Israel Vibration are a reggae harmony group, originating from Kingston, Jamaica. Lascelle "Wiss" Bulgin, Albert "Apple Gabriel" Craig, Cecil "Skelly" Spence all overcame childhood polio, went on to be one of the most successful roots groups to form in Jamaica in the 1970s; the trio met as children at a rehabilitation center. Bulgin and Spence first met as children at the Mona Rehabilitation Clinic, all sufferers of polio in the epidemic that spread through Jamaica in the 1950s, but it was several years that they formed Israel Vibration. Craig ran away at the age of fourteen, living on the streets. Spence was a member of the band Hot Lickers, appearing on Jamaican television with the group at the age of twelve, he played in the Jamaican wheelchair basketball team, but was forced out in 1969 after adopting the Rastafarian faith, something which the three had in common when they were reunited. Spence and Craig got together in Kingston and sought out Bulgin, who at the time was working as a tailor.
They formed a vocal group adopting the name Israel Vibration Israel Vibrates, soon becoming Israel Vibration. They survived on money earned singing in the streets for several years, in 1975 attempted to launch a recording career at Channel One Studios, but the track they recorded there was not released. Funding for their first album came in the form of a grant from the Twelve Tribes of Israel branch of Rastafarai after Hugh Booth, a member of the Twelve Tribes, had overheard the three men singing in a wooded area outside Kingston. Apple and Wiss were living in the area. Recorded at the Treasure Isle studio in 1976, their debut release was the single "Why Worry", released on the Twelve Tribes label late that year; the single was successful enough for the group to be offered support slots at shows by artists such as Dennis Brown, Inner Circle, Bob Marley. They began working with producer Tommy Cowan, releasing "The Same Song" on his Top Ranking label in 1977, an album of the same name followed in 1978.
The album, its dub counterpart, Israel Tafari were a success internationally, leading to a deal with EMI label Harvest to reissue the album in the UK, the label releasing a second album, Unconquered People in 1980. For their third album, Why You So Craven, they worked with Henry "Junjo" Lawes but disagreements meant that they left the album unfinished, with Lawes getting The Tamlins to complete it; the group relocated to New York in 1982 to seek professional health care, escape the growing dancehall movement in Jamaica, but struggled to break through there and they split up. They each attempted to launch solo careers, with Bulgin releasing the Mr Sunshine album in 1985, but by 1987 they decided to relaunch Israel Vibration. Having all been turned down when they approached Gary "Dr. Dread" Himmelfarb, founder of RAS Records, during their solo period, they received a positive response when they approached him as a group, they were flown to Washington, D. C. to record a new album at the Lion and Fox Recording Studios in College Park, backed by the Roots Radics.
Strength of my Life was the group's fourth album. The band stayed with RAS into the 21st century. In 1997, Apple Gabriel left the group to pursue a solo career, releasing the album Another Moses in 1999. Skelly and Wiss continue to record albums and tour the world as Israel Vibration, backed by longtime associates Roots Radics. In December 2014 they were recording a new album set for release in early 2015; the new album, entitled "Play It Real" was released on 31 March 2015 via Utopia. The Same Song, Top Ranking Unconquered People, Harvest Why You So Craven, Volcano Strength of My Life, RAS Praises, RAS Dub Vibration: Israel Vibration in Dub, RAS Forever, RAS IV, RAS I. V. D. U. B. RAS On the Rock, RAS Dub the Rock, RAS Israel Dub, RAS Free to Move, RAS Ras Portraits, RAS Pay the Piper, RAS Jericho, RAS Power of the Trinity Dub Combo, RAS Fighting Soldiers Cool and Calm Stamina, Mediacom Reggae Knights, Mediacom Play It Real, Utopia Israel Vibration & The Gladiators Live at Reggae Sunsplash Vibes Alive, RAS Live Again!, RAS Live & Jammin, Nocturne Official website
Winston Foster, better known by the stage name Yellowman, is a Jamaican reggae and dancehall deejay known as King Yellowman. He was popular in Jamaica in the 1980s, coming to prominence with a series of singles that established his reputation. Winston Foster was abandoned by his parents and grew up in the Maxfield Children's Home and the Catholic orphanage Alpha Boys School in Kingston, was shunned due to having albinism, not socially accepted in Jamaica. AlpjsBoys School was known for its musical alumni. In the late 1970s Yellowman first gained wide attention when he finished second in the 1978 Tastee Talent Contest. Like many Jamaican deejays, he honed his talents by performing at outdoor sound-system dances, prominently with Aces International, he had success as a recording artist. In 1981, after becoming popular throughout Jamaica, Yellowman became the first dancehall artist to be signed to a major American label, his first album release was in 1982 entitled Mister Yellowman followed by Zungguzungguguzungguzeng in 1983 earning instant success.
