to connect regions divided between states of the European Union. The name is taken from the region of Pomerania, yet the euroregion is of a different shape than the historical region, it comprises German Western Pomerania and Uckermark, Polish Zachodniopomorskie, Scania in Sweden. List of euroregions Falk Blask, Eléne Babayan, a project of Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin / Institut für Europäische Ethnologie, Dominikanerkloster Prenzlau / Kulturzentrum und Museum, Universität der Künste zu Berlin / Institut Kunst im Kontext, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin / Museum Europäischer Kulturen, Europa an der Grenze: Ost Odra, West Oder, Münster/Westfalen: Lit-Verlag, 2003, p. 14, ISBN 3-8258-6873-7, ISBN 978-3-8258-6873-4 Karin Pieper, Regionalpolitik in Ungarn und Polen: Zwei Staaten im EU-Beitrittsprozess, Wiesbaden: VS, Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 2006, p. 179, simultaneously: Osnabrück, Univ.
Diss. 2004. ISBN 3-531-14575-4, ISBN 978-3-531-14575-4
Stargard is a city in northwestern Poland, with a population of 71,017. Situated on the Ina River it is the capital of Stargard County and since 1999 has been in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship. Before World War II the town was in Germany; the city's name is of Pomeranian origin and stands for old town/city. It's one of the biggest towns of Szczecin agglomeration. Stargard is a major railroad junction, where the southwards connection from Szczecin splits into two directions - one towards Poznań and the other towards Gdańsk. There is another minor line to Pyrzyce from the town. From 1945 until December 31, 2015, the town was known as Stargard Szczeciński. Stargard, first mentioned in around 1140, received Magdeburg city rights in 1243 from Barnim I, Duke of Pomerania; the name itself is a combination of two Slavic words: stari and gard. In this connotation, the term gard is still being used by the only surviving Pomeranian language speakers, the Kashubs. However, some experts say that the name is of Scandinavian origin: gate.
It was one of the most important towns in Duchy of Pomerania. In 1363 the city joined the Hanseatic League and was strongly fortified. During the 15th century the Pomeranian dukes chose it as their residence. During the Thirty Years' War the city burnt down and in the 1648 Peace of Westphalia it was incorporated, together with the rest of Further Pomerania, into Brandenburg-Prussia. In 1701 Stargard became part of the Kingdom of Prussia and in 1818, after the Napoleonic Wars, Stargard became part of the new district Saatzig within the Province of Pomerania; as a result of the unification of Germany in 1871 the city became part of the German Empire. On 1 April 1901 it became an independent city. During World War II the large prisoner-of-war camp Stalag II-D was located near Stargard. There were Kashubs and thousands of Canadians captured at Dieppe imprisoned there, one of whom was Gerald MacIntosh Johnston, a Canadian actor, killed trying to escape. In February, 1945, one of the last German armored offensives, Operation Solstice, was launched from the Stargard area.
After World War II the region was placed under Polish administration by the Potsdam Agreement under territorial changes demanded by the Soviet Union. Most Germans fled or were expelled and were replaced with Poles expelled from the Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union. In 2004 a north-western part of the town was made into an industrial park - Stargardzki Park Przemysłowy. Another industrial park is located in the south - Park Przemysłowy Wysokich Technologii. On January 1, 2016, the town was renamed Stargard. Heavy bombing during World War II devastated most of Stargard's fine historical sites and destroyed over 75% of the city; some of these monuments, such as St. Mary’s Church and the 16th-century town hall, have been rebuilt; the newly restored buildings are on the European Route of Brick Gothic. Some of the notable surviving examples include: St. Mary's Church - one of the largest brick churches in Europe St. John's Church Medieval fortifications - ramparts, walls and towers - i.e. Red Sea Tower from 1513 Renaissance town hall from 16th century Gothic tenement-houses Granary Expiatory cross The monument'The 15th Meridian' Column of victory The town is home to Spójnia Stargard, a men's basketball team and Błękitni Stargard a multi-sports club, now a men's association football team, best known for reaching the Polish Cup semi-final in 2015.
Karl August Ferdinand von Borcke, Prussian general Carl Wilhelm Schmidt, missionary Oscar Levy, writer Max Levy, electro-engineer Werner von Blomberg, general Georg Joachimsthal, orthopedist Hasso von Wedel Wehrmacht General Hans-Joachim von Merkatz Federal Minister of Justice 1956–1957 Claus Biederstaedt, actor Peter Karow, entrepreneur Carlo von Tiedemann, television presenter Arkadiusz Bąk, footballer Ewa Kasprzyk, actress Margaret, singer-songwriter Stargard is twinned with Notes Official Website - some materials available in English and German Archaeology and history museum Satellite photo via Google Maps
Pomerania is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland. The name derives from the Slavic po more, meaning "by the sea" or "on the sea". Pomerania stretches from the Recknitz and Trebel rivers in the west to the Vistula river in the east; the largest Pomeranian islands are Usedom/Uznam and Wolin. The largest Pomeranian city is Gdańsk, or, when using a narrower definition of the region, Szczecin. Outside its urban areas, Pomerania is characterized by farmland, dotted with numerous lakes and towns; the region was affected by post–World War I and II border and population shifts, with most of its pre-war inhabitants leaving or being expelled after 1945. Pomerania is the area along the Bay of Pomerania of the Baltic Sea between the rivers Recknitz and Trebel in the west and Vistula in the east, it reached as far south as the Noteć river, but since the 13th century its southern boundary has been placed further north. Most of the region is coastal lowland, being part of the Central European Plain, but its southern, hilly parts belong to the Baltic Ridge, a belt of terminal moraines formed during the Pleistocene.
Within this ridge, a chain of moraine-dammed lakes constitutes the Pomeranian Lake District. The soil is rather poor, sometimes sandy or marshy; the western coastline is jagged, with many peninsulas and islands enclosing numerous bays and lagoons. The eastern coastline is smooth. Łebsko and several other lakes were bays, but have been cut off from the sea. The easternmost coastline along the Gdańsk Bay and Vistula Lagoon, has the Hel Peninsula and the Vistula peninsula jutting out into the Baltic; the Pomeranian region has the following administrative divisions: Hither Pomerania in northeastern Germany, stretching from the Recknitz river to the Oder–Neisse line. This region is part of the federal state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern; the southernmost part of historical Vorpommern is now in Brandenburg, while its historical eastern parts are now in Poland. Vorpommern comprises the historical regions inhabited by Slavic tribes Rugians and Volinians, otherwise the Principality of Rügen and the County of Gützkow.
The West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland, stretching from the Oder–Neisse line to the Wieprza river, encompassing most of historical Pomerania in the narrow sense. The Pomeranian Voivodeship, with similar borders to Pomerelia, stretching from the Wieprza river to the Vistula delta in the vicinity of Gdańsk; the northern half of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, comprising most of Chełmno Land. The bulk of Farther Pomerania is included within the modern West Pomeranian Voivodeship, but its easternmost parts now constitute the northwest of Pomeranian Voivodeship. Farther Pomerania in turn comprises several other historical subregions, most notably the Principality of Cammin, the County of Naugard, the Lands of Schlawe and Stolp, the Lauenburg and Bütow Land. Parts of Pomerania and surrounding regions have constituted a euroregion since 1995; the Pomerania euroregion comprises Hither Pomerania and Uckermark in Germany, West Pomerania in Poland, Scania in Sweden. "Pomerania" and its cognates in other languages are derived from Old Slavic po, meaning "by/next to/along", more, meaning "sea", thus "Pomerania" means "seacoast" or "land by the sea", referring to its proximity to the Baltic Sea.
Pomerania was first mentioned in an imperial document of 1046, referring to a Zemuzil dux Bomeranorum. Pomerania is mentioned in the chronicles of Adam of Bremen and Gallus Anonymous; the term "West Pomerania" is ambiguous, since it may refer to either Hither Pomerania or to the West Pomeranian Voivodeship. The term "East Pomerania" may carry different meanings, referring either to Farther Pomerania, or to Pomerelia or the Pomeranian Voivodeship. Settlement in the area called Pomerania for the last 1,000 years started by the end of the Vistula Glacial Stage, some 13,000 years ago. Archeological traces have been found of various cultures during the Stone and Bronze Age, Baltic peoples, Germanic peoples and Veneti during the Iron Age and, in the Dark Ages, Slavic tribes and Vikings. Starting in the 10th century, early Polish dukes on several occasions subdued parts of the region from the southeast, while the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark augmented their territory from the west and north. In the 12th century, narrow Pomerania became Christian under saint Otto of Bamberg.
Since the Griffin Duchy of Pomerania stayed with the Holy Roman Empire and the Principality of Rugia with Denmark, while Pomerelia, under the ruling of Samborides, was a part of Poland. Pomerania, during its alliance in the Holy Roman Empire, shared borders with Slavic state Oldenburg, as well as Poland and Brandenburg; the Teutonic Knights succeeded in integrating Pomerelia into their monastic state in the early 14th century. Meanwhile, the Ostsiedlung started to turn Slavic narrow Pomerania into an German-settled area. In 1325 the line of the pri
Mrzeżyno is a village with a fishing seaport in Gryfice County. This is a health resort with a lots of pensions and spa, it is located near the estuary of the Rega river. The village has a popular beach; every year in August, Mrzeżyno is visited by many Polish and German tourists. The right riverside is more developed than left; the population numbers 1,727. The village is situated by a special area of the conservation of nature according to the European Union's program Natura 2000, it lies 10 kilometres north of Trzebiatów, 27 km north of Gryfice, 94 km north-east of the regional capital Szczecin. In the 1920s Lyonel Feininger came to the Treptower Deep to paint and reside; the first postwar Poland's Wedding to the Sea was performed in Mrzeżyno on 17 March 1945, as Regamünde became part of Poland, according to the Potsdam Conference which ceded most of the German province of Pomerania to the People's Republic of Poland. Trzebiatów Safety of Navigation Office about the seaport
Gdańsk is a Polish city on the Baltic coast. With a population of 464,254, Gdańsk is the capital and largest city of the Pomeranian Voivodeship and the capital of Kashubia, it is the centre of the country's fourth-largest metropolitan area. The city is located on the southern edge of Gdańsk Bay, in a conurbation with the city of Gdynia, spa town of Sopot, suburban communities, which together form a metropolitan area called the Tricity, with a population approaching 1.4 million. Gdańsk is the largest city of Kashubia. With its origins as a Polish stronghold erected in the 980s by Mieszko I of Poland, the city's history is complex, with periods of Polish rule, periods of Prussian or German rule, periods of autonomy or self-rule as a "free city". In the early-modern age Gdańsk was a royal city of Poland, it was considered the wealthiest and the largest city of Poland, prior to the 18th century rapid growth of Warsaw. Between the world wars, the Free City of Danzig, having a majority of German population, was in a customs union with Poland and was situated between German East Prussia and the so-called Polish Corridor.
Gdańsk lies at the mouth of the Motława River, connected to the Leniwka, a branch in the delta of the nearby Vistula River, which drains 60 percent of Poland and connects Gdańsk with the Polish capital, Warsaw. Together with the nearby port of Gdynia, Gdańsk is a notable industrial center. In the late Middle Ages it was an important seaport and shipbuilding town and, in the 14th and 15th centuries, a member of the Hanseatic League. In the interwar period, owing to its multi-ethnic make-up and history, Gdańsk lay in a disputed region between Poland and the Weimar Republic, which became Nazi Germany; the city's ambiguous political status was exploited, furthering tension between the two countries, which would culminate in the Invasion of Poland and the first clash of the Second World War just outside the city limits. In the 1980s it would become the birthplace of the Solidarity movement, which played a major role in bringing an end to Communist rule in Poland and helped precipitate the collapse of the Eastern Bloc, the fall of the Berlin Wall and the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Gdańsk is home to the University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk University of Technology, the National Museum, the Gdańsk Shakespeare Theatre, the Museum of the Second World War, Polish Baltic Philharmonic and the European Solidarity Centre. The city hosts St. Dominic's Fair, which dates back to 1260, is regarded as one of the biggest trade and cultural events in Europe; the city's name is thought to originate from the Gdania River, the original name of the Motława branch on which the city is situated. The name of a settlement was recorded after St. Adalbert's death in AD 997 as urbs Gyddanyzc and was written as Kdanzk in 1148, Gdanzc in 1188, Danceke in 1228, Gdansk in 1236, Danzc in 1263, Danczk in 1311, Danczik in 1399, Danczig in 1414, Gdąnsk in 1656. In Polish the modern name of the city is pronounced. In English the usual pronunciation is or; the German name, "Danzig", is pronounced as. The city's Latin name may be given as either Gedanum or Dantiscum. Other former spellings of the name include Dantzig and Dantzic.
On special occasions the city is referred to as "The Royal Polish City of Gdańsk". In the Kashubian language the city is called Gduńsk. Kashubians use the name "Our Capital City Gduńsk" or "The Kashubian Capital City Gduńsk"; the first written record thought to refer to Gdańsk is the vita of Saint Adalbert. Written in 999, it describes how in 997 Saint Adalbert of Prague baptised the inhabitants of urbs Gyddannyzc, "which separated the great realm of the duke from the sea." No further written sources exist for the 11th centuries. Based on the date in Adalbert's vita, the city celebrated its millennial anniversary in 1997. Archaeological evidence for the origins of the town was retrieved after World War II had laid 90 percent of the city center in ruins, enabling excavations; the oldest seventeen settlement levels were dated to between 980 and 1308. It is thought that Mieszko I of Poland erected a stronghold on the site in the 980s, thereby connecting the Polish state ruled by the Piast dynasty with the trade routes of the Baltic Sea.
Traces of buildings and housing from 10th century have been found in archaeological excavations of the city. The site was ruled as a duchy of Poland by the Samborides, it consisted of a settlement at the modern Long Market, settlements of craftsmen along the Old Ditch, German merchant settlements around St Nicholas's church and the old Piast stronghold. In 1186, a Cistercian monastery was set up in nearby Oliwa, now within the city limits. In 1215, the ducal stronghold became the centre of a Pomerelian splinter duchy. At that time the area of the city included various villages. From at least 1224/25 a German market settlement with merchants from Lübeck existed in the area of today's Long Market. In 1224/25, merchants from Lübeck were invited as "hospites" but were soon forced to leave by Swantopolk II of the Samborides during a war between Swantopolk and the Teutonic Knights, during which Lübeck supported the latter. Migrat
Tricity, or Tri-City is a metropolitan area in Poland consisting of three cities in Pomerania: Gdańsk, Gdynia and Sopot, as well as minor towns in their vicinity. They are situated adjacent to one other, in a row on the coast of Gdańsk Bay, Baltic Sea, in Pomerelia, northern Poland; the Tricity metropolitan area has a population of over 1 million people. The name Trójmiasto was used informally or semi-formally only, until 28 March 2007, when the "Tricity Charter" was signed as a declaration of the cities' cooperation. Nearly 35 % taxpayers from Tricity are in the high taxable income groups. 12% of Tricity taxpayers are in highest taxable income group. The total population of the 3 cities comprising Tricity: XII.1960: 481,100 inhabitants XII.1970: 604,800 inhabitants XII.1975: 693,800 inhabitants XII.1980: 744,400 inhabitants XII.2004: 754,960 inhabitants XII.2006: 748,126 inhabitants VI.2017: 747,637 inhabitants The Tricity metropolitan area includes Wejherowo, Rumia, Pruszcz Gdański and several other communities.
The total population in 2006 was 1,100,500, in an area of 1580.69 km². Largest urban areas of the European Union Largest European metropolitan areasThe Tricity continuous urban area includes following cities: According to official EU publication the population of Larger Urban Zone of Tricity is 1 098 379; the Tricity is an important center of education. Gdańsk: Number of universities: 13 Number of students: 52,436 Number of graduates: 10,439 Gdynia: Number of universities: 7 Number of students: 21,362 Some of universities: Academy of Physical Education in Gdańsk Academy of Fine Arts in Gdańsk Academy of Music in Gdańsk Gdynia Maritime University Polish Naval Academy in Gdynia The Medical University of Gdańsk University of Gdańsk University of Technology in Gdańsk SWPS University in Sopot Gdańsk School of Banking Gdańsk Management College Gdańsk Higher School of Humanities Gdańsk Administration School Social Economic Higher School in Gdańsk The Higher School of Tourism and Hotel Industry in Gdańsk Academy of International Economic and Political Relations in Gdynia Kwiatkowski University of Business and Administration in Gdynia Kwiatkowski University of Business and Administration in Gdynia - Wiki link Pomeranian Higher School of Humanities in Gdynia The Higher School of Physical Culture and Tourism in Sopot Sopot College Cinemas: Gdańsk Film Centre Helikon Kameralne Neptun Kinoplex Krewetka Multikino Gdynia Multikino Gdańsk Multikino Sopot Multikino Rumia Żak Helios Gdynia PoloniaTheatres: Wybrzeże Theatre Danuta Baduszkowa Musical Theatre in Gdynia Witold Gombrowicz Municipal Theatre in Gdynia Atelier Theatre in Sopot Dreams Theatre Miniatura Theatre in Gdańsk Theatre Znak in Gdańsk Wybrzeżak Theatre Scena Kameralna Teatru Wybrzeże Summer Scene of Gdynia's Municipal Theatre Scena Teatralna ŻAK Theatrum Gedanense FoundationOpera house and Philharmonic Forest Opera in Sopot Frederic Chopin Polish Baltic Philharmonic Polska Filharmonia Kameralna in Sopot The Baltic Opera Tricity has a temperate climate with warm summers and cold winters that can be severe.
Rain is possible all year round. Summer is the best time to visit when temperatures range from 70 °F to 90 °F, but evenings can be cool enough to require a sweater. Winters are wet and grey. Tricity has a number of professional teams, which compete in basketball, speedway, rugby union and football; the most known football clubs, contesting the Tricity Derby, are Lechia Gdańsk and Arka Gdynia, both of which possess successful rugby teams (RC Arka and RC Lechia. There is a third top-flight Polish rugby team Ogniwo Sopot, making the Tricity Poland's rugby capital; the third football club is Bałtyk Gdynia. Wybrzeże Gdańsk are the Tricity's speedway team a multi-sports club, now its only other remaining section is the reactivated handball team, former 10 times men's Polish champions. Asseco Gdynia and Trefl Sopot are the two men's professional basketball teams, while Lotos Gdynia are their female counterparts; the Tricity has a well-developed public transport system. Development of the Tricity was smoothed by the construction of the city train 1951, binding the whole area from Tczew by Gdańsk, Sopot 1953, Gdynia 1956, Rumia to Wejherowo 1957.
The backbone of the Tricity is the inner highway. It starts in Gdańsk and goes through Sopot, Gdynia and Reda to Wejherowo, it consists of 2-4 lanes in each direction. In 1975 the dual carriageway Tricity Beltway was constructed, it starts in the vicinity of Pruszcz Gdański and goes through the western districts of Gdańsk to Gdynia-Chylonia. There is a plan to build a new line of Szybka Kolej Miejska to connect the Baltic Arena with Gdańsk Lech Wałęsa Airport; the Tricity area is served by the SKM rail network which operates many routes in the area, acting as a commuter rail connecting the outer-lying towns and villages of the area with each other and the central cities of Gdańsk, Gdynia and Sopot, as a sort of metro or light rail service in the urban core centred around the three main cities, with frequencies ranging from every 6 minutes during peak time on the main common section between Gdańsk and Gdynia to 30 minutes at the farthest ends. The local rail network has had a unifying effect on the urban area si