Normal is a town in McLean County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the town's population was 52,497. Normal is the smaller of two principal municipalities of the Bloomington–Normal metropolitan area, Illinois' seventh most populous community outside the Chicago metropolitan area. Normal's mayor is Chris Koos; the main campus of Illinois' oldest public university, Illinois State University, a accredited four-year institution, is in Normal, as is Heartland Community College, a accredited two-year institution. There is a satellite campus of Lincoln College, which offers associate degrees as well as four-year programs. A large share of residents of Normal are employed by Illinois State University, State Farm Insurance, Country Financial, Unit 5 schools; the town was laid out with the name North Bloomington on June 1854 by Joseph Parkinson. From its founding, it was recognized that Jesse W. Fell was the force behind the creation of the town, he had arranged for the new railroad, which would soon become the Chicago and Alton Railroad, to pass west of Bloomington curving to cross the Illinois Central Railroad at a point where he owned or controlled land.
Most of the original town lies south of these tracks, with Beaufort Street as its northern limit, some blocks west of the Illinois Central and north of the tracks. Fell, his brothers, associates laid out many additions to the original town; the town was renamed Normal in February 1865 and incorporated on February 25, 1867. The name was taken from a normal school located there; the school has since been renamed Illinois State University after becoming a general four-year university. Normal is adjacent to Bloomington and when mentioned together they are known as the "Twin Cities", "Bloomington-Normal", "BN", or "BloNo". In 2007, the town council voted to name the downtown area "Uptown Normal", and, as of 2011, Uptown Normal is home to the Children's Discovery Museum, Marriott Hotel and Conference Center, a variety of stores; the district is home to the historic and non-profit Normal Theater, a restored Art Deco theater owned by the Town of Normal that runs classic and independent films. November 19, 2014: Bronze Level Bicycle Friendly Community Award, League of American Bicyclists 2014: First in State for Most Minutes Read, 2014 Scholastic Summer Reading Challenge, Scholastic Corp.
- Received by Glenn Elementary 2014: Chamber of the Year, Association of Chamber of Commerce Executives - Received by the McLean County Chamber of Commerce 2013: Honorable Mention - Mayor's Climate Protection Awards, United States Conference of Mayors - Received by Mayor Chris Koos 2013: Tree Cities USA Community Award, Arbor Day Foundation 2011: National Award for Smart Growth Achievement - Civic Places, United States Environmental Protection Agency Normal is located near 40°30′44″N 88°59′19″W. According to the 2010 census, Normal has a total area of 18.412 square miles, of which 18.35 square miles is land and 0.062 square miles is water. As of the 2000 census, there were 45,386 people, 15,157 households, 8,184 families residing in the town; the population density was 3,332.6 people per square mile. There were 15,683 housing units at an average density of 1,151.6/sq mi. The racial makeup of the town was 87.57% White, 7.71% African American, 0.15% Native American, 2.21% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.93% from other races, 1.40% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.56% of the population. There were 15,157 households out of which 27.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.4% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 46.0% were non-families. 26.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.96. In the town, the age distribution of the population shows 17.5% under the age of 18, 38.1% from 18 to 24, 23.1% from 25 to 44, 13.7% from 45 to 64, 7.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 23 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.5 males. The median income for a household in the town was $40,379, the median income for a family was $60,644. Males had a median income of $41,323 versus $27,486 for females; the per capita income for the town was $17,775.
About 5.6% of families and 19.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.4% of those under age 18 and 3.9% of those age 65 or over. Normal is served by I-39, I-55, Interstate 74, one railroad line, the Central Illinois Regional Airport in neighboring Bloomington, Connect Transit provides public bus service in the area. Interstate 55 wraps around the northwest edge of the town. Interstate 74 shares the I-55 roadway on the western edge of Normal before splitting off toward the northwest. Normal is the southern terminus of Interstate 39; the Central Illinois Regional Airport is on Route 9 in Bloomington five miles east southeast from Uptown Normal. The airport is served by four airlines, five rental car agencies, has direct daily flights to Atlanta, Dallas-Ft. Worth and Minneapolis/St. Paul. A record 559,481 passengers flew to or from CIRA in 2010. Connect Transit has 11 color-coded fixed routes in the area. The
A playwright or dramatist is a person who writes plays. The word "play" is from Middle English pleye, from Old English plæġ, pleġa, plæġa ("play, exercise; the word "wright" is an archaic English term for a builder. The words combine to indicate a person who has "wrought" words and other elements into a dramatic form—a play; the first recorded use of the term "playwright" is from 1605, 73 years before the first written record of the term "dramatist". It appears to have been first used in a pejorative sense by Ben Jonson to suggest a mere tradesman fashioning works for the theatre. Jonson uses the word in his Epigram 49, thought to refer to John Marston: Epigram LXVIII — On Playwright PLAYWRIGHT me reads, still my verses damns, He says I want the tongue of epigrams. Playwright, I loath to have thy manners known In my chaste book. Jonson described himself as a poet, not a playwright, since plays during that time were written in meter and so were regarded as the province of poets; this view was held as late as the early 19th century.
