Merriam-Webster, Inc. is an American company that publishes reference books and is known for its dictionaries. In 1828, George and Charles Merriam founded the company as G & C Merriam Co. in Springfield, Massachusetts. In 1843, after Noah Webster died, the company bought the rights to An American Dictionary of the English Language from Webster's estate. All Merriam-Webster dictionaries trace their lineage to this source. In 1964, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. acquired Inc. as a subsidiary. The company adopted its current name in 1982. In 1806, Webster published A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language. In 1807 Webster started two decades of intensive work to expand his publication into a comprehensive dictionary, An American Dictionary of the English Language. To help him trace the etymology of words, Webster learned 26 languages. Webster hoped to standardize American speech, since Americans in different parts of the country used somewhat different vocabularies and spelled and used words differently.
Webster completed his dictionary during his year abroad in 1825 in Paris, at the University of Cambridge. His 1820s book contained 70,000 words, of which about 12,000 had never appeared in a dictionary before; as a spelling reformer, Webster believed that English spelling rules were unnecessarily complex, so his dictionary introduced American English spellings, replacing colour with color, waggon with wagon, centre with center. He added American words, including skunk and squash, that did not appear in British dictionaries. At the age of 70 in 1828, Webster published his dictionary. However, in 1840, he published the second edition in two volumes with much greater success. In 1843, after Webster's death, George Merriam and Charles Merriam secured publishing and revision rights to the 1840 edition of the dictionary, they published a revision in 1847, which did not change any of the main text but added new sections, a second update with illustrations in 1859. In 1864, Merriam published a expanded edition, the first version to change Webster's text overhauling his work yet retaining many of his definitions and the title "An American Dictionary".
This began a series of revisions. In 1884 it contained 118,000 words, "3000 more than any other English dictionary". With the edition of 1890, the dictionary was retitled Webster's International; the vocabulary was vastly expanded in Webster's New International editions of 1909 and 1934, totaling over half a million words, with the 1934 edition retrospectively called Webster's Second International or "The Second Edition" of the New International. The Collegiate Dictionary was introduced in 1898 and the series is now in its eleventh edition. Following the publication of Webster's International in 1890, two Collegiate editions were issued as abridgments of each of their Unabridged editions. With the ninth edition, the Collegiate adopted changes which distinguish it as a separate entity rather than an abridgment of the Third New International; some proper names were returned including names of Knights of the Round Table. The most notable change was the inclusion of the date of the first known citation of each word, to document its entry into the English language.
The eleventh edition includes more than 225,000 definitions, more than 165,000 entries. A CD-ROM of the text is sometimes included; this dictionary is preferred as a source "for general matters of spelling" by the influential The Chicago Manual of Style, followed by many book publishers and magazines in the United States. The Chicago Manual states. Merriam overhauled the dictionary again with the 1961 Webster's Third New International under the direction of Philip B. Gove, making changes that sparked public controversy. Many of these changes were in formatting, omitting needless punctuation, or avoiding complete sentences when a phrase was sufficient. Others, more controversial, signaled a shift from linguistic prescriptivism and towards describing American English as it was used at that time. Since the 1940s, the company has added many specialized dictionaries, language aides, other references to its repertoire; the G. & C. Merriam Company lost its right to exclusive use of the name "Webster" after a series of lawsuits placed that name in public domain.
Its name was changed to "Merriam-Webster, Incorporated", with the publication of Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary in 1983. Previous publications had used "A Merriam-Webster Dictionary" as a subtitle for many years and will be found on older editions; the company has been a subsidiary of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. since 1964. In 1996, Merriam-Webster launched its first website, which provided free access to an online dictionary and thesaurus. Merriam-Webster has published dictionaries of synonyms, English usage, biography, proper names, medical terms, sports terms, Spanish/English, numerous others. Non-dictionary publications include Collegiate Thesaurus, Secretarial Handbook, Manual for Writers and Editors, Collegiate Encyclopedia, Encyclopedia of Literature, Encyclopedia of World Religions. On February 16, 2007, Merriam-Webster announced the launch of a mobile dictionary and thesaurus service developed with mobile search-and-information provider AskMeNow. Consumers use the service to access definitions and synonyms via text message.
Services include Merr
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms. Individual freedoms are subordinate to the state and there is no constitutional accountability and rule of law under an authoritarian regime. Authoritarian regimes can be autocratic with power concentrated in one person or it can be more spread out between multiple officials and government institutions. Juan Linz's influential 1964 description of authoritarianism characterized authoritarian political systems by four qualities: Limited political pluralism, such regimes place constraints on political institutions and groups like legislatures, political parties and interest groups. Linz distinguished new forms of authoritarianism from personalistic dictatorships and totalitarian states, taking Francoist Spain as an example. Unlike personalistic dictatorships, new forms of authoritarianism have institutionalized representation of a variety of actors. Unlike totalitarian states, the regime relies on passive mass acceptance rather than popular support.
Some scholars mention the emergence of a different type of regime - the hybrid regime - in the post-Cold War era. Several subtypes of authoritarian regimes have been identified by others. Linz identified the two most basic subtypes as traditional authoritarian regimes and bureaucratic-military authoritarian regimes: Traditional authoritarian regimes are those "in which the ruling authority" is maintained in power "through a combination of appeals to traditional legitimacy, patron-client ties and repression, carried out by an apparatus bound to the ruling authority through personal loyalties". An example is Ethiopia under Haile Selassie I. Bureaucratic-military authoritarian regimes are those "governed by a coalition of military officers and technocrats who act pragmatically within the limits of their bureaucratic mentality." Mark J. Gasiorowski suggests that it is best to distinguish "simple military authoritarian regimes" from "bureaucratic authoritarian regimes" in which "a powerful group of technocrats uses the state apparatus to try to rationalize and develop the economy" such as South Korea under Park Chung-hee.
Linz has identified three other subtypes of authoritarian regime: corporatist or organic-statistic and ethnic "democracy" and post-totalitarian. Corporatist authoritarian regimes "are those in which corporatism institutions are used extensively by the state to coopt and demobilize powerful interest groups"; this type has been studied most extensively in Latin America. Racial and ethnic "democracies" are those in which "certain racial or ethnic groups enjoy full democratic rights while others are or denied those rights", such as in South Africa under apartheid. Post-totalitarian authoritarian regimes are those in which totalitarian institutions remain, but where "ideological orthodoxy has declined in favor of routinization, repression has declined, the state's top leadership is less personalized and more secure, the level of mass mobilization has declined substantially". Examples include the People's Republic of China, Russian Federation, Soviet Eastern bloc states in the mid-1980s. Authoritarian regimes are sometimes subcategorized by whether they are personalistic or populist.
Personalistic authoritarian regimes are characterized by arbitrary rule and authority exercised "mainly through patronage networks and coercion rather than through institutions and formal rules". Personalistic authoritarian regimes have been seen in post-colonial Africa. By contrast, populist authoritarian regimes "are mobilizational regimes in which a strong, manipulative leader rules through a coalition involving key lower-class groups". Examples include Argentina under Perón, Egypt under Nasser and Venezuela under Maduro. Authoritarianism is characterized by concentrated and centralized power maintained by political repression and the exclusion of potential challengers, it uses political parties and mass organizations to mobilize people around the goals of the regime. Adam Przeworski has theorized that "authoritarian equilibrium rests on lies and economic prosperity". Authoritarianism tends to embrace the informal and unregulated exercise of political power, a leadership, "self-appointed and if elected cannot be displaced by citizens' free choice among competitors", the arbitrary deprivation of civil liberties and little tolerance for meaningful opposition.
A range of social controls attempt to stifle civil society, while political stability is maintained by control over and support of the armed forces, a bureaucracy staffed by the regime and creation of allegiance through various means of socialization and indoctrination. Authoritarian political systems may be weakened through "inadequate performance to demands of the people". Vestal writes that the tendency to respond to challenges to authoritarianism through tighter control instead of adaptation is a significant weakness and that this overly rigid approach fails to "adapt to changes or to accommodate growing demands on the part of the populace or groups within the system"; because the
A connotation is a understood cultural or emotional association that some word or phrase carries, in addition to its explicit or literal meaning, its denotation. A connotation is described as either positive or negative, with regard to its pleasing or displeasing emotional connection. For example, a stubborn person may be described as being either pig-headed. "Connotation" branches into a mixture of different meanings. These could include the contrast of a word or phrase with its primary, literal meaning, with what that word or phrase denotes; the connotation relates to how anything may be associated with a word or phrase, for example, an implied value judgement or feelings. In logic and semantics, connotation is synonymous with intension. Connotation is contrasted with denotation, more or less synonymous with extension. Alternatively, the connotation of the word may be thought of as the set of all its possible referents. A word's denotation is the collection of things; the denotation of dog is four-legged canine carnivore.
So saying, "You are a dog" would imply that you were ugly or aggressive rather than stating that you were canine. It is useful to avoid words with strong connotations when striving to achieve a neutral point of view. A desire for more positive connotations, or fewer negative ones, is one of the main reasons for using euphemisms. Semiotic closure, as defined by Terry Eagleton, concerns "a sealed world of ideological stability, which repels the disruptive, decentered forces of language in the name of an imaginary unity. Signs are ranked by a certain covert violence into rigidly hierarchical order.... The process of forging ‘representations’ always involves this arbitrary closing of the signifying chain, constricting the free play of the signifier to a spuriously determinate meaning which can be received by the subject as natural and inevitable". Context as Other Minds Double entendre Extension Extensional definition Intension Intensional definition Loaded language Metacommunicative competence Pun Semantic differential Semantic property Subtext
Politics refers to a set of activities associated with the governance of a country, or an area. It involves making decisions, it refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance—organized control over a human community a state. The academic study focusing on just politics, therefore more targeted than general political science, is sometimes referred to as politology. In modern nation-states, people have formed political parties to represent their ideas, they agree to take the same position on many issues and agree to support the same changes to law and the same leaders. An election is a competition between different parties; some examples of political parties worldwide are: the African National Congress in South Africa, the Conservative in the United Kingdom, the Christian Democratic Union in Germany and the Indian National Congress in India. Politics is a multifaceted word, it has a set of specific meanings that are descriptive and nonjudgmental, but does colloquially carry a negative connotation.
The word has been used negatively for many years: the British national anthem as published in 1745 calls on God to "Confound their politics", the phrase "play politics", for example, has been in use since at least 1853, when abolitionist Wendell Phillips declared: "We do not play politics. Politics is exercised on a wide range of social levels, from clans and tribes of traditional societies, through modern local governments and institutions up to sovereign states, to the international level. A political system is a framework; the history of political thought can be traced back to early antiquity, with seminal works such as Plato's Republic, Aristotle's Politics and the works of Confucius. The word comes from the same Greek word from which the title of Aristotle's book Politics derives; the book title was rendered in Early Modern English in the mid-15th century as "Polettiques". The singular politic first attested in English 1430 and comes from Middle French politique, in turn from Latin politicus, the Latinization of the Greek πολιτικός, meaning amongst others "of, for, or relating to citizens", "civil", "civic", "belonging to the state", in turn from πολίτης, "citizen" and that from πόλις, "city".
Formal politics refers to the operation of a constitutional system of government and publicly defined institutions and procedures. Political parties, public policy or discussions about war and foreign affairs would fall under the category of Formal Politics. Many people view formal politics as something outside of themselves, but that can still affect their daily lives. Semi-formal politics is politics in government associations such as neighborhood associations, or student governments where student government political party politics is important. Informal politics is understood as forming alliances, exercising power and protecting and advancing particular ideas or goals; this includes anything affecting one's daily life, such as the way an office or household is managed, or how one person or group exercises influence over another. Informal Politics is understood as everyday politics, hence the idea that "politics is everywhere"; the history of politics is reflected in the origin and economics of the institutions of government.
The origin of the state is to be found in the development of the art of warfare. Speaking, all political communities of the modern type owe their existence to successful warfare. Kings and other types of monarchs in many countries including China and Japan, were considered divine. Of the institutions that ruled states, that of kingship stood at the forefront until the American Revolution put an end to the "divine right of kings"; the monarchy is among the longest-lasting political institutions, dating as early as 2100 BC in Sumeria to the 21st century AD British Monarchy. Kingship becomes an institution through the institution of hereditary monarchy; the king even in absolute monarchies, ruled his kingdom with the aid of an elite group of advisors, a council without which he could not maintain power. As these advisors and others outside the monarchy negotiated for power, constitutional monarchies emerged, which may be considered the germ of constitutional government; the greatest of the king's subordinates, the earls and dukes in England and Scotland, the dukes and counts in the Continent, always sat as a right on the council.
A conqueror wages war upon the vanquished for vengeance or for plunder but an established kingdom exacts tribute. One of the functions of the council is to keep the coffers of the king full. Another is the satisfaction of military service and the establishment of lordships by the king to satisfy the task of collecting taxes and soldiers. There are many forms of political organization, including states, non-government organizations and international organizations such as the United Nations. States are the predominant institutional form of political governance, where a state is understood as an institution and a government is understood as the regime in power. According