Greater Sudbury City Council
Greater Sudbury City Council is the governing body of the City of Greater Sudbury, Canada. The council consists of the mayor plus a twelve-person council; the city is divided into twelve wards. The council meets at Tom Davies Square; the city was created by amalgamating the former City of Sudbury with six suburban municipalities on January 1, 2001. The council structure consisted of six wards, each represented by two councillors. Ward boundaries in the new city were drawn by grouping former suburban municipalities with adjacent neighbourhoods in the former city. For the 2006 municipal election, council was reorganized into twelve single-member wards. Past mayors of the city and the former suburban municipalities are listed at List of mayors of Sudbury, Ontario. Council elected in the 2000 municipal election: Council elected in the 2003 municipal election: Council elected in the 2006 municipal election: Council elected in the 2010 municipal election; as the vacancies in wards 1 and 8 occurred less than six months prior to the 2014 municipal election, by provincial law both were required to be filled by temporary appointment to the seat rather than in a conventional by-election.
Sizer was appointed on June 26 to succeed Belli, McIntaggart was appointed on July 8 to succeed Cimino. Unlike many cities in similar circumstances, Greater Sudbury City Council opted not to impose a requirement that the appointed councillors could not run for reelection in 2014. Council elected in the 2014 municipal election. Council elected in the 2018 municipal election. Ward 1: Gatchell, the West End, Copper Park, South of Ontario St. and West of Regent St. Ward 2: Walden, Copper Cliff Ward 3: Onaping Falls, Hull, Larchwood Ward 4: Azilda, Bélanger, Elm West, Donovan Ward 5: Val Caron, Blezard Valley, Cambrian Heights Guilletville, Notre Dame, LaSalle area west of Rideau Ward 6: Val Thérèse, Hanmer Ward 7: Garson, Skead, Capreol Ward 8: New Sudbury Ward 9: Coniston, Wanup, McFarlane Lake, South End Ward 10: Lockerby, Lo-Ellen, University Area, Bell Park, Downtown Ward 11: Minnow Lake, New Sudbury Ward 12: Flour Mill, New Sudbury, Kingsway-Bancroft area From amalgamation in 2001 until reorganization in 2005, the wards were as follows: Ward 1: former Town of Walden, plus the communities of Copper Cliff, Gatchell and the West End in the former city of Sudbury.
Ward 2: former Towns of Rayside-Balfour and Onaping Falls, the northwestern corner of old Sudbury. Ward 3: former City of Valley East, New Sudbury west of Rideau Street and the Cambrian Heights neighbourhood. Ward 4: former Town of Capreol, the northern half of the former Town of Nickel Centre, the newly annexed geographic townships north and east of Lake Wanapitei, New Sudbury east of Barry Downe Road. Ward 5: southern half of the former Town of Nickel Centre, the downtown core, most of the former Sudbury south of Ramsey Lake, the newly annexed townships south of the former Regional Municipality. Ward 6: the only ward whose boundaries lay within the old City of Sudbury, included the Flour Mill, Minnow Lake and New Sudbury between Barrydowne Road and Rideau Street. Greater Sudbury City Council
Monarchy of Canada
The monarchy of Canada is at the core of both Canada's federal structure and Westminster-style of parliamentary and constitutional democracy. The monarchy is the foundation of the executive and judicial branches within both federal and provincial jurisdictions; the sovereign is the personification of the Canadian state and is Queen of Canada as a matter of constitutional law. The current Canadian monarch and head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952. Elizabeth's eldest son, Prince Charles, is heir apparent. Although the person of the sovereign is shared with 15 other independent countries within the Commonwealth of Nations, each country's monarchy is separate and distinct; as a result, the current monarch is titled Queen of Canada and, in this capacity, her consort, other members of the Canadian Royal Family undertake public and private functions domestically and abroad as representatives of Canada. However, the Queen is the only member of the Royal Family with any constitutional role.