The term "playwright" again lost this negative connotation. The earliest playwright in Western literature with surviving works are the Ancient Greeks; these early plays were for annual Athenian competitions among play writers held around the 5th century BC. Such notables as Aeschylus, Sophocles and Aristophanes established forms still relied on by their modern counterparts. For the ancient Greeks, playwriting involved poïesis, "the act of making"; this is the source of the English word poet. In the 4th century BCE, Aristotle wrote his Poetics, in which he analyzed the principle of action or praxis as the basis for tragedy, he considered elements of drama: plot, thought, diction and spectacle. Since the myths, on which Greek tragedy were based, were known, plot had to do with the arrangement and selection of existing material. Character was determined by action. Tragedy is mimesis—"the imitation of an action, serious", he developed his notion of hamartia, or tragic flaw, an error in judgment by the main character or protagonist, which provides the basis for the "conflict-driven" play.
The Italian Renaissance brought about a stricter interpretation of Aristotle, as this long-lost work came to light in the late 15th century. The neoclassical ideal, to reach its apogee in France during the 17th century, dwelled upon the unities, of action and time; this meant that the playwright had to construct the play so that its "virtual" time would not exceed 24 hours, that it would be restricted to a single setting, that there would be no subplots. Other terms, such as verisimilitude and decorum, circumscribed the subject matter significantly. For example, verisimilitude limits of the unities. Decorum fitted proper protocols for language on stage. In France, contained too many events and actions, violating the 24-hour restriction of the unity of time. Neoclassicism never had as much traction in England, Shakespeare's plays are directly opposed to these models, while in Italy and bawdy commedia dell'arte and opera were more popular forms. In England, after the Interregnum, restoration of the monarchy in 1660, there was a move toward neoclassical dramaturgy.
One structural unit, still useful to playwrights today, is the "French scene", a scene in a play where the beginning and end are marked by a change in the makeup of the group of characters onstage, rather than by the lights going up or down or the set being changed. Popularized in the nineteenth century by the French playwrights Eugène Scribe and Victorien Sardou, the most schematic of all formats, the "well-made play" relies on a series of coincidences that determined the action; this plot driven format is reliant on a prop device, such as a glass of water, or letter that reveals some secret information. In most cases, the character receiving the secret information misinterprets its contents, thus setting off a chain of events. Well-made plays are thus motivated by various plot devices which lead to "discoveries" and "reversals of action," rather than being character motivated. Henrik Ibsen's A Doll's House is an example of a well-made structure that began to integrate a more realistic approach to character.
The character Nora's leaving is as much motivated by "the letter" and disclosure of a "past secret" as it is by her own determination to strike out on her own. The well-made play infiltrated other forms of writing and is still seen in popular formats such as the mystery, or "whodunit." Full-length play: Generally, two or three acts with an act break that marks some kind of scene change or time shift. These acts are divided into scenes, which are defined by shifts in time and place; this type of structure is called episodic. Episodic plays contain scene changes and require careful attention to transitions, so as to maintain entails a more causal relationship between units and is defined by the unity of time, and/or action. Short play: A more popular format the short play does not have an intermission and runs over an hour, but less than an hour-and-a-half. One-act play: A useful form for experimental work with less reliance on character development and arc; these remain under an hour in length.
