Humor research is a multifaceted field which enters the domains of linguistics and literature. Research in humor has been done to understand the psychological and physiological effects, both positive and negative, on a person or groups of people. Research in humor has revealed many different theories of humor and many different kinds of humor including their functions and effects in relationships, in society. Humor research deals with a wide variety of issues, which can be categorized according to several theories of humor; because of its interdisciplinary nature, humor research has many areas of study which aim to explain the phenomenon of humor. Cognitive neuroscience has provided insight into. Brain imaging techniques such as fMRI and PET scans have been implemented in this subfield of humor research, and so on There are a few main regions of the human brain associated with laughter. The production of laughter involves two primary brain pathways, one for involuntary and one for voluntary laughter.
Involuntary laughter is emotionally driven and includes key emotional brain areas such as the amygdala, thalamic areas, the brainstem. Voluntary laughter, begins in the premotor opercular area in the temporal lobe and moves to the motor cortex and pyramidal tract before moving to the brainstem. Wild et al. propose that the generation of laughter is influenced by neural pathways that go from the premotor and motor cortex to the ventral side of the brainstem through the cerebral peduncles. It is suggested that real laughter is not produced from the motor cortex, but that the normal inhibition of cortical frontal areas stops during laughter; when the electrical activity of the brain is measured during and after hearing a joke, a prominent response can be seen 300ms after the punchline, followed by a depolarization about 100ms later. The fact that humor response occurs in two separate waves of activity supports the idea that humor processing occurs in two stages. Functional MRI and PET studies further illuminate which parts of the brain are participating in the experience of humor.
A study by Ozawa et al. found that, when participants heard sentences that they rated as humorous, the Broca's area and the middle frontal gyrus were activated. Additionally, Wernicke's area and the transverse temporal gyri were activated, but these areas were found to be active in control conditions. Another study using fMRI showed that the linguistic basis of jokes participants found to be humorous impacted which parts of the brain were activated. In response to puns, the left posterior middle temporal gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus were activated; when listening to semantic jokes, the left posterior middle temporal gyrus was again activated, as were the left posterior inferior temporal gyrus, the right posterior middle temporal gyrus, the cerebellum. Brain activity in the medial ventral prefrontal cortex was associated with ratings of funniness that the participants gave after the brain scan and initial humor response; this response may stem from emotional change that occurs after hearing humor.
Induction of laughter through direct brain stimulation has been reported in a number of studies, includes areas such as ACC, globus pallidus, floor of the third ventricle, most left superior frontal gyrus – though these results are hard to draw inferences from Because the nature of laughter is so complex—involving facial muscles, respiratory actions, etc.--a control center has been hypothesized in the upper pons. Studies within play research have provided correlates to the study of humor, as play takes on a humorous demeanor. A child's social play invokes the use of jokes, non-serious social incongruity, physical slapstick humor. Studies on how play "promot social cohesion and altruism," have been used to describe humor's function. Laughter is a byproduct of playful social interactions, can therefore be viewed as serving a similar function as play, it can be said that the perception and appreciation of humor decreases aggression and stress while promoting cooperation and fairness. Play research can provide a functional look at humor in its relation to social interactions.
Evolutionary theorists have attempted to study and explain the phenomena of laughter and humor in terms of survival benefit. Laughter-like behavior is not unique to humans, but humans do display a much more consistent and complex use of humor and laughter than other animals The evolution and functions of laughter and humor have been explored in an attempt to understand how and why humor and laughter have become part of human existence. Duchenne laughter refers to laughter, stimulus-driven and linked to some positive experience; this is the result of a perceived social incongruity. Non-Duchenne laughter refers to laughter, unconnected to any emotional experience, but rather laughter, originated voluntarily. Duchenne laughter evolved before non-Duchenne laughter with the function of making play and playful emotions contagious. In these situations, laughter serves as an in-group designator. Early evolutionary laughter is theorized to serve the function of dissolving social tension. During moments of displays of social superiority, laughter could be used to dissolve tensions that otherwise could lead to fighting or exclusion from a group, by designating those situations as play rather than as a real challenge.
Duchenne laughter, which should be thought of as emotionally-valenced rather than spontaneous, can increase positive affect and mood of an individual as well as a g
Prayer Meetin' is an album by American jazz organist Jimmy Smith featuring performances recorded in 1963 and released on the Blue Note label. The album was rereleased on CD with two bonus tracks from the same session; the Allmusic review by Steve Leggett awarded the album 4½ stars stating "Prayer Meetin' is a delight from start to finish". "Prayer Meeting" – 5:45 "I Almost Lost My Mind" – 9:25 "Stone Cold Dead in the Market" – 3:43 "When the Saints Go Marching In" – 6:15 "Red Top" – 7:38 "Picnickin'" – 6:30 "Lonesome Road" – 8:55 Bonus track on CD reissue "Smith Walk" – 7:12 Bonus track on CD reissueNOTE: "Lonesome Road" and "Smith Walk" are bonus tracks on a CD reissue that were recorded on June 13, 1960, featuring the same lineup plus Sam Jones on bass. Jimmy Smith – organ Stanley Turrentine – tenor saxophone Quentin Warren – guitar Donald Bailey – drums Alfred Lion – producer Rudy Van Gelder – engineer Reid Miles – design Francis Wolff – photography Joe Goldberg – liner notes