Telecommunications Industry Association
The Telecommunications Industry Association is accredited by the American National Standards Institute to develop voluntary, consensus-based industry standards for a wide variety of Information and Communication Technologies products, represents nearly 400 companies. TIA's Standards and Technology Department operates twelve engineering committees, which develop guidelines for private radio equipment, cellular towers, data terminals, telephone terminal equipment, accessibility, VoIP devices, structured cabling, data centers, mobile device communications, multimedia multicast, vehicular telematics, healthcare ICT, machine to machine communications, smart utility networks. Overall, more than 500 active participants, communications equipment manufacturers, service providers, government agencies, academic institutions, end-users are engaged in TIA's standards setting process. To ensure that these standards become incorporated globally, TIA is engaged in the International Telecommunication Union, the International Organization for Standardization, the International Electrotechnical Commission.
The Telecommunications Industry Assoc's most adopted standards include: TIA-942 Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard for Data Centers TIA-568-C. TIA-569-B Commercial Building Standards for Telecommunications Pathways and Spaces TIA-607-B TIA-598-C TIA-222-G Structural Standard for Antenna Supporting Structures and Antennas TIA-602-A Data Transmission Systems and Equipment, which standardized the common basic Hayes command set. TIA-102 - Land Mobile Communications for Public Safety TIA encourages engineers who represent the manufacturers and/or users of network equipment technology products and services, to become engaged in TIA's engineering committees, by voting and submitting technical contributions for inclusion in future standards. TIA is a participating standards organization of the ITU-T Global Standards Collaboration initiative; the GSC has created a Machine-to-Machine Standardization Task Force to foster industry collaboration on standards across different vertical markets, such as finance, e-health, connected vehicles, utilities.
TIA supported the E-LABEL Act, a bill that would direct the Federal Communications Commission to allow manufacturers of electronic devices with a screen to display information required by the agency digitally on the screen rather than on a label affixed to the device. Grant Seiffert argued that "by granting device manufacturers the ability to use e-labels, the legislation eases the technical and logistical burdens on manufactures and improves consumer access to important device information." Telecommunications Industry Association Website
Internet access is the ability of individuals and organizations to connect to the Internet using computer terminals and other devices. Internet access is sold by Internet service providers delivering connectivity at a wide range of data transfer rates via various networking technologies. Many organizations, including a growing number of municipal entities provide cost-free wireless access. Availability of Internet access was once limited, but has grown rapidly. In 1995, only 0.04 percent of the world's population had access, with well over half of those living in the United States, consumer use was through dial-up. By the first decade of the 21st century, many consumers in developed nations used faster broadband technology, by 2014, 41 percent of the world's population had access, broadband was ubiquitous worldwide, global average connection speeds exceeded one megabit per second; the Internet developed from the ARPANET, funded by the US government to support projects within the government and at universities and research laboratories in the US – but grew over time to include most of the world's large universities and the research arms of many technology companies.
Use by a wider audience only came in 1995 when restrictions on the use of the Internet to carry commercial traffic were lifted. In the early to mid-1980s, most Internet access was from personal computers and workstations directly connected to local area networks or from dial-up connections using modems and analog telephone lines. LANs operated at 10 Mbit/s, while modem data-rates grew from 1200 bit/s in the early 1980s, to 56 kbit/s by the late 1990s. Dial-up connections were made from terminals or computers running terminal emulation software to terminal servers on LANs; these dial-up connections did not support end-to-end use of the Internet protocols and only provided terminal to host connections. The introduction of network access servers supporting the Serial Line Internet Protocol and the point-to-point protocol extended the Internet protocols and made the full range of Internet services available to dial-up users. Broadband Internet access shortened to just broadband, is defined as "Internet access, always on, faster than the traditional dial-up access" and so covers a wide range of technologies.
Broadband connections are made using a computer's built in Ethernet networking capabilities, or by using a NIC expansion card. Most broadband services provide a continuous "always on" connection. Broadband provides improved access to Internet services such as: Faster world wide web browsing Faster downloading of documents, photographs and other large files Telephony, radio and videoconferencing Virtual private networks and remote system administration Online gaming massively multiplayer online role-playing games which are interaction-intensiveIn the 1990s, the National Information Infrastructure initiative in the U. S. made broadband Internet access a public policy issue. In 2000, most Internet access to homes was provided using dial-up, while many businesses and schools were using broadband connections. In 2000 there were just under 150 million dial-up subscriptions in the 34 OECD countries and fewer than 20 million broadband subscriptions. By 2004, broadband had grown and dial-up had declined so that the number of subscriptions were equal at 130 million each.
In 2010, in the OECD countries, over 90% of the Internet access subscriptions used broadband, broadband had grown to more than 300 million subscriptions, dial-up subscriptions had declined to fewer than 30 million. The broadband technologies in widest use are ADSL and cable Internet access. Newer technologies include VDSL and optical fibre extended closer to the subscriber in both telephone and cable plants. Fibre-optic communication, while only being used in premises and to the curb schemes, has played a crucial role in enabling broadband Internet access by making transmission of information at high data rates over longer distances much more cost-effective than copper wire technology. In areas not served by ADSL or cable, some community organizations and local governments are installing Wi-Fi networks. Wireless and satellite Internet are used in rural, undeveloped, or other hard to serve areas where wired Internet is not available. Newer technologies being deployed for fixed and mobile broadband access include WiMAX, LTE, fixed wireless, e.g. Motorola Canopy.
Starting in 2006, mobile broadband access is available at the consumer level using "3G" and "4G" technologies such as HSPA, EV-DO, HSPA+, LTE. In addition to access from home and the workplace Internet access may be available from public places such as libraries and Internet cafes, where computers with Internet connections are available; some libraries provide stations for physically connecting users' laptops to local area networks. Wireless Internet access points are available in public places such as airport halls, in some cases just for brief use while standing; some access points may provide coin-operated computers. Various terms are used, such as "public Internet kiosk", "public access terminal", "Web payphone". Many hotels have public terminals fee based. Coffee shops, shopping malls, other venues offer wireless access to computer networks, referred to as hotspots, for users who bring their own wireless-enabled devices such as a laptop or PDA; these services may be free to all, free to customer