Yellowman's sexually explicit lyrics in popular songs such as "Them a Mad Over Me" boasted of his sexual prowess, like those of other reggae singers/deejays, earned Yellowman criticism in the mid-1980s. Yellowman appeared in Jamaican Dancehall Volcano Hi-power 1983 which featured other major dancehall musicians such as Massive Dread, Josey Wales, Burro Banton and Eek-A-Mouse. Yellowman proclaimed, "I never know. I talk about sex. What I talk is reality."He had success in 1987 with a version of "Blueberry Hill", that topped the charts for several weeks in Jamaica. Yellowman had met Fats Domino where he performed on the island earlier in the decade, Domino had presented him with a copy of his version. By the mid-1990s, Yellowman released conscious material, rising to international fame along with singers such as Buju Banton. Yellowman became the island's most popular deejay. During the early 1980s, Yellowman produced up to five albums per year, he re-invented himself with his 1994 album Prayer, which stepped away from the slackness that gave him his initial fame.
His latest albums are New York and Round 1. Yellowman was a featured guest vocalist on the Run-DMC track "Roots Rap Reggae". Yellowman continues to perform internationally with his Sagittarius Band, has toured through places such as Nigeria where he retains a following of fans, as well as Spain, Sweden, Germany, France, the United States and Canada, he featured on OPM's 2004 album, Forthemasses. In 2018, it was announced that he would be awarded the Order of Distinction by the Jamaican government. Foster's daughter Kareema followed him into a career in music, he has spoken against violence. In the Montreal Mirror in 2005 he said, "Now it's not your teaching. If you notice the hip hop and dancehall artists today, all they do they sing about drugs, car, house—when they can't get it, they start get violent.... I know what it contain and what it can do. I'm glad that the roots is coming back." The slackness style with which Yellowman is associated sometimes has homophobic lyrics. However, in the same Montreal Mirror article he spoke against it: "Everybody listen to me...
I don't do songs against gay people, I don't do violent lyric against gay people. If you don't like a person or you don't like a thing, you don't talk about it. You don't come on stage and say kill them or burn them because everybody have a right to live." In 1982, Yellowman was diagnosed with skin cancer, was told that he only had three more years to live. However, this prognosis proved to be inaccurate, after several surgeries Yellowman was able to continue his career; the cancer went into apparent remission during this time. In 1986 it was diagnosed; this surgery permanently disfigured Yellowman's face, as a large portion of the left side of his lower jaw had to be removed to remove the tumor. The instrumental for Yellowman's 1982 "Zungguzungguguzungguzeng", the "Diseases" riddim by "Junjo" Lawes, has been sampled and imitated since its original release; the original version of this riddim was performed by Alton Ellis for a song called "Mad, Mad" produced by Coxsone Dodd in 1967. Coxsone Dodd had released two dub cuts, "Talking Dub" and "Lusaka", plus a 1980 cut by Jennifer Lara, "Hurt So Good."
This riddim came to be known as the'Diseases' riddim after Michigan and Smiley recorded their song, with Henry Junjo Lawes in 1981. The vocal melody of "Zungguzungguguzungguzeng" has been sampled in various reggae and hip hop songs. Timeline: Bonehead, "Zungguzungguguzungguzeng" Sister Nancy, "Coward of the Country" Frankie Paul, "Alesha" Toyan, "Hot Bubble Gum" Cocoa Tea, "I Lost My Sonia" Super Cat, "Boops" BDP, "Remix For P Is Free" BDP, "Tcha Tcha" Nice & Smooth, "Nice & Smooth" Nice & Smooth, "Dope on a Rope" K7, "Zunga Zeng" KRS-One, "P Is Still Free" Us3, "I Got It Goin' On" Buju Banton, "Big It Up" Ninjaman, "Funeral Again" Bounty Killer, "Kill Or Be Killed" Sublime, "Greatest Hits" Just My Imagination w/Sista Sensi Frosty the Dopeman w/Sista Sensi Buju Banton, "Man a Look Yu" Junior M. A. F. I. A. "Player's Anthem" Sublime, "Roots of Creation" (
Black Enterprise is a black-owned multimedia company. Since the 1970s, its flagship product Black Enterprise magazine has covered African-American businesses with a readership of 3.7 million. The company was founded in 1970 by Earl G. Graves Sr, it publishes in both print and on digital, an annual listing of the largest African-American companies in the country, or "B. E. 100's", first compiled and published in 1973. In 2002 the magazine launched a supplement targeting Teenpreneur. Black Enterprise has two nationally syndicated television shows, Our World with Black Enterprise and Women of Power; the magazine was founded by Earl G. Graves Sr. In January 2006, Graves named his eldest son, Earl G. Graves Jr. the company’s chief executive officer. Butch joined the company in 1988 after earning his M. B. A. from Harvard University. He sits on the board of directors of AutoZone, serving as lead director and chairman of the compensation committee. Black Enterprise has been profitable since its 10th issue.
The company, headquartered in New York City, has 58 employees and had revenues of $22 million in 2017. The magazine won the 1997 FOLIO: Editorial Excellence Award in the business/finance consumer magazine category. Black capitalism List of magazines Official website Black Enterprise one of the Top 50 Black Owned Websites Kevin Ross, "Breakfast Club Interviews Black Enterprise Magazine about Entreprneurship", Blogwallet.com, October 13, 2014
Reggae is a music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1960s. The term denotes the modern popular music of Jamaica and its diaspora. A 1968 single by Toots and the Maytals, "Do the Reggay" was the first popular song to use the word "reggae," naming the genre and introducing it to a global audience. While sometimes used in a broad sense to refer to most types of popular Jamaican dance music, the term reggae more properly denotes a particular music style, influenced by traditional mento as well as American jazz and rhythm and blues the New Orleans R&B practiced by Fats Domino and Allen Toussaint, evolved out of the earlier genres ska and rocksteady. Reggae relates news, social gossip, political comment. Reggae spread into a commercialized jazz field, being known first as ‘Rudie Blues’ ‘Ska’ ‘Blue Beat’, ‘Rock Steady’, it is recognizable from the counterpoint between the bass and drum downbeat, the offbeat rhythm section. The immediate origins of reggae were in rocksteady. Reggae is linked to the Rastafari, an Afrocentric religion which developed in Jamaica in the 1930's, aiming at promoting Pan Africanism.
Soon after the Rastafarian movement appeared, the international popularity of reggae music became associated with and increased the visibility of Rastafarianism spreading the Rastafari gospel throughout the world. Reggae music is an important means of transporting vital messages of Rastafarianism; the musician becomes the messenger, as Rastafarians see it,"the soldier and the musician are tools for change."Stylistically, reggae incorporates some of the musical elements of rhythm and blues, mento and draws influence from traditional African folk rhythms. One of the most recognizable elements is offbeat rhythms; the tempo of reggae is slower paced than ska but faster than rocksteady. The concept of call and response can be found throughout reggae music; the genre of reggae music is led by the bass. Some key players in this sound are Jackie Jackson from Toots and the Maytals, Carlton Barrett from Bob Marley and the Wailers, Lloyd Brevett from The Skatalites, Paul Douglas from Toots and the Maytals, Lloyd Knibb from The Skatalites, Winston Grennan, Sly Dunbar, Anthony "Benbow" Creary from The Upsetters.
The bass guitar plays the dominant role in reggae. The bass sound in reggae is thick and heavy, equalized so the upper frequencies are removed and the lower frequencies emphasized; the guitar in reggae plays on the off beat of the rhythm. It is common for reggae to be sung in Jamaican Patois, Jamaican English, Iyaric dialects. Reggae is noted for its tradition of social criticism and religion in its lyrics, although many reggae songs discuss lighter, more personal subjects, such as love and socializing. Reggae has spread to many countries across the world incorporating local instruments and fusing with other genres. Reggae en Español spread from the Spanish speaking Central American country of Panama to the mainland South American countries of Venezuela and Guyana to the rest of South America. Caribbean music in the United Kingdom, including reggae, has been popular since the late 1960s, has evolved into several subgenres and fusions. Many reggae artists began their careers in the UK, there have been a number of European artists and bands drawing their inspiration directly from Jamaica and the Caribbean community in Europe.
Reggae in Africa was boosted by the visit of Bob Marley to Zimbabwe in 1980. In Jamaica, authentic reggae is one of the biggest sources of income; the 1967 edition of the Dictionary of Jamaican English lists reggae as "a estab. Sp. for rege", as in rege-rege, a word that can mean either "rags, ragged clothing" or "a quarrel, a row". Reggae as a musical term first appeared in print with the 1968 rocksteady hit "Do the Reggay" by The Maytals which named the genre of Reggae for the world. Reggae historian Steve Barrow credits Clancy Eccles with altering the Jamaican patois word streggae into reggae. However, Toots Hibbert said: There's a word we used to use in Jamaica called'streggae'. If a girl is walking and the guys look at her and say'Man, she's streggae' it means she don't dress well, she look raggedy; the girls would say that about the men too. This one morning me and my two friends were playing and I said,'OK man, let's do the reggay.' It was just something. So we just start. People tell me that we had given the sound its name.
Before that people had called it blue-beat and all kind of other things. Now it's in the Guinness World of Records. Bob Marley is said to have claimed that the word reggae came from a Spanish term for "the king's music"; the liner notes of To the King, a compilation of Christian gospel reggae, suggest that the word reggae was derived from the Latin regi meaning "to the king". Although influenced by traditional mento and calypso music, as well as American jazz and rhythm and blues, reggae owes its direct origins to the ska and rocksteady of 1960s Jamaica; the generic title for Jamaican music recorded between 1961 and 1967, ska emerged from Jamaican R&B, based on American R&B and doo-wop. Rastafari entered some countries through reggae music; the Rastafari moveme
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea. Spanning 10,990 square kilometres in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles and the fourth-largest island country in the Caribbean. Jamaica lies about 145 kilometres south of Cuba, 191 kilometres west of Hispaniola. Inhabited by the indigenous Arawak and Taíno peoples, the island came under Spanish rule following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1494. Many of the indigenous people died of disease, the Spanish transplanted African slaves to Jamaica as labourers; the island remained a possession of Spain until 1655, when England conquered it and renamed it Jamaica. Under British colonial rule Jamaica became a leading sugar exporter, with its plantation economy dependent on African slaves; the British emancipated all slaves in 1838, many freedmen chose to have subsistence farms rather than to work on plantations. Beginning in the 1840s, the British utilized Chinese and Indian indentured labour to work on plantations.
The island achieved independence from the United Kingdom on 6 August 1962. With 2.9 million people, Jamaica is the third-most populous Anglophone country in the Americas, the fourth-most populous country in the Caribbean. Kingston is the country's capital and largest city, with a population of 937,700. Jamaicans have African ancestry, with significant European, Indian and mixed-race minorities. Due to a high rate of emigration for work since the 1960s, Jamaica has a large diaspora in Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States. Jamaica is an upper-middle income country with an average of 4.3 million tourists a year. Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm, with Elizabeth II as its queen, her appointed representative in the country is the Governor-General of Jamaica, an office held by Sir Patrick Allen since 2009. Andrew Holness has served as Prime Minister of Jamaica since March 2016. Jamaica is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with legislative power vested in the bicameral Parliament of Jamaica, consisting of an appointed Senate and a directly elected House of Representatives.
The indigenous people, the Taíno, called the island Xaymaca in Arawakan, meaning the "Land of Wood and Water" or the "Land of Springs". Colloquially Jamaicans refer to their home island as the "Rock." Slang names such as "Jamrock", "Jamdown", or "Ja", have derived from this. The Arawak and Taíno indigenous people, originating in South America, first settled on the island between 4000 and 1000 BC; when Christopher Columbus arrived in 1494, there were more than 200 villages ruled by caciques. The south coast of Jamaica was the most populated around the area now known as Old Harbour; the Taino still inhabited Jamaica when the English took control of the island in 1655. The Jamaican National Heritage Trust is attempting to locate and document any evidence of the Taino/yamaye. Today, few Jamaican natives remain. Most notably among some Maroon communities as well as within some communities in Cornwall County, Jamaica Christopher Columbus claimed Jamaica for Spain after landing there in 1494, his probable landing point was Dry Harbour, called Discovery Bay, St. Ann's Bay was named "Saint Gloria" by Columbus, as the first sighting of the land.
One and a half kilometres west of St. Ann's Bay is the site of the first Spanish settlement on the island, established in 1509 and abandoned around 1524 because it was deemed unhealthy; the capital was moved to Spanish Town called St. Jago de la Vega, around 1534. Spanish Town has the oldest cathedral of the British colonies in the Caribbean; the Spanish were forcibly evicted by the English at Ocho Rios in St. Ann. In the 1655 Invasion of Jamaica, the English, led by Sir William Penn and General Robert Venables, took over the last Spanish fort on the island; the name of Montego Bay, the capital of the parish of St. James, was derived from the Spanish name manteca bahía, alluding to the lard-making industry based on processing the numerous boars in the area. In 1660, the population of Jamaica was about 4,500 1,500 black. By the early 1670s, as the English developed sugar cane plantations and "imported" more slaves, black people formed a majority of the population; the colony was shaken and destroyed by the 1692 Jamaica earthquake.
The Irish in Jamaica formed a large part of the island's early population, making up two-thirds of the white population on the island in the late 17th century, twice that of the English population. They were brought in as indentured labourers and soldiers after the conquest of Jamaica by Cromwell's forces in 1655; the majority of Irish were transported by force as political prisoners of war from Ireland as a result of the ongoing Wars of the Three Kingdoms at the time. Migration of large numbers of Irish to the island continued into the 18th century. Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492 and forcibly converted to Christianity in Portugal, during a period of persecution by the Inquisition; some Spanish and Portuguese Jewish refugees went to the Netherlands and England, from there to Jamaica. Others were part of the Iberian colonisation of the New World, after overtly converting to Catholicism, as only Catholics were allowed in the Spanish colonies. By 1660, Jamaica had become a refuge for Jews in the New World attracting those, expelled from Spain and Portugal.
An early group of Jews arrived in 1510, soon after the son of Christopher Columbus settled on the island. Working as merchants and traders, the
Rototom Sunsplash is a large European reggae festival, it takes place every summer at Benicassim, a few miles north of Valencia in Spain. Since 1994 it attracts thousands of reggae passionated from all over the world, thanks to a vast cultural and musical program that lasts for a whole week. Gaio di Spilimbergo, Province of Pordenone, in the region of Friuli Venezia Giulia; this small town in Northern Italy between Venice and Udine is the starting point for an adventure called Rototom Sunsplash. On 13 December 1991 the Rototom Cultural Association was born and out of it the nightclub of the same name, where everything happened, was created. An alternative music scene, an authentic sound lab, a stop off point for some of the greatest exponents on the world music scene: from punk to rock, reggae and electronic music. A fusion that, explained by the instrument that gave it its name: Rototom, able to create different sounds, just like the atmospheres that were created in this venue. On moving in 1997 to what would be its second headquarters in Zoppola, the Rototom Club spreads all of these genres in three different rooms all connected to create a “city of music”.
One dedicated to rock and rap. Over the next nine years, it hosted shows by the Ramones, Massive Attack, Bad Religion, NOFX, Suede and Soul Fly; the second phase of Rototom Sunsplash has but one name: the camping Girasole. Summer 1998. Unable to absorb the capacity, the festival moves to Latisana Maritima near Lignano, near the tourist resort town of Venice. Sunsplash had the structure that it evokes today: here it transforms a real reggae town with three stages and complementary cultural areas capable of housing thousands of residents: in this new headquarters the 8,000 festivalgoers from the last year in Gaio become 20,000; the event goes with more scheduled timetable. In Lignano the Rototom Sunsplash becomes a mass phenomenon, a pole of attraction for those beyond that of the music or to watch the live show of a certain artist, it married with a philosophy, intrinsic to reggae: peace and respect; the level that the festival reached is reflected in several anecdotes, like for instance that in its premiere in Lignano, the restaurants’ stocks ran out the first day of the four day event.
Or that the beer went from being measured in barrels, like in Gaio, to being measured in tanks. As a part of this explosive growth the festival include the first international broadcast of its concerts via streaming, the launch of Reggae Train, departing from Rome and with stops in Florence, Bologna and Venice, along with a free 24 hour coach service from Lignano and a nursery for young audiences, it is here that the ‘Italian Reggae Award‘ is first organised. The director of the Jamaican Reggae Sunsplash, Mr. Rae Barret, was invited to choose from the best Italian bands at the festival, to become the first group to represent Italy at the festival in Jamaica. Reggae National Ticket took the honours, that marked the launching of the musical career on the Caribbean island of the singer, whose career is directly linked to the Rototom Sunsplash. In the summer of 2000 the Rototom Sunsplash changed its surrounds once again and moved its headquarters to Osoppo. If Lignano represented its ‘professionalization’ and consolidation as a cultural and musical landmark event in Italy, Osoppo is crucial to its growth from national meeting to being a European festival.
Its proximity to Austria and Germany expanded the boundaries of the event and balanced the handicap of its geographic isolation in a small town of 3,000 inhabitants. In the 250,000 square meters of the Rivellino Park in Osoppo the festival assumes the dimensions that have accompanied it to the present, it is reconfigured as a holiday destination to spend four to eight days with a clear differentiation between the festival with ‘day’ activities -the concerts are more spaced out- and night, with all its musical prominence. The Camping Area becomes a highlight, in the natural park at the foot of the Alps, which favours moments for meeting and socializing among the thousands of festival goers from around the world -150,000 people on average for ten consecutive editions in Osoppo- and helps forge a sense of belonging to the Rototom family, and to create the atmosphere of pacifism and multiculturalism that define the event. The number of stages increase and the line-up to continues to add more of the greats of the reggae scene, with exclusive events in Europe, the rising stars of the Jamaican genre.
The extra-musical areas take shape, supported by the extension of the space: the Social Forum dedicated to conferences and debates with sociologists, religious representatives and intellectuals. The Reggae University is gestated, for the exchange of experiences between artists and audience. Osoppo represents a change in the organizational structure with more specialized equipment t