In the US the 10-minute play
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
The Underground Railroad was a network of secret routes and safe houses established in the United States during the early to mid-19th century, used by African-American slaves to escape into free states and Nova Scotia with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause. The term is applied to the abolitionists, both black and white and enslaved, who aided the fugitives. Various other routes led to Mexico or overseas. An earlier escape route running south toward Florida a Spanish possession, existed from the late 17th century until Florida became a United States territory in 1821. However, the network now known as the Underground Railroad was formed in the late 1700s, it ran north to the free states and Canada, reached its height between 1850 and 1860. One estimate suggests that by 1850, 100,000 slaves had escaped via the "Railroad". British North America, where slavery was prohibited, was a popular destination, as its long border gave many points of access. Most former slaves settled in Ontario.
More than 30,000 people were said to have escaped there via the network during its 20-year peak period, although U. S. Census figures account for only 6,000. Numerous fugitives' stories are documented in the 1872 book The Underground Railroad Records by William Still, an abolitionist who headed the Philadelphia Vigilance Committee. At its peak, nearly 1,000 slaves per year escaped from slave-holding states using the Underground Railroad – more than 5,000 court cases for escaped slaves were recorded – many fewer than the natural increase of the enslaved population; the resulting economic impact was minuscule, but the psychological influence on slave holders was immense. Under the original Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, officials from free states were required to assist slaveholders or their agents who recaptured runaway slaves, but and governments of many free states ignored the law, the Underground Railroad thrived. With heavy lobbying by southern politicians, the Compromise of 1850 was passed by Congress after the Mexican–American War.
It stipulated a more stringent Fugitive Slave Law. Because the law required sparse documentation to claim a person was a fugitive, slave catchers kidnapped free blacks children, sold them into slavery. Southern politicians exaggerated the number of escaped slaves and blamed these escapes on Northerners interfering with Southern property rights; the law deprived suspected slaves of the right to defend themselves in court, making it difficult to prove free status. In a de facto bribe, judges were paid a higher fee for a decision that confirmed a suspect as a slave than for one ruling that the suspect was free. Many Northerners who might have ignored slave issues in the South were confronted by local challenges that bound them to support slavery; this was a primary grievance cited by the Union during the American Civil War, the perception that Northern States ignored the fugitive slave law was a major justification for secession. The escape network was not underground nor a railroad, it was figuratively "underground" in the sense of being an underground resistance.
It was known as a "railroad" by way of the use of rail terminology in the code. The Underground Railroad consisted of meeting points, secret routes and safe houses, personal assistance provided by abolitionist sympathizers. Participants organized in small, independent groups. Escaped slaves would move north along the route from one way station to the next. "Conductors" on the railroad came from various backgrounds and included free-born blacks, white abolitionists, former slaves, Native Americans. Church clergy and congregations played a role the Religious Society of Friends, Congregationalists and Reformed Presbyterians, as well as certain sects of mainstream denominations such as branches of the Methodist church and American Baptists. Without the presence and support of free black residents, there would have been no chance for fugitive slaves to pass into freedom unmolested. To reduce the risk of infiltration, many people associated with the Underground Railroad knew only their part of the operation and not of the whole scheme.
"Conductors" transported the fugitives from station to station. A conductor sometimes pretended to be a slave. Once a part of a plantation, the conductor would direct the runaways to the North. Slaves traveled at about 10 -- 20 miles to each station, they rested, a message was sent to the next station to let the station master know the runaways were on their way. They would stop at the so-called "stations" or "depots" during the rest; the stations were located in barns, under church floors, or in hiding places in caves and hollowed-out riverbanks. The resting spots where the runaways could sleep and eat were given the code names "stations" and "depots", which were held by "station masters". "Stockholders" gave money or supplies for assistance. Using biblical references, fugitives referred to Canada as the "Promised Land" or "Heaven" and the Ohio River as the "River Jordan", which marked the boundary between slave states and free states. Although the fugitives sometimes traveled on boat or train, they traveled
Margaret Higgins Sanger was an American birth control activist, sex educator and nurse. Sanger popularized the term "birth control", opened the first birth control clinic in the United States, established organizations that evolved into the Planned Parenthood Federation of America. Sanger used her writings and speeches to promote her way of thinking, she was prosecuted for her book Family Limitation under the Comstock Act in 1914. She was afraid of what would happen, so she fled to Britain until she knew it was safe to return to the US. Sanger's efforts contributed to several judicial cases that helped legalize contraception in the United States. Due to her connection with Planned Parenthood, Sanger is a frequent target of criticism by opponents of abortion. However, Sanger drew a sharp distinction between birth control and abortion and was opposed to abortion through the bulk of her career. Sanger remains an admired figure in the American reproductive rights movement, she has been criticized for supporting eugenics.
In 1916, Sanger opened the first birth control clinic in the United States, which led to her arrest for distributing information on contraception, after an undercover policewoman bought a copy of her pamphlet on family planning. Her subsequent trial and appeal generated controversy. Sanger felt that in order for women to have a more equal footing in society and to lead healthier lives, they needed to be able to determine when to bear children, she wanted to prevent so-called back-alley abortions, which were common at the time because abortions were illegal in the United States. She believed that while abortion was sometimes justified it should be avoided, she considered contraception the only practical way to avoid them. In 1921, Sanger founded the American Birth Control League, which became the Planned Parenthood Federation of America. In New York City, she organized the first birth control clinic staffed by all-female doctors, as well as a clinic in Harlem with an all African-American advisory council, where African-American staff were added.
In 1929, she formed the National Committee on Federal Legislation for Birth Control, which served as the focal point of her lobbying efforts to legalize contraception in the United States. From 1952 to 1959, Sanger served as president of the International Planned Parenthood Federation, she died in 1966, is regarded as a founder of the modern birth control movement. Sanger was born Margaret Louise Higgins in 1879 in Corning, New York, to Michael Hennessey Higgins, an Irish-born stonemason and free-thinker, Anne Purcell Higgins, a Catholic Irish-American. Michael Hennessey Higgins had emigrated to the United States at age 14 and joined the Army as a drummer at age 15, during the Civil War. After leaving the army, Michael studied medicine and phrenology, but became a stonecutter, making stone angels and tombstones. Michael H. Higgins was a Catholic who became an atheist and an activist for women's suffrage and free public education. Anne was born in Ireland, her parents brought the family to Canada during the Potato Famine.
She married Michael in 1869. Anne Higgins went through 18 pregnancies in 22 years before dying at the age of 49. Sanger was the sixth of eleven surviving children, spent much of her youth assisting with household chores and caring for her younger siblings. Supported by her two older sisters, Margaret Higgins attended Claverack College and Hudson River Institute, before enrolling in 1900 at White Plains Hospital as a nurse probationer. In 1902, she gave up her education. Though she was plagued by a recurring active tubercular condition, Margaret Sanger bore three children, the couple settled down to a quiet life in Westchester, New York. In 1911, after a fire destroyed their home in Hastings-on-Hudson, the Sangers abandoned the suburbs for a new life in New York City. Margaret Sanger worked as a visiting nurse in the slums of the East Side, while her husband worked as an architect and a house painter. Imbued with her husband's leftist politics, Margaret Sanger threw herself into the radical politics and modernist values of pre-World War I Greenwich Village bohemia.
She joined the Women's Committee of the New York Socialist party, took part in the labor actions of the Industrial Workers of the World and became involved with local intellectuals, left-wing artists and social activists, including John Reed, Upton Sinclair, Mabel Dodge and Emma Goldman. Sanger's political interests, emerging feminism and nursing experience led her to write two series of columns on sex education entitled "What Every Mother Should Know" and "What Every Girl Should Know" for the socialist magazine New York Call. By the standards of the day, Sanger's articles were frank in their discussion of sexuality, many New York Call readers were outraged by them. Other readers, praised the series for its candor. One stated that the series contained "a purer morality than whole libraries full of hypocritical cant about modesty". Both were published in book form in 1916. During her work among working-class immigrant women, Sanger met women who underwent frequent childbirth and self-induced abortions for lack of information on how to avoid unwanted pregnancy.
Access to contraceptive information was prohibited on grounds of obscenity by the 1873 federal Comstock law and a host of state laws. Seeking to help these women, Sanger visited public libraries, but was unable to find information on contraception; these problems were epitomized i
Lynching is a premeditated extrajudicial killing by a group. It is most used to characterize informal public executions by a mob in order to punish an alleged transgressor, or to intimidate a group, it is an extreme form of informal group social control such as charivari, riding the rail, tarring and feathering, conducted with the display of a public spectacle for maximum intimidation. It is to be punishable by law. Instances of lynchings and similar mob violence can be found in every society. In the United States, lynchings of African Americans by hanging, became frequent in the South during the period after the Reconstruction era and during the decades on either side of the turn of the 20th century. At the time, Southern states were passing new constitutions and laws to disenfranchise African Americans and impose legal segregation and Jim Crow rule. Most lynchings were conducted by white mobs against black victims suspects taken from jail before they were tried by all-white juries, or before arrest.
The political message—the promotion of white supremacy and black powerlessness—was an important element of the ritual. Lynchings were photographed and published as postcards, which were popular souvenirs in the U. S. to expand the intimidation of the acts. Victims were burned alive, or otherwise tortured and mutilated in the public events. In some cases the mutilated body parts were taken as mementos by the spectators. In the West, other minorities—Native Americans and Asians—were lynched. Southern states had the highest total numbers of lynchings in America; the origins of the word "lynch" are obscure, but it originated during the American revolution. The verb comes from the phrase "Lynch Law", a term for a punishment without trial. Two Americans during this era are credited for coining the phrase: Charles Lynch and William Lynch, who both lived in Virginia in the 1780s. Charles Lynch has the better claim, as he was known to have used the term in 1782, while William Lynch is not known to have used the term until much later.
There is no evidence. In 1782, Charles Lynch wrote that his assistant had administered "Lynch's law" to Tories "for Dealing with Negroes, &c."Charles Lynch was a Virginia Quaker and American Revolutionary who headed a county court in Virginia which imprisoned Loyalist supporters of the British for up to one year during the war. Although he lacked proper jurisdiction for detaining these persons, he claimed this right by arguing wartime necessity. Subsequently, he prevailed upon his friends in the Congress of the Confederation to pass a law that exonerated him and his associates from wrongdoing, he was concerned that he might face legal action from one or more of those he had imprisoned, notwithstanding the American Colonies had won the war. This action by the Congress provoked controversy, it was in connection with this that the term "Lynch law", meaning the assumption of extrajudicial authority, came into common parlance in the United States. Lynch was not accused of racist bias, he acquitted blacks accused of murder on three separate occasions.
He was accused, however, of ethnic prejudice in his abuse of Welsh miners. William Lynch from Virginia claimed that the phrase was first used in a 1780 compact signed by him and his neighbors in Pittsylvania County. While Edgar Allan Poe claimed that he found this document, it was a hoax. A 17th-century legend of James Lynch fitz Stephen, Mayor of Galway in Ireland in 1493, says that when his son was convicted of murder, the mayor hanged him from his own house; the story was proposed by 1904 as the origin of the word "lynch". It is dismissed by etymologists, both because of the distance in time and place from the alleged event to the word's emergence, because the incident did not constitute a lynching in the modern sense; the archaic verb linch, to beat with a pliable instrument, to chastise or to maltreat, has been proposed as the etymological source. Every society has had forms including murder; the legal and cultural antecedents of American lynching were carried across the Atlantic by migrants from the British Isles to colonial North America.
Collective violence was a familiar aspect of the early modern Anglo-American legal landscape. Group violence in the British Atlantic was nonlethal in intention and result. In the seventeenth century, in the context of political turmoil in England and unsettled social and political conditions in the American colonies, there arose rebellions and riots that took multiple lives. In the United States, during the decades before the Civil War, free Blacks, Latinos in the South West, runaways were the objects of racial lynching, but lynching attacks on U. S. blacks in the South, increased in the aftermath of Reconstruction, after slavery had been abolished and freed men gained the right to vote. The peak of lynchings occurred in 1892, after southern white Democrats had regained control of state legislatures. Many incidents were related to economic troubles and competition. At the turn of the 20th century, southern states passed new constitutions or legislation which disenfranchised most blacks and many poor whites, established segregation of public facilities by race, separated blacks from common public life and facilities through Jim Crow rules.
Nearly 3,500 African Americans and 1,300 whites were lynched in the United States between 1882 and 1968. Lynching in the British Empire dur
Hubert Thomas Delany
Hubert Thomas Delany was an American civil rights pioneer, a lawyer, Assistant U. S. Attorney, the first African American Tax Commissioner of New York and one of the first appointed African American judges in New York City. Judge Delany was on the board of Directors for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the Harlem YMCA and became an active leader in the Harlem Renaissance, he served as a Vice President of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund. He was a graduate of City College of New York in 1923, he received his law degree from New York University School of Law in 1926 and was a member of Sigma Pi Phi Fraternity, the first Greek-letter organization to be founded by African American men. Delany had a long career serving as both a justice in the New York City Domestic Relations Court as well as an attorney and adviser to civil rights activists Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. US Congressman Adam Clayton Powell Jr. and poet Langston Hughes. He advised entertainment and sports luminaries including famed opera singer Marian Anderson and actor Paul Robeson, cartoonist E. Simms Campbell, bandleader Cab Calloway, Major League Baseball color line breaker Jackie Robinson.
Delany was the eighth of ten children born to the Rev. Henry Beard Delany, the first Black person elected Suffragan Bishop of the Episcopal Church in the United States, Nannette James Logan Delany, an educator, his father, Henry Beard Delany was born into slavery in Georgia. Delany was born and raised on the campus of St. Augustine's School in Raleigh, North Carolina, where his father was the Vice-Principal and his mother, a teacher and administrator. Delany was a 1919 graduate of the school, his sisters Sadie and Bessie Delany were civil rights pioneers in their own right who co-authored the bestselling oral history Having Our Say: The Delany Sisters' First 100 Years along with Amy Hill Hearth. Throughout his early years, Delany believed he would follow in his fathers footsteps and become a clergyman within the Episcopal Church. Having grown up on the campus of black Saint Augustine's College where his parents taught, Delany had been protected from the rigid system of racial segregation that gripped North Carolina in the early twentieth century.
After finishing high school, Delany soon followed his older siblings to New York City and attended the City College of New York. He worked his way through undergraduate college holding a job as a Red Cap railway Pullman porter at New York Penn Station. During his three years as a law student at NYU Law, Delany was a teacher in Harlem elementary schools within the New York City Public School system. After receiving his law degree from New York University School of Law in 1926, Delany married the Harlem Renaissance figure Clarissa Scott Delany. Scott, a poet and educator was a social worker with the National Urban League working to gather statistics for a "Study of Delinquent and Neglected Negro Children." The two were married only one year before Scott died from kidney disease in 1927. From 1926 until 1933, Delany served as Assistant U. S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York appointed by Charles H. Tuttle, the United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York. By 1934, he was the highest paid African American federal appointee in the nation, had won 493 of the 500 cases he had argued in U.
S. District Court. Mayor LaGuardia named him tax commissioner and a judge in the Court of Domestic Relations. In 1929, Delany ran for Congress representing New York's "old" twenty-first district in the House of Representatives. After winning the Republican primary but losing the general election to Democrat Joseph A. Gavagan, he gained the respect and friendship of Mayor Fiorello H. La Guardia. Delany won. During the Harlem riot of 1935, Delany and Mayor LaGuardia walked through the streets together to try and quiet things down. After the riot, Mayor LaGuardia appointed Delany and others, including E. Franklin Frazier, Countee Cullen, A. Philip Randolph, to the investigatory commission that found that the riot was caused not by communist agitators but by economic deprivation, racial discrimination, an unresponsive city government. Delany joined the law firm Mintzer and Kleid in 1933 but left in 1937 to run his own law practice. Among his many clients was the classical contralto Marian Anderson. In 1939, after the Daughters of the American Revolution refused to allow Anderson to perform in Constitution Hall in Washington D.
C. Delany introduced the resolution to the executive board of the NAACP that led to her performing instead on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial As a result of the ensuing furor around the Daughters of the American Revolution denying Anderson, thousands of DAR members, including First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, resigned from the organization. On January 1, 1942, Delany was appointed Justice of the Family Court by Mayor Fiorello H. La Guardia and served until 1955. During his tenure, Judge Delany established himself as a compassionate and humane Justice as well as a strong and passionate advocate for civil rights, his advice on juvenile issues was "eagerly sought by many individuals and organizations." His many admirers and colleagues cited the understanding and delicacy with which he approached his cases. His briefs were interpreted by his critics as "left-wing views" and were used as the "rationale" for not reappointing him in 1955, despite being backed by several bar assoc