While some powers are exercisable only by the sovereign, most of the monarch's operational and ceremonial duties are exercised by his or her representative, the Governor General of Canada. In Canada's provinces, the monarch in right of each is represented by a lieutenant governor; as territories fall under the federal jurisdiction, they each have a commissioner, rather than a lieutenant governor, who represents the federal Crown-in-Council directly. As all executive authority is vested in the sovereign, their assent is required to allow for bills to become law and for letters patent and orders in council to have legal effect. While the power for these acts stems from the Canadian people through the constitutional conventions of democracy, executive authority remains vested in the Crown and is only entrusted by the sovereign to their government on behalf of the people, underlining the Crown's role in safeguarding the rights and democratic system of government of Canadians, reinforcing the fact that "governments are the servants of the people and not the reverse".
Thus, within a constitutional monarchy the sovereign's direct participation in any of these areas of governance is limited, with the sovereign exercising executive authority only on the advice of the executive committee of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada, with the sovereign's legislative and judicial responsibilities carried out through parliamentarians as well as judges and justices of the peace. The Crown today functions as a guarantor of continuous and stable governance and a nonpartisan safeguard against abuse of power, the sovereign acting as a custodian of the Crown's democratic powers and a representation of the "power of the people above government and political parties". Canada is one of the oldest continuing monarchies in the world. Established in the 16th century, monarchy in Canada has evolved through a continuous succession of French and British sovereigns into the independent Canadian sovereigns of today, whose institution is sometimes colloquially referred to as the Maple Crown.
The person, the Canadian sovereign is shared with 15 other monarchies in the 52-member Commonwealth of Nations, with the monarch residing predominantly in the oldest and most populous realm, the United Kingdom, viceroys acting as the sovereign's representatives in Canada. The emergence of this arrangement paralleled the fruition of Canadian nationalism following the end of the First World War and culminated in the passage of the Statute of Westminster in 1931. Since the pan-national Crown has had both a shared and a separate character and the sovereign's role as monarch of Canada has been distinct to his or her position as monarch of any other realm, including the United Kingdom. Only Canadian federal ministers of the Crown may advise the sovereign on all matters of the Canadian state, of which the sovereign, when not in Canada, is kept abreast by weekly communications with the federal viceroy; the monarchy thus ceased to be an British institution and in Canada became a Canadian, or "domesticated", though it is still denoted as "British" in both legal and common language, for reasons historical, of convenience.
This division is illustrated in a number of ways: The sovereign, for example, holds a unique Canadian title and, when she and other members of the Royal Family are acting in public as representatives of Canada, they use, where possible, Canadian symbols, including the country's national flag, unique royal symbols, armed forces uniforms, the like, as well as Canadian Forces aircraft or other Canadian-owned vehicles for travel. Once in Canadian airspace, or arrived at a Canadian event taking place abroad, the Canadian Secretary to the Queen, officers of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, other Canadian officials will take over from whichever of their other realms' counterparts were escorting the Queen or other member of the Royal Family; the sovereign only draws from Canadian funds for support in the performance of her duties when in Canada or acting as Queen of Canada abroad. As in the other Commonwealth realms, the current heir apparent to the throne is Prince Charles, with the next four in the line of succession
National Assembly of Quebec
The National Assembly of Quebec is the legislative body of the province of Quebec in Canada. Legislators are called MNAs; the Queen in Right of Quebec, represented by the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec and the National Assembly compose the Legislature of Quebec, which operates in a fashion similar to those of other Westminster-style parliamentary systems. The National Assembly was the lower house of Quebec's legislature and was called the Legislative Assembly of Quebec. In 1968, the upper house, the Legislative Council, was abolished and the remaining house was renamed; the office of President of the National Assembly is equivalent to speaker in other legislatures. The Coalition Avenir Québec has the most seats in the Assembly following the Quebec general election, 2018; the Legislative Assembly was created in Lower Canada by the Constitutional Act of 1791. It was abolished from 1841 to 1867 under the 1840 Act of Union, which merged Upper Canada and Lower Canada into a single colony named the Province of Canada.
The Constitution Act, 1867, which created Canada, split the Province of Canada into the provinces of Ontario and Quebec. The Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada was thus restored as the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Quebec; the original Quebec legislature was bicameral, consisting of the Legislative Council and the Legislative Assembly. In 1968, Bill 90 was passed by the government of Premier Jean-Jacques Bertrand, abolishing the Legislative Council and renaming the Legislative Assembly the "National Assembly", in line with the more strident nationalism of the Quiet Revolution. Before 1968, there had been various unsuccessful attempts at abolishing the Legislative Council, analogous to the Senate of Canada. In 1978, television cameras were brought in for the first time to televise parliamentary debates; the colour of the walls was changed to suit the needs of television and the salon vert became the salon bleu. Constructed between 1877 and 1886, the Parliament Building features the Second Empire architectural style, popular for prestigious buildings both in Europe and the United States during the latter 19th century.
Although somewhat more sober in appearance and lacking a towering central belfry, Quebec City's Parliament Building bears a definite likeness to the Philadelphia City Hall, another Second Empire edifice in North America, built during the same period. Though the building's symmetrical layout with a frontal clock tower in the middle is typical of legislative institutions of British heritage, the architectural style is believed to be unique among parliament buildings found in other Canadian provincial capitals, its facade presents a pantheon representing significant people of the history of Quebec. Additional buildings were added next to the Parliament Buildings: Édifice André-Laurendeau was added from 1935 to 1937 to house the Ministry of Transport. Édifice Honoré-Mercier was added from 1922 to 1925 to house the Ministries of the Treasury, the Attorney General and the Secretary General of the National Assembly. Édifice Jean-Antoine-Panet was added from 1931 to 1932 for the Ministry of Agriculture.
Édifice Pamphile-Le May added from 1910 to 1915 for the Library of the National Assembly, various other government offices and for the Executive Council. General elections are held every five years or less. Any person holding Canadian citizenship and who has resided in Quebec for at least six months qualifies to be on the electoral list; the leader of the political party with the largest number of elected candidates is asked by the Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec to form the government as premier.. Quebec's territory is divided into 125 electoral districts. In each riding, the candidate who receives the most votes is elected and becomes a Member of the National Assembly; this is known as the first-past-the-post voting system. It tends to produce strong disparities in the number of seats won compared to the popular vote best exemplified by the 1966, 1970, 1973, 1998 elections. Quebec elections have tended to be volatile since the 1970s, producing a large turnover in Assembly seats. Existing political parties lose more than half their seats with the rise of new or opposition political parties.
For instance, the 1970 and 1973 saw the demise of the Union Nationale and rise of the Parti Québécois which managed to take power in 1976. The 1985 and 1994 elections saw the Liberals lose power in landslide elections; the 2018 elections saw the rise of the Coalition Avenir Québec which managed to take power for the first time. Cabinet ministers are in bold, party leaders are in italic and the president of the National Assembly is marked with a †. Last update: March 21, 2019 Members of the National Assembly swear two oaths: one to the Canadian monarch as Quebec's head of state, a second one to the people of Quebec. Previous Parti Québécois premier René Lévesque added the second oath. One of the members of the National Assembly is chosen as the President of the Assembly
House of Commons of Canada
The House of Commons of Canada is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign and the Senate. The House of Commons meets in a temporary Commons chamber in the West Block of the parliament buildings on Parliament Hill in Ottawa, while the Centre Block, which houses the traditional Commons chamber, undergoes a ten-year renovation; the House of Commons is a democratically elected body whose members are known as Members of Parliament. There were 308 members in the last parliament, but that number has risen to 338 following the election on Monday October 19, 2015. Members are elected by simple plurality in each of the country's electoral districts, which are colloquially known as ridings. MPs may hold office until Parliament is dissolved and serve for constitutionally limited terms of up to five years after an election. However, terms have ended before their expiry and the sitting government has dissolved parliament within four years of an election according to a long-standing convention.
In any case, an Act of Parliament now limits each term to four years. Seats in the House of Commons are distributed in proportion to the population of each province and territory. However, some ridings are more populous than others, the Canadian constitution contains some special provisions regarding provincial representation; as a result, there is some regional malapportionment relative to population. The House of Commons was established in 1867, when the British North America Act—now called the Constitution Act, 1867—created the Dominion of Canada, was modelled on the British House of Commons; the lower of the two houses making up the parliament, the House of Commons in practice holds far more power than the upper house, the Senate. Although the approval of both Houses is necessary for legislation, the Senate rarely rejects bills passed by the commons. Moreover, the Cabinet is responsible to the House of Commons; the prime minister stays in office only as long as they retain the support, or "confidence", of the lower house.
The term derives from the Anglo-Norman word communes, referring to the geographic and collective "communities" of their parliamentary representatives and not the third estate, the commonality. This distinction is made clear in the official French name of the body, Chambre des communes. Canada and the United Kingdom remain the only countries to use the name "House of Commons" for a lower house of parliament; the House of Commons came into existence in 1867, when the British Parliament passed the British North America Act, uniting the Province of Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick into a single federation called the Dominion of Canada. The new Parliament of Canada consisted of the Senate and the House of Commons; the Parliament of Canada was based on the Westminster model. Unlike the UK Parliament, the powers of the Parliament of Canada were limited in that other powers were assigned to the provincial legislatures; the Parliament of Canada remained subordinate to the British Parliament, the supreme legislative authority for the entire British Empire.
Greater autonomy was granted by the Statute of Westminster 1931, after which new acts of the British Parliament did not apply to Canada, with some exceptions. These exceptions were removed by the Canada Act 1982. From 1867, the Commons met in the chamber used by the Legislative Assembly of Canada until the building was destroyed by fire in 1916, it relocated to the amphitheatre of the Victoria Memorial Museum—what is today the Canadian Museum of Nature, where it met until 1922. Until the end of 2018, the Commons sat in Centre Block chamber. Starting with the final sitting before the 2019 federal election, the Commons sits in a temporary chamber in the West Block until at least 2028, while renovations are undertaken in the Centre Block of Parliament; the House of Commons comprises 338 members. The constitution specifies a basic minimum of 295 electoral districts, but additional seats are allocated according to various clauses. Seats are distributed among the provinces in proportion to population, as determined by each decennial census, subject to the following exceptions made by the constitution.
Firstly, the "senatorial clause" guarantees that each province will have at least as many MPs as Senators. Secondly, the "grandfather clause" guarantees each province has at least as many Members of Parliament now as it had in 1985; as a result of these clauses, smaller provinces and provinces that have experienced a relative decline in population have become over-represented in the House. Ontario, British Columbia, Alberta are under-represented in proportion to their populations, while the other seven provinces are over-represented. Boundary commissions, appointed by the federal government for each province, have the task of drawing the boundaries of the electoral districts in each province. Territorial representation is independent of population; the calculation for the provinces is done with a base of 279 seats. The total population of the provinces is divided by 279 to equal the electoral quotient; the population of the province is divided by the electoral q
Newfoundland and Labrador House of Assembly
The Newfoundland and Labrador House of Assembly is one of two components of the General Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador, the other being the Queen of Canada in Right of Newfoundland and Labrador, represented by the Lieutenant-Governor of Newfoundland and Labrador. The Newfoundland and Labrador General Assembly meets in the Confederation Building at St. John's; the governing party sits on the left side of the speaker of the House of Assembly as opposed to the traditional right side of the speaker. This tradition dates back to the 1850s because the heaters in the Colonial Building were located on the left side. Thus, the government chose to sit in the heat, leave the opposition sitting in the cold. Party leaders' names are written in bold and cabinet ministers in italic, with the Speaker of the House of Assembly designated by a dagger. 48th General Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador 47th General Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador Speaker of the House of Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador List of Newfoundland and Labrador General Assemblies Official website Canadian Governments Compared
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as primary legislation. Legislatures observe and steer governing actions and have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process; the members of a legislature are called legislators. In a democracy, legislators are most popularly elected, although indirect election and appointment by the executive are used for bicameral legislatures featuring an upper chamber. Names for national legislatures include "parliament", "congress", "diet", "assembly", depending on country; each chamber of the legislature consists of a number of legislators who use some form of parliamentary procedure to debate political issues and vote on proposed legislation. There must be a certain number of legislators present to carry out these activities; some of the responsibilities of a legislature, such as giving first consideration to newly proposed legislation, are delegated to committees made up of a few of the members of the chamber.
The members of a legislature represent different political parties. Legislatures vary in the amount of political power they wield, compared to other political players such as judiciaries and executives. In 2009, political scientists M. Steven Fish and Matthew Kroenig constructed a Parliamentary Powers Index in an attempt to quantify the different degrees of power among national legislatures; the German Bundestag, the Italian Parliament, the Mongolian State Great Khural tied for most powerful, while Myanmar's House of Representatives and Somalia's Transitional Federal Assembly tied for least powerful. Some political systems follow the principle of legislative supremacy, which holds that the legislature is the supreme branch of government and cannot be bound by other institutions, such as the judicial branch or a written constitution; such a system renders the legislature more powerful. In parliamentary and semi-presidential systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature, which may remove it with a vote of no confidence.
On the other hand, according to the separation of powers doctrine, the legislature in a presidential system is considered an independent and coequal branch of government along with both the judiciary and the executive. Legislatures will sometimes delegate their legislative power to administrative or executive agencies. Legislatures are made up of individual members, known as legislators. A legislature contains a fixed number of legislators. For example, a legislature that has 100 "seats" has 100 members. By extension, an electoral district that elects a single legislator can be described as a "seat", as, example, in the phrases "safe seat" and "marginal seat". A legislature may debate and vote upon bills as a single unit, or it may be composed of multiple separate assemblies, called by various names including legislative chambers, debate chambers, houses, which debate and vote separately and have distinct powers. A legislature which operates as a single unit is unicameral, one divided into two chambers is bicameral, one divided into three chambers is tricameral.
In bicameral legislatures, one chamber is considered the upper house, while the other is considered the lower house. The two types are not rigidly different, but members of upper houses tend to be indirectly elected or appointed rather than directly elected, tend to be allocated by administrative divisions rather than by population, tend to have longer terms than members of the lower house. In some systems parliamentary systems, the upper house has less power and tends to have a more advisory role, but in others presidential systems, the upper house has equal or greater power. In federations, the upper house represents the federation's component states; this is a case with the supranational legislature of the European Union. The upper house may either contain the delegates of state governments – as in the European Union and in Germany and, before 1913, in the United States – or be elected according to a formula that grants equal representation to states with smaller populations, as is the case in Australia and the United States since 1913.
Tricameral legislatures are rare. Tetracameral legislatures no longer exist, but they were used in Scandinavia. Legislatures vary in their size. Among national legislatures, China's National People's Congress is the largest with 2 980 members, while Vatican City's Pontifical Commission is the smallest with 7. Neither legislature is democratically elected: the National People's Congress is indirectly elected. Legislature size is a trade off between representation. Comparative analysis of national legislatures has found that size of a country's lower house tends to be proportional to the cube root of its population.
Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan
The Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan is one of two components of the Legislature of Saskatchewan, the other being the Queen of Canada in Right of Saskatchewan. The legislature has been unicameral since its establishment; the legislature meets at the Saskatchewan Legislative Building in Regina. There are 61 constituencies in the province, which elect members of the Legislative Assembly to the Legislative Assembly. All are single-member districts, though the cities of Regina and Moose Jaw have been represented by multi-member constituencies in the past; the current party standings in the legislature are as follows: Member in BOLD CAPS is the Premier of Saskatchewan. Members in bold are in the Cabinet of Saskatchewan. Members in italic are Legislative Secretaries to Cabinet Ministers.† Speaker of the Assembly For current cabinet see Executive Council of Saskatchewan. In September 2013 the Legislature established the position of Usher of the Black Rod, their role is functionally similar to the one for the Senate of Canada.
Rick Mantey was the first person to hold the office. The current Usher of the Black Rod, as of 2014, is Ben Walsh; the Black Rod was made by Scott Olson Goldsmith of Regina. List of Saskatchewan general elections Saskatchewan Legislative Building Monarchy in Saskatchewan Politics of Saskatchewan Saskatchewan Legislative Network Stopping the clock Hansard TV List of MLAs from the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan