Coty, Inc. is an American based multinational beauty company founded in 1904 by François Coty. With its subsidiaries, it develops, manufactures and distributes fragrances, skin care, nail care, both professional and retail hair care products. Coty owns around 77 brands as of 2018. Coty is one of the world's largest beauty companies and the largest fragrance company, with over $9 billion in revenue for the fiscal year ending in June 2018. Coty acquired 41 beauty brands from Procter & Gamble in 2016, becoming the global leader in fragrance, the second largest company for hair color and styling products, the third largest company for color cosmetics; the company operates three divisions: Consumer Beauty, which focuses on body care, color cosmetics and hair coloring and styling products. Coty's mission is to "celebrate and liberate the diversity of beauty"; the company has 20,000 full-time employees in 46 countries, as of mid 2018. Coty's executive offices are located in London; the Consumer Beauty and Professional Beauty divisions are headquartered in New York City and Geneva, respectively.
Peter Harf serves as Coty's chairman. Pierre Laubies serves as CEO. Pierre-André Terisse was appointed chief financial officer in January 2019. Class A shares are traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "COTY". JAB Holding Company is Coty's largest shareholder, with a 37 percent stake. Coty owns 77 brands, as of 2018. Brands in the company's portfolio include: Coty relaunched the CoverGirl and Clairol brands, including the Nice'n Easy hair coloring product, in late 2017 and early 2018, respectively; the relaunches included product development, with an emphasis on diversity. The company relaunched Max Factor in 2018. Coty was founded by François Coty in Paris in 1904; the brand's first fragrance, La Rose Jacqueminot, was launched the same year and was packaged in a bottle designed by Baccarat. L'Origan was launched in 1905. Following its early successes, Coty was able to open its first store in 1908 in Paris' Place Vendôme. Soon after, Coty began collaborating with French glass designer René Lalique to create custom fragrance bottles and other packaging materials, launching a new trend in mass-produced fragrance packaging.
Coty established a "Perfume City" in the suburbs of Paris during the early 1910s to handle administration and fragrance production. The company began its global expansion in the early 1910s, first in New York. Coty established U. S. headquarters at 714 Fifth Avenue in New York City, commissioned Lalique to design pressed glass panels for the building's façade windows, which were installed in 1912. Coty remained headquartered in the building until 1941; the structure was given landmark status by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission during the 1980s for its custom windows. Coty began selling other beauty products including face and body powders in the 1910s, launched one of its most successful fragrances, Chypre, in 1917; the company's products gained more attention in the United States as World War I soldiers started returning from France with gifts for loved ones. During the 1920s, Coty launched more than fifteen new fragrances, expanded into Germany, Italy and Switzerland. Coty, Inc. was formed in New York in 1922, became a publicly traded company in 1925.
François Coty died in 1934. Coty's Air Spun face powder was launched in 1935; the powder has been described by Real Simple as one of the "best beauty products of all time" and remains unchanged. In the 1940s, Coty became a major supporter of the growing American fashion industry, launching the Coty American Fashion Critics' Awards to recognize and promote emerging American fashion designers. Coty discontinued its participation in 1985. Coty became a key player in the American lipstick market with the launch of Coty 24 in 1955. By the 1960s, Coty had become a leading fragrance manufacturer and marketer and the largest fragrance company in the U. S, it attracted the attention of Pfizer, which acquired the company in 1963. In 1991, the company had annual sales of $280 million. Pfizer sold Coty to Joh. A. Benckiser in 1992. Coty was a strategic fit for Benckiser, which had another beauty subsidiary, as well as an international distribution network through which it could market Coty's products. Coty's fragrances at the time included Emeraude, Exclamation, L'Effleur, Preferred Stock, Sand & Sable and Wild Musk.
Peter Harf, chairman and CEO of JAB since 1988, was named Coty's CEO in 1993. Coty acquired Unilever's European cosmetic brands, including Rimmel, in 1996. During the mid 2000s, the company focused on marketing celebrity-endorsed fragrances, including David Beckham, Céline Dion, Jennifer Lopez, Mary-Kate and Ashley Olsen, Sarah Jessica Parker, Shania Twain. Coty expanded its portfolio of luxury fragrances, it purchased the fragrance license for fashion designer Marc Jacobs in 2003. The company's revenue increased from $1.9 billion to $2.1 billion during 2004–2005. In 2005, Coty purchased additional licenses for Calvin Klein, Chloé, Vera Wang from Unilever; these newes
Kazakhstan the Republic of Kazakhstan, is the world's largest landlocked country, the ninth largest in the world, with an area of 2,724,900 square kilometres. It is a transcontinental country located in Asia. Kazakhstan is the dominant nation of Central Asia economically, generating 60% of the region's GDP through its oil and gas industry, it has vast mineral resources. Kazakhstan is a democratic, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage. Kazakhstan shares borders with Russia, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan, adjoins a large part of the Caspian Sea; the terrain of Kazakhstan includes flatlands, taiga, rock canyons, deltas, snow-capped mountains, deserts. Kazakhstan has an estimated 18.3 million people as of 2018. Given its large land area, its population density is among the lowest, at less than 6 people per square kilometre; the capital is Astana, where it was moved in 1997 from the country's largest city. The territory of Kazakhstan has been inhabited by groups included the nomadic groups and empires.
In antiquity, the nomadic Scythians have inhabited the land and the Persian Achaemenid Empire expanded towards the southern territory of the modern country. Turkic nomads who trace their ancestry to many Turkic states such as Turkic Khaganate etc have inhabited the country throughout the country's history. In the 13th century, the territory joined the Mongolian Empire under Genghis Khan. By the 16th century, the Kazakh emerged as a distinct group, divided into three jüz; the Russians began advancing into the Kazakh steppe in the 18th century, by the mid-19th century, they nominally ruled all of Kazakhstan as part of the Russian Empire. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, subsequent civil war, the territory of Kazakhstan was reorganised several times. In 1936, it was made part of the Soviet Union. Kazakhstan was the last of the Soviet republics to declare independence during the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Nursultan Nazarbayev, the first President of Kazakhstan, was characterized as an authoritarian, his government was accused of numerous human rights violations, including suppression of dissent and censorship of the media.
Nazarbayev resigned in March 2019, with Senate Chairman Kassym-Jomart Tokayev taking office as Interim President. Kazakhstan has worked to develop its economy its dominant hydrocarbon industry. Human Rights Watch says that "Kazakhstan restricts freedom of assembly and religion", other human rights organisations describe Kazakhstan's human rights situation as poor. Kazakhstan's 131 ethnicities include Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Germans and Uyghurs. Islam is the religion of about 70% of the population, with Christianity practised by 26%. Kazakhstan allows freedom of religion, but religious leaders who oppose the government are suppressed; the Kazakh language is the state language, Russian has equal official status for all levels of administrative and institutional purposes. Kazakhstan is a member of the United Nations, WTO, CIS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the Eurasian Economic Union, CSTO, OSCE, OIC, TURKSOY; the name "Kazakh" comes from the ancient Turkic word qaz, "to wander", reflecting the Kazakhs' nomadic culture.
The name "Cossack" is of the same origin. The Persian suffix -stan means "land" or "place of", so Kazakhstan can be translated as "land of the wanderers". Though traditionally referring only to ethnic Kazakhs, including those living in China, Turkey and other neighbouring countries, the term "Kazakh" is being used to refer to any inhabitant of Kazakhstan, including non-Kazakhs. Kazakhstan has been inhabited since the Paleolithic. Pastoralism developed during the Neolithic as the region's climate and terrain are best suited for a nomadic lifestyle; the Kazakh territory was a key constituent of the Eurasian Steppe route, the ancestor of the terrestrial Silk Roads. Archaeologists believe. During recent prehistoric times Central Asia was inhabited by groups like the Proto-Indo-European Afanasievo culture early Indo-Iranians cultures such as Andronovo, Indo-Iranians such as the Saka and Massagetae. Other groups included the nomadic Scythians and the Persian Achaemenid Empire in the southern territory of the modern country.
In 329 BC, Alexander the Great and his Macedonian army fought in the Battle of Jaxartes against the Scythians along the Jaxartes River, now known as the Syr Darya along the southern border of modern Kazakhstan. The Cuman entered the steppes of modern-day Kazakhstan around the early 11th century, where they joined with the Kipchak and established the vast Cuman-Kipchak confederation. While ancient cities Taraz and Hazrat-e Turkestan had long served as important way-stations along the Silk Road connecting Asia and Europe, true political consolidation began only with the Mongol rule of the early 13th century. Under the Mongol Empire, the largest in world history, administrative districts were established; these came under the rule of the emergent Kazakh Khanate. Throughout this period, traditional nomadic life and a livestock-
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa
Scottsdale is a city in the eastern part of Maricopa County, United States, part of the Greater Phoenix Area. Named Scottsdale in 1894 after its founder Winfield Scott, a retired U. S. Army chaplain, the city was incorporated in 1951 with a population of 2,000; the 2015 population of the city was estimated to be 236,839 according to the U. S. Census Bureau; the New York Times described downtown Scottsdale as "a desert version of Miami's South Beach" and as having "plenty of late night partying and a buzzing hotel scene." Its slogan is "The West's Most Western Town."Scottsdale, 31 miles long and 11.4 miles wide at its widest point, shares boundaries with many other municipalities and entities. On the west, Scottsdale is bordered by Phoenix, Paradise Valley and unincorporated Maricopa County land. Carefree is located along the western boundary, as well as sharing Scottsdale's northern boundary with the Tonto National Forest. To the south Scottsdale is bordered by Tempe; the southern boundary is occupied by the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community, which extends along the eastern boundary, which borders Fountain Hills, the McDowell Mountain Regional Park and more unincorporated Maricopa County land.
The area which would include what would become Scottsdale was inhabited by the Hohokam, from 300 BC to 1450 AD. This ancient civilization farmed the area and developed a complex network of canals for irrigation, unsurpassed in pre-Columbian North America. At its peak, the canals stretched over 250 miles, many of which built remains extant today, some having been renovated and put back into use in the 20th century. Under still-mysterious circumstances, the Hohokam disappeared around 1450 or 1500, the most theory having to do with a prolonged drought; the area's occupants, the Pima and O'odham, are thought to be the direct descendants of the Hohokam people. Before European settlement, Scottsdale was a Pima village known as Vaṣai S-vaṣonĭ, meaning "rotting hay." Some Pima remained in their original homes well into the 20th century. For example, until the late 1960s, there was a still-occupied traditional dwelling on the southeast corner of Indian Bend Road and Hayden Road; those Pima who live within Scottsdale reside in newer homes rather than traditional dwellings.
Many Pima and Maricopa people continue to reside on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community, which borders Scottsdale directly to the south and east. In the early to mid 1880s, U. S. Army Chaplain Winfield Scott visited the Salt River Valley and was impressed with the region and its potential for agriculture. Returning in 1888 with his wife, Helen, he purchased 640 acres for $3.50 an acre for a stretch of land where downtown Scottsdale is now located. Winfield and his brother, George Washington Scott, became the first residents of the town, known as Orangedale due to the large citrus groves planted by the Scott brothers. Many of the community's original settlers, recruited by Scott from the East and Midwest, were educated and had an appreciation for cultural activities; the town's name was changed to Scottsdale after its founder. In 1896, these settlers established the Scottsdale Public School system, opened the first schoolhouse, followed by the opening of the first general store by J. L. Davis, which housed the first post office for Scottsdale in 1897.
In the early 1900s the community supported an artists and writers culture, culminating in the opening of the region's first resort in 1909, the Ingleside Inn, located just south of the Arizona Canal and west of the Crosscut Canal in what is today Scottsdale. In 1909, Cavalliere's Blacksmith Shop opened in downtown Scottsdale, the original schoolhouse was replaced by the much more expansive Little Red Schoolhouse, which remains standing to this day. While not in its original building, Cavalliere's has been in continuance operation since that time. In 1912, both the Phoenix Street Railway Company and a competitor, the Salt River Valley Electric Railway Company, proposed building streetcar lines to Scottsdale but due to an economic downturn, neither was built. Between 1908 and 1933, due to the construction of the Granite Reef and Roosevelt dams, Scottsdale's population experienced a boom, growing during those years. Scottsdale became a small market town providing services for families involved in the agricultural industry.
During the First World War Scottsdale and its environs supported a large cotton farming industry, due to the creation of Long Staple Egyptian Cotton, developed by the US Department of Agriculture. Although cotton is still grown in southern Arizona, Scottsdale's cotton boom ended with the loss of government contracts at the end of the war. In 1920, a second resort was opened on 12 acres of the property owned by the artist Jessie Benton Evans. Called the Jokake Inn, meaning "mud house," the structure still stands on the grounds of the world-famous Phoenician Resort; the Depression years saw an influx of artists and architects to Scottsdale, which included, in 1937, the internationally renowned Frank Lloyd Wright. In 1937, Wright and his wife purchased 600 desert acres at the foot of the McDowell Mountains and established what is now known as Taliesin West, his winter home and his architectural firm's Southwestern headquarters. Scottsdale and the rest of Phoenix have seen an everlasting influence from Frank Lloyd Wright.
Many buildings throughout the region were designed by the famous architect. His significant influence on the regional architecture is commemorated through a major street which bears his name and a 125-foot spire memorial designed by Wright himself in North Scottsdale. Among the more
Regal Hotels International
Regal Hotels International is one of the largest hotel groups in Hong Kong. Regal Hotels International Holdings Limited is a company incorporated in Bermuda and listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange; the company is controlled by its chairman and managing director, Mr Lo Yuk Sui, who speaks for 52.84% of the issued share capital as at 31 December 2005. Lo is the second son of Great Eagle matriach Lo To Lee-kwan. In October 2006, the company announced plans to sell and separately list its hotel properties in a Real Estate Investment Trust. However, as the Sunlight REIT spun off by Henderson Land Development fell by 6.5% on its market debut on 21 December, Regal chose to delay its offer. On 13 March 2007, Regal announced its public offer for sale of up to 50 percent in Regal Hotels Real Estate Investment Trust, to be co-sponsored by Deutsche Bank, Goldman Sachs and Merrill Lynch, raised HK$2.3 billion. Regal Airport Hotel, at the Hong Kong International Airport Regal Hongkong Hotel, in Causeway Bay Regal Kowloon Hotel, in Tsimshatsui East Regal Oriental Hotel, in Kowloon City Regal Riverside Hotel, in Shatin Regal iClub Hotel, in Wan Chai iclub Sheung Wan Hotel, in Sheung Wan Regal International East Asia Hotel Regal Shanghai East Asia Hotel Regal Jinfeng Hotel Regal Regal Plaza Hotel & Residence Regal Kangbo Hotel Regal Kangbo Hotel and Residence Regal Constellation Hotel, a large property near Pearson International Airport in Toronto, Ontario built in 1962.
The hotel consisted of two 15 floor towers, a six storey atrium, a Chinese restaurant and 90,000 square feet of convention space. Due to declining trade, the hotel was sold to Hospitality Investors Group of Scottsdale, Arizona in 2004 for redevelopment. Now owned by Park'N Fly, the hotel was demolished in 2011-2012 and is a vacant lot. Regal Bostonian Hotel, a property opposite Faneuil Hall in downtown Boston opened in 1981. Regal bought the hotel in 1996 and sold it to Millennium & Copthorne Hotels in 2002. Now operates as Millennium The Bostonian. Regal McCormick Ranch, a property in the master-planned community of McCormick Ranch in Scottsdale, Arizona. Regal Hotels International
Toronto Pearson International Airport
Lester B. Pearson International Airport, corporately branded as Toronto Pearson International Airport, is the primary international airport serving Toronto, its metropolitan area, surrounding region known as the Golden Horseshoe in the province of Ontario, Canada, it is the largest and busiest airport in Canada, the second-busiest international air passenger gateway in the Americas, the 31st-busiest airport in the world by passenger traffic, handling 49.5 million passengers in 2018. The airport is named in honour of Lester B. Pearson, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and 14th Prime Minister of Canada. Toronto Pearson is located 22.5 kilometres northwest of Downtown Toronto, with the majority of the airport situated in the adjacent city of Mississauga, a small portion of the airfield extending into Toronto's western district of Etobicoke. It features five runways and two passenger terminals along with numerous cargo and maintenance facilities on a site that covers 1,867 hectares. Pearson Airport is the primary hub for Air Canada.
It serves as a hub for WestJet, cargo airline FedEx Express and as a base of operations for Air Transat and Sunwing Airlines. Pearson is operated by the Greater Toronto Airports Authority as part of Transport Canada's National Airports System, is the largest airport in the world with facilities for United States border preclearance. An extensive network of non-stop domestic flights is operated from Toronto Pearson by several airlines to all major and many secondary cities across all provinces of Canada; as of 2019, over 75 airlines operate around 1,250 daily departures from the airport to more than 180 destinations across all six of the world's inhabited continents. In 1937, the Government of Canada agreed to support the building of two airports in the Toronto area. One site selected was on the Toronto Islands in Downtown Toronto, the present-day Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport; the other site selected was an area northwest of Toronto near the town of Malton, intended to serve as an alternate to the downtown airport but instead would become its successor.
The first scheduled passenger flight at the Malton Airport was a Trans-Canada Air Lines DC-3 that landed on August 29, 1939. During World War II, the Royal Canadian Air Force established a base at the airport as a component of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan. RCAF Station Malton was home to several training schools and was in operation between 1940-1946. In 1958, the City of Toronto sold the Malton Airport to the Government of Canada, which subsequently changed the name of the facility to Toronto International Airport, under the management of Transport Canada; the airport was renamed Lester B. Pearson International Airport in 1984, in honour of Toronto-born Lester B. Pearson, the fourteenth Prime Minister of Canada and recipient of the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize; the Greater Toronto Airports Authority assumed management and control of the airport in 1996, has used the name Toronto Pearson International Airport for the facility since the transition. Toronto Pearson International Airport has two active public terminals, Terminal 1 and Terminal 3.
Both terminals are designed to handle all three sectors of travel, which results in terminal operations at Pearson being grouped for airlines and airline alliances, rather than for domestic and international routes. Terminal 2 was demolished and replaced with an expanded Terminal 1. A third public terminal, the Infield Concourse acts as an extension of Terminal 3 providing additional bridged gates. Measuring over 346,000 square metres, Terminal 1 is the largest airport terminal in Canada and the 12th largest in the world by floor space. Air Canada and all other Star Alliance airlines that serve Pearson are based at Terminal 1. Non-alliance airline Emirates uses the terminal. Terminal 1 was designed by a joint venture known as Airports Architects Canada made up of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP, Adamson Associates Architects and Moshe Safdie and Associates, it contains 58 gates: D1, D3, D5, D7-D12, D20, D22, D24, D26, D28, D31–D45, D51, D53, D55, D57, F60–F63, F64A–F64B, F65, F66A–F66B, F/E67–F/E81, F59, F82-F83, F84-F99.
Two of the gates, E73 and E75, can accommodate the Airbus A380. Along with the standard customs and immigration facilities, Terminal 1 contains special customs "B" checkpoints along the international arrivals walkway. Passengers connecting from an international or trans-border arrival to another international departure in Terminal 1 go to one of these checkpoints for passport control and immigration checks are directed to Pier F for departure; this alleviates the need to recheck bags, pass through security screening, relieves congestion in the primary customs hall. An eight-level parking garage with 8,400 public parking spaces across from Terminal 1 is connected to the terminal by several elevated and enclosed pedestrian walkways. Terminal 1 is home to the world's fastest moving walkway. Terminal 3 is a 178,000-square-metre facility designed by B+H Architects and Scott Associates Architects Inc, it is used by all SkyTeam and Oneworld airlines that serve Pearson, along with Air Transat, Etihad Airways, Sunwing Airlines, WestJet and all other airlines that are unaffiliated with an airline alliance.
Terminal 3 has 46 gates: B1a-B1d, B2a, B2c, B3-B5
Hong Kong the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China and abbreviated as HK, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre territory, Hong Kong is the world's fourth most densely populated region. Hong Kong became a colony of the British Empire after Qing Empire ceded Hong Kong Island at the end of the First Opium War in 1842; the colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War, was further extended when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. The entire territory was transferred to China in 1997; as a special administrative region, Hong Kong's system of government is separate from that of mainland China and its people identify more as Hongkongers rather than Chinese. A sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages, the territory has become one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports.
It is the world's seventh-largest trading entity, its legal tender is the world's 13th-most traded currency. Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, it has severe income inequality; the territory has the largest number of skyscrapers in most surrounding Victoria Harbour. Hong Kong ranks seventh on the UN Human Development Index, has the sixth-longest life expectancy in the world. Although over 90 per cent of its population uses public transportation, air pollution from neighbouring industrial areas of mainland China has resulted in a high level of atmospheric particulates; the name of the territory, first spelled "He-Ong-Kong" in 1780 referred to a small inlet between Aberdeen Island and the southern coast of Hong Kong Island. Aberdeen was an initial point of contact between local fishermen. Although the source of the romanised name is unknown, it is believed to be an early phonetic rendering of the Cantonese pronunciation hēung góng; the name translates as "fragrant harbour" or "incense harbour".
"Fragrant" may refer to the sweet taste of the harbour's freshwater influx from the Pearl River or to the odor from incense factories lining the coast of northern Kowloon. The incense was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export. Sir John Davis offered an alternative origin; the simplified name Hong Kong was used by 1810 written as a single word. Hongkong was common until 1926, when the government adopted the two-word name; some corporations founded during the early colonial era still keep this name, including Hongkong Land, Hongkong Electric and Shanghai Hotels and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. The region is first known to have been occupied by humans during the Neolithic period, about 6,000 years ago. Early Hong Kong settlers were a semi-coastal people who migrated from inland and brought knowledge of rice cultivation; the Qin dynasty incorporated the Hong Kong area into China for the first time in 214 BCE, after conquering the indigenous Baiyue. The region was consolidated under the Nanyue kingdom after the Qin collapse, recaptured by China after the Han conquest.
During the Mongol conquest, the Southern Song court was located in modern-day Kowloon City before its final defeat in the 1279 Battle of Yamen. By the end of the Yuan dynasty, seven large families had settled in the region and owned most of the land. Settlers from nearby provinces migrated to Kowloon throughout the Ming dynasty; the earliest European visitor was Portuguese explorer Jorge Álvares, who arrived in 1513. Portuguese merchants established a trading post called in Hong Kong waters, began regular trade with southern China. Although the traders were expelled after military clashes in the 1520s, Portuguese-Chinese trade relations were reestablished by 1549. Portugal acquired a permanent lease for Macau in 1557. After the Qing conquest, maritime trade was banned under the Haijin policies; the Kangxi Emperor lifted the prohibition, allowing foreigners to enter Chinese ports in 1684. Qing authorities established the Canton System in 1757 to regulate trade more restricting non-Russian ships to the port of Canton.
Although European demand for Chinese commodities like tea and porcelain was high, Chinese interest in European manufactured goods was insignificant. To counter the trade imbalance, the British sold large amounts of Indian opium to China. Faced with a drug crisis, Qing officials pursued ever-more-aggressive actions to halt the opium trade; the Daoguang Emperor rejected proposals to legalise and tax opium, ordering imperial commissioner Lin Zexu to eradicate the opium trade in 1839. The commissioner destroyed opium stockpiles and halted all foreign trade, forcing a British military response and triggering the First Opium War; the Qing ceded Hong Kong Island in the Convention of Chuenpi. However, both countries did not ratify the agreement. After over a year of further hostilities, Hong Kong Island was formally ceded to the United Kingdom in the 1842 Treaty of Nanking. Administrative infrastructure was built up by early 1842, but piracy and hostile Qing policies towards Hong Kong prevented the government from attracting merchants.
The Taiping Rebellion, when many wealthy Chinese fled mainland turbulence and settled in the colon