A film called a movie, motion picture, moving picture, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed in rapid succession; the process of filmmaking is both an industry. A film is created by photographing actual scenes with a motion-picture camera, by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques, by means of CGI and computer animation, or by a combination of some or all of these techniques, other visual effects; the word "cinema", short for cinematography, is used to refer to filmmaking and the film industry, to the art of filmmaking itself. The contemporary definition of cinema is the art of simulating experiences to communicate ideas, perceptions, beauty or atmosphere by the means of recorded or programmed moving images along with other sensory stimulations. Films were recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process and shown through a movie projector onto a large screen.
Contemporary films are now fully digital through the entire process of production and exhibition, while films recorded in a photochemical form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, they reflect those cultures. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens; the visual basis of film gives it a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions through the use of dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into other languages; the individual images that make up a film are called frames. In the projection of traditional celluloid films, a rotating shutter causes intervals of darkness as each frame, in turn, is moved into position to be projected, but the viewer does not notice the interruptions because of an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after its source disappears.
The perception of motion is due to a psychological effect called the phi phenomenon. The name "film" originates from the fact that photographic film has been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for an individual motion-picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture and flick; the most common term in the United States is movie. Common terms for the field in general include the big screen, the silver screen, the movies, cinema. In early years, the word sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, costumes, direction, audiences and scores. Much terminology used in film theory and criticism apply, such as mise en scène. Owing to the lack of any technology for doing so, the moving images and sounds could not be recorded for replaying as with film; the magic lantern created by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s, could be used to project animation, achieved by various types of mechanical slides.
Two glass slides, one with the stationary part of the picture and the other with the part, to move, would be placed one on top of the other and projected together the moving slide would be hand-operated, either directly or by means of a lever or other mechanism. Chromotrope slides, which produced eye-dazzling displays of continuously cycling abstract geometrical patterns and colors, were operated by means of a small crank and pulley wheel that rotated a glass disc. In the mid-19th century, inventions such as Joseph Plateau's phenakistoscope and the zoetrope demonstrated that a designed sequence of drawings, showing phases of the changing appearance of objects in motion, would appear to show the objects moving if they were displayed one after the other at a sufficiently rapid rate; these devices relied on the phenomenon of persistence of vision to make the display appear continuous though the observer's view was blocked as each drawing rotated into the location where its predecessor had just been glimpsed.
Each sequence was limited to a small number of drawings twelve, so it could only show endlessly repeating cyclical motions. By the late 1880s, the last major device of this type, the praxinoscope, had been elaborated into a form that employed a long coiled band containing hundreds of images painted on glass and used the elements of a magic lantern to project them onto a screen; the use of sequences of photographs in such devices was limited to a few experiments with subjects photographed in a series of poses because the available emulsions were not sensitive enough to allow the short exposures needed to photograph subjects that were moving. The sensitivity was improved and in the late 1870s, Eadweard Muybridge created the first animated image sequences photographed in real-time. A row of cameras was used, each, in turn, capturing one image on a photographic glass plate, so the total number of images in each sequence was limited by the number of cameras, about two dozen at most. Muybridge used his system to analyze the movements of a wi
Brazil (1985 film)
Brazil is a 1985 British-American dystopian science fiction film directed by Terry Gilliam and written by Gilliam, Charles McKeown, Tom Stoppard. The film stars Jonathan Pryce and features Robert De Niro, Kim Greist, Michael Palin, Katherine Helmond, Bob Hoskins and Ian Holm; the film centres on Sam Lowry, a man trying to find a woman who appears in his dreams while he is working in a mind-numbing job and living in a small apartment, set in a consumer-driven dystopian world in which there is an over-reliance on poorly maintained machines. Brazil's satire of bureaucratic, totalitarian government is reminiscent of George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four. Sarah Street's British National Cinema describes the film as a "fantasy/satire on bureaucratic society". Jack Mathews, a film critic and the author of The Battle of Brazil, described the film as "satirizing the bureaucratic dysfunctional industrial world, driving Gilliam crazy all his life"; the film is named after the recurrent theme song, Ary Barroso's "Aquarela do Brasil", known as "Brazil" to British audiences, as performed by Geoff Muldaur.
Though a success in Europe, the film was unsuccessful in its initial North America release. It has since become a cult film. In 1999, the British Film Institute voted Brazil the 54th greatest British film of all time. In 2017 a poll of 150 actors, writers and critics for Time Out magazine saw it ranked the 24th best British film ever. In a dystopian, hyper-bureaucratic future, Sam Lowry is a low-level government employee who daydreams of himself as a winged warrior saving a damsel in distress. A fly gets jammed in a printer and creates a typographical error, resulting in the incarceration and accidental death during interrogation of cobbler Archibald Buttle, instead of renegade air conditioning specialist and suspected terrorist Archibald Tuttle. Sam is assigned the task of rectifying the error. Visiting Buttle's widow, Sam encounters their neighbour Jill Layton, is astonished to discover that she resembles the woman from his recurring dreams. Jill has been trying to help Mrs Buttle establish what happened to her husband, but her efforts have been obstructed by bureaucracy.
Unknown to her, she is now considered a terrorist accomplice of Tuttle for attempting to report the mistake of Buttle's arrest. Sam approaches Jill, but she avoids giving him full details, worried the government will track her down. Sam reports a fault in his apartment's air conditioning. Central Services are uncooperative, but Tuttle, who used to work for Central Services but left because of his dislike of the tedious and repetitive paperwork, unexpectedly comes to his assistance. Tuttle repairs Sam's air conditioning, but when two Central Services workers and Dowser, Sam has to fob them off to let Tuttle escape; the workers return to demolish Sam's ducts and seize his apartment under pretence of fixing the system. Sam discovers that the only way to learn about Jill is to be transferred to Information Retrieval, where he will be able to access her classified records, he has turned down a promotion arranged by his mother, obsessed with the rejuvenating plastic surgery of cosmetic surgeon Dr Jaffe.
Sam retracts his refusal by speaking with Deputy Minister Mr Helpmann at a party hosted by Ida. Having obtained Jill's records, Sam tracks her down before she can be arrested falsifies the records to indicate her death, allowing her to escape pursuit; the two are apprehended by the government at gunpoint. Charged with treason for abusing his new position, Sam is restrained in a chair in a large, empty cylindrical room, to be tortured by his old friend, Jack Lint. Sam is told; as Jack is about to start the torture and other members of the resistance break into the Ministry, shooting Jack, rescuing Sam, blowing up the Ministry building. Sam and Tuttle flee together, but Tuttle disappears amid a mass of scraps of paperwork from the destroyed building. Sam stumbles into the funeral of Ida's friend. Sam discovers that his mother now resembles Jill, is too busy being fawned over by young men to care about her son's plight. Guards disrupt the funeral, Sam falls into the open casket and through a black void.
He lands in a street from his daydreams, tries to escape police and monsters by climbing a pile of flex-ducts. Opening a door, he is surprised to find himself in a truck driven by Jill; the two leave the city together. However, this "happy ending" is a delusion: in reality, he is still strapped to the chair, it is implied. Realising that Sam has descended into blissful insanity, Jack and Mr Helpmann declare him a lost cause and leave the room. Sam remains in the chair and humming "Aquarela do Brasil". Jonathan Pryce as Sam Lowry. Pryce has described the role as the highlight of his career, along with that of Lytton Strachey in Carrington. Tom Cruise was considered for the role. Kim Greist as Jill Layton. Gilliam's first choice for the part was Ellen Barkin. Gilliam was dissatisfied with Greist's performance, chose to cut or edit some of her scenes as a result. Robert De Niro as Archibald "Harry" Tuttle. De Niro still wanted a part in the film after being denied that of Jack Lint, so Gilliam offered him the smaller role of Tuttle.
Katherine Helmond as Mrs. Ida Lowry. According to Helmond, Gilliam called her and said, "I ha
Rykodisc was an American record label. Its catalog is owned by Warner Music Group, operating as a unit of WMG's Independent Label Group and is distributed through Alternative Distribution Alliance. Claiming to be the first CD only independent record label in the United States, Rykodisc was founded in 1983 in Salem, Massachusetts, by Arthur Mann, Rob Simonds, Doug Lexa and Don Rose; the name "Ryko," which the label claimed was a Japanese word meaning "sound from a flash of light," was chosen to reflect the company's CD-only policy. In the late 1980s, the label began to issue high-quality cassette / vinyl and MiniDisc versions of many releases under the name Ryko Analogue. Rykodisc had some notable successes in the CD-reissue industry, as artists such as Elvis Costello, David Bowie, Yoko Ono, Frank Zappa, the estate of Nick Drake, Nine Inch Nails, Robert Wyatt, Mission of Burma allowed Rykodisc to issue their catalogs on CD. Rykodisc re-released the SST Records-era recordings by the Meat Puppets.
It was responsible for the first release of the "I Am the Cosmos" LP by the late Chris Bell of Big Star, another band on the label. Over the years the label acquired Hannibal Records, Tradition Records, Emperor Norton Records, Restless Records and Cordless Recordings. Rykodisc founded a distribution company, Ryko Distribution, a music publishing company, Rykomusic; the label's catalog exceeds 1,200 titles. In 1998, Chris Blackwell left Island Records and bought Rykodisc for a reported $35 million as a means of acquiring music marketing and distribution expertise for his new venture, a media company called Palm Pictures. In 1999, one year after the Blackwell buy-out, the office in Salem, was closed, many industry veterans were laid off. In 2001 Blackwell parted ways with Rykodisc; the label was located in New York City with offices in Los Angeles and in Beverly, Massachusetts. On March 23, 2006, it was announced that Warner Music Group acquired the Ryko Corporation for $67.5 million. When Warner bought Ryko, it acquired the label's Frank Zappa master tapes, entitling Warner to any reissue rights—an irony considering Zappa's outspoken hatred for Warner, with whom he acrimoniously parted ways in 1979.
The Zappa Family Trust and Ryko parted ways in 2012 with the Zappa Family Trust reacquiring Frank Zappa's recorded music catalogue and Universal Music Enterprises taking over distribution of the Zappa catalogue. In 2006, the independent publishing company Evergreen Copyrights purchased the Rykomusic publishing catalogue, among others. In September 2010, Evergreen was acquired by BMG Rights Management. In 2009, Ryko Distribution was folded into Alternative Distribution Alliance. List of record labels
The King of Comedy (film)
The King of Comedy is a 1982 American satirical black comedy film directed by Martin Scorsese and starring Robert De Niro, Jerry Lewis, Sandra Bernhard. Written by Paul D. Zimmerman, the film focuses on themes including celebrity worship and American media culture. 20th Century Fox released the film on February 18, 1983, in the United States, though the film was released two months earlier in Iceland. Production began in New York on June 1, 1981, to avoid clashing with a forthcoming writers' strike, opened the Cannes Film Festival in 1983; the film opened to positive reviews from critics, but was a flop at the box office, grossing only $2.5 million against its $19 million budget. Rupert Pupkin is an aspiring, mentally-deranged stand-up comedian unsuccessfully trying to launch his career. After meeting Jerry Langford, a successful comedian and talk show host, Rupert believes his "big break" has come, he attempts to book a spot on Langford's show, but is continually rebuffed by his staff and by Langford himself.
Along the way, Rupert indulges in elaborate and obsessive fantasies in which he and Langford are colleagues and friends. Hoping to impress, Rupert invites a date, Rita, to accompany him when he shows up uninvited at Langford's country home; when Langford returns home to find Rupert and Rita settling in, he angrily tells Rupert that his act is mediocre and that he's a lunatic who'll never amount to anything. While Jerry yells at him, Rupert continues trying to stay in his good graces, until an embarrassed Rita gets Rupert to leave; when the straight approach does not work, Rupert hatches a kidnapping plot with the help of Masha, a fellow stalker obsessed with Langford. As ransom, Rupert demands that he be given the opening spot on that evening's episode of Langford's show, that the show be broadcast in normal fashion; the network brass and the FBI agree to his demands, with the understanding that Langford will be released once the show airs. Between the taping of the show and the broadcast, Masha has her "dream date" with Langford, duct-taped to a chair in her parents' Manhattan townhouse.
Langford convinces her to untie him and he manages to escape. Rupert's stand-up routine is well received by the audience. In his act, he describes his troubled upbringing while laughing at his circumstances. Rupert closes by confessing to the studio audience that he kidnapped Langford in order to break into show business; the audience laughs. Rupert responds by saying, "you'll all think I'm crazy, but I figure it this way: better to be king for a night, than a schmuck for a lifetime." The movie closes with a news report of Rupert's release from prison, set to a montage of storefronts stocking his "long awaited" autobiography, King for a Night. Rupert still considers Langford his friend and that he is weighing several "attractive offers", including comedy tours and a film adaptation of his memoirs; the final scene shows Rupert taking the stage for an apparent TV special with a live audience and an announcer enthusiastically introducing him, leaving the viewer to decide whether it is reality or Rupert's fantasy.
Robert De Niro as Rupert Pupkin Jerry Lewis as Jerry Langford Diahnne Abbott as Rita Keene Sandra Bernhard as Masha Ed Herlihy as himself Tony Randall as himself Shelley Hack as Mrs. Long After Raging Bull was completed, Scorsese thought about retiring from feature films to make documentaries instead because he felt "unsatisfied" and hadn't found his "inner peace" yet. However, he was keen to do a pet project of his, The Last Temptation of Christ, wanted De Niro to play Jesus Christ. De Niro preferred their next collaboration to be a comedy, he had purchased the rights of a script by film critic Paul D. Zimmerman. Michael Cimino was first proposed as director but withdrew from the project because of the extended production of Heaven's Gate. Bob Fosse considered directing the film and suggested Andy Kaufman as Rupert Pupkin, Sandra Bernhard as Masha and Sammy Davis, Jr. as Jerry Langford Fosse passed on the film in favor of directing Star 80 instead. Scorsese pondered whether he could face shooting another film with a looming strike by the Writers Guild of America.
Producer Arnon Milchan knew he could do the project away from Hollywood interference by filming on location in New York and deliver it on time with the involvement of a smaller film company. In the biography/overview of his work, Scorsese on Scorsese, the director had high praise for Jerry Lewis, stating that during their first conversation before shooting, Lewis was professional and assured him before shooting that there would be no ego clashes or difficulties. Scorsese said he felt Lewis' performance in the film was vastly underrated and deserved more acclaim. After such a strong critical appreciation for the way in which Scorsese had shot Raging Bull, the director felt that The King of Comedy needed more of a raw cinematic style, one of which would take its cues from early silent cinema, using more static camera shots, fewer dramatic close-ups. Scorsese has noted that Edwin S. Porter's 1903 film Life of an American Fireman had influenced The King of Comedy's visual style. De Niro prepared for Rupert Pupkin's role by developing a "role reversal" technique, consisting of chasing down his own autograph-hunters, stalking them and asking them lots of questions.
As Scorsese remembered, he agreed to meet and talk with one of his longtime stalkers:The guy was waiting for him with his wife, a shy suburban woman, rather embarrassed by the situation. He wanted to take him to dinner at the
Fox 21 Television Studios
Fox 21 Television Studios, Inc. is an American television production company, a subsidiary of Walt Disney Television division of The Walt Disney Company. Fox Television Studios was formed in 1997 alongside its existing fellow corporate units, Twentieth Century Fox Television and Twentieth Television under executive David Grant; the studio was designed to house smaller production units starting with Greenblatt-Janollari Studio. Greenblatt-Janollari started producing shows in the 1998-1999 season with 3 comedy series for ABC and CBS. While funded by Fox, G-JS was presented as an "independent mini-studio". With Fox Entertainment Group holding a 20% stake in New Regency Production's parent corporation, Fox Studios formed a joint venture, Regency Television, by 2000 managed by Gail Berman. Another production unit formed was Fox Television Studios Productions under Lisa Berger. Early output by the individual units, or "pods" were FTSP's Son of the Beach for FX, The Hughleys by G-JS and Regency had Malcolm in the Middle.
The pod model faded into five divisions: alternative, international, Fox World and Regency TV. The alternative division was responsible for Spike Feresten and Wanda Sykes' late-night shows at Fox and The Girls Next Door franchise. While the scripted division produced The Shield plus a lot of TV movies and miniseries. After a while, the only division operating was the scripted unit. Next FtvS attempted international co-productions of direct-to-series broadcast series; the company had a hit with Burn Notice on USA Network. In 2010, Dave Madden was appointed to head the unit which he evenly increased its productions until appointed as president of entertainment for Fox Broadcasting in August 2014. Fox 21 was formed in 2004 by 20th Century Fox Television executives Dana Walden and Gary Newman to develop and back smaller-budgeted but unique and daring shows. Fox 21's first executive was Jane Leisner; the unit's early hits were the FX series Sons of Anarchy and The CW reality series Beauty and the Geek.
The studio co-produced The Muppets' Wizard of Oz with Touchstone Television, The Jim Henson Company and The Muppets Studio. After being passed over for programming the new network, MyNetworkTV, Fox 21 was in consideration along with Twentieth Television and independent producers as of December 2006 in a potential reprogramming from telenovela to low-cost reality and game shows. Bert Salke took charge of the unit in 2010 and led an increase in show productions starting with the Showtime series Homeland; the company produces or had produced the USA Network series Rush, the FX series Terriers and The Bastard Executioner, the A&E action series Breakout Kings, the Comedy Central series Brickleberry, the WGN America series Salem, the TNT series Legends and the Lifetime series Witches of East End. It was announced in December 2014 that Fox 21 and Fox Television Studios would merge into Fox 21 Television Studios; this situation came as a result of FTVS' president David Madden being promoted to Fox Broadcasting Company and the fact that both units were focusing on the same market, cable TV.
The combined operation will be headed by Fox 21 president Bert Salke. Fox Television Studios on 21cf.com
Roswell (TV series)
Roswell is an American science fiction television series developed, co-written by Jason Katims. The series moved to UPN for the third season. In the United Kingdom, the show aired as Roswell; the series is based on the Roswell High young adult book series, written by Melinda Metz and edited by Laura J. Burns, who became staff writers for the television series. Shiri Appleby as Liz Parker Jason Behr as Max Evans Katherine Heigl as Isabel Evans Majandra Delfino as Maria DeLuca Brendan Fehr as Michael Guerin Colin Hanks as Alex Whitman Nick Wechsler as Kyle Valenti William Sadler as Sheriff Jim Valenti Emilie de Ravin as Tess Harding Adam Rodríguez as Jesse Ramirez Garrett M. Brown as Philip Evans Mary Ellen Trainor as Diane Evans Diane Farr as Amy DeLuca John Doe as Jeff Parker Jo Anderson as Nancy Parker Nicholas Stratton as Young Michael Julie Benz as Kathleen Topolsky Jim Ortlieb as Nasedo Steve Hytner as Milton Ross Richard Schiff as Agent John Stevens David Conrad as Deputy David "Dave" Fisher/FBI Agent Daniel Pierce Devon Gummersall as Sean DeLuca Desmond Askew as Brody Davis/Larek Gretchen Egolf as Congresswoman Vanessa Whitaker Sara Downing as Courtney Banks Miko Hughes as Nicholas Crawford Daniel Hansen as Young Max Sebastian Siegel as Brad Carroll Baker as Grandma Claudia Jonathan Frakes as Himself Genie Francis as Queen Mother of Antar Erica Gimpel as Agent Susan Duff Howie Dorough as Alien Nelly Furtado as Herself Jason Dohring as Jerry Spence Decker as Kivar Morgan Fairchild as Maris Wheeler Joe Pantoliano as Kal Langley John Billingsley as Himself Roswell High was developed by 20th Century Fox Television and Regency Television for the Fox Network, though it landed on The WB thanks to the latter network's offer to extend a full 22-episode upfront commitment.
The pilot episode was filmed in 12 days with a budget of $2,000,000. "The Morning After," the second episode of the series, was the first episode with the full title sequence utilizing the theme song, "Here With Me" by Dido. Roswell was filmed in various locations around California. City Hall, Charter Oak High School, several other businesses and residences in Covina served as locations for the fictional locations in Roswell, New Mexico, as well as Vasquez Rocks, a 905-acre park in Los Angeles County; the series premiered on October 6, 1999, on The WB Television Network in the United States to favorable reviews, it gained an outspoken fanbase. In response to the problems the series had with ratings during its first season, the relationship-driven standalone episodes of the early first season were to be replaced with more science fiction themes and multi-episode plot arcs. Starting with the second season, after a fierce fan-driven campaign involving bottles of Tabasco sauce—a favorite condiment of the show's alien characters—being sent to the network's offices, veteran science fiction writer Ronald D. Moore was brought in to join Katims as an executive producer and showrunner and to further develop the science fiction elements of the show.
Not all fans responded favorably to the shift to more science fiction-driven storylines during the second season and the ratings continued to disappoint, causing the network to cancel the show on May 15, 2001, after the show's second-season finale, a move anticipated due to the sagging ratings. 20th Century Fox was able to persuade UPN to pick it up for a third season as a package deal when UPN outbid The WB for one of its popular flagship series, Buffy the Vampire Slayer. During the 2001 - 2002 television season, Roswell, in its third season, aired directly after Buffy on Tuesday nights on UPN, though it was unable to hold on to the audience Buffy provided as a lead-in; this resulted in the show's cancellation from UPN as well. The Pilot is set in 1999. We are introduced to Liz Parker, Maria DeLuca, Alex Whitman, high school students and best friends residing in the small town of Roswell, New Mexico, site of the famed Roswell UFO incident. Liz Parker's parents own the Crashdown Café. At the beginning of The Pilot, Liz is waitressing in her parents' restaurant when a disagreement between two customers breaks out.
A gun goes off, Liz is accidentally shot. We are now introduced to a character named Max Evans, a normal high school student, who rushes to Liz's aid and heals the gunshot wound by placing his hand over it, saving her life; the healing leaves a silver hand print on her stomach. In order to hide what he has done, Max pours ketchup on Liz before fleeing the scene with his friend Michael Guerin; the shooting acts as a catalyst for the rest of the series' action. Liz is presented as an insatiably curious character, obtaining a sample of Max's saliva, analyzes it, finds that his cells do not look like normal human cells; when she confronts him, Max admits that he, his sister Isabel and their friend Michael, are aliens whose spaceship crashed at Roswell in 1947. In dialogue between other characters we learn that Max and Michael had a pattern of isolating themselves from other students. A love triangle begins between Max and Kyle Valenti. Though sworn to tell no one, Liz does divulge Max's secret to Maria in the pilot.
Stripper is a 1986 American documentary film directed by Jerome Gary. It depicts a strippers convention and contest and the strong motive to win of a few of the contestants. Stripper on IMDb Stripper at Rotten Tomatoes