Great Belt Fixed Link
The Great Belt Fixed Link is a multi-element fixed link crossing the Great Belt strait between the Danish islands of Zealand and Funen. It consists of a road suspension bridge and a railway tunnel between Zealand and the small island Sprogø in the middle of the Great Belt, a box-girder bridge for both road and rail traffic between Sprogø and Funen; the total length is 18 kilometres. The "Great Belt Bridge" refers to the suspension bridge, although it may be used to mean the box-girder bridge or the link in its entirety. Named the East Bridge, the suspension bridge has the world's third-longest main span, the longest outside Asia, it was designed by the Danish firms Ramboll. The link replaced a ferry service, the primary means of crossing the Great Belt. After more than 50 years of debate, the decision to construct a link was made in 1986. At an estimated cost of DKK 21.4 billion, the link is the largest construction project in Danish history. It has reduced travel times significantly; this link and the Øresund Bridge have together enabled driving from mainland Europe to Sweden and the rest of Scandinavia through Denmark.
Operation and maintenance are performed by A/S Storebælt under Bælt. Construction and maintenance are financed by tolls on trains. Cyclists are not permitted to use the bridge; the Great Belt ferries entered service between the coastal towns of Korsør and Nyborg in 1883, connecting the railway lines on either side of the Belt. In 1957, road traffic was moved to the Halsskov–Knudshoved route, about 1.5 kilometres to the north and close to the fixed link. Construction drafts for a fixed link were presented as early as the 1850s, with several suggestions appearing in the following decades; the Danish State Railways, responsible for the ferry service, presented plans for a bridge in 1934. The concepts of bridges over Øresund and Storebælt were calculated around 1936. In 1948, the Ministry for Public Works established a commission to investigate the implications of a fixed link; the first law concerning a fixed link was enacted in 1973, but the project was put on hold in 1978 as the Venstre party demanded postponing public spending.
Political agreement to restart work was reached in 1986, with a construction law being passed in 1987. The design was carried out by the engineering firms COWI and Ramboll together with Dissing+Weitling architecture practice. Construction of the link commenced in 1988. In 1991, Finland sued Denmark at the International Court of Justice, on the grounds that Finnish-built mobile offshore drilling units would be unable to pass beneath the bridge; the two countries negotiated a financial compensation of 90 million Danish kroner, Finland withdrew the lawsuit. The link is estimated to have created a value of 379 billion DKK after 50 years of use; the construction of the fixed link became the biggest building project in the history of Denmark. In order to connect Halsskov on Zealand with Knudshoved on Funen, 18 kilometres to its west, a two-track railway and a four-lane motorway had to be built, via the small island of Sprogø in the middle of the Great Belt; the project comprised three different tasks: the East Bridge for road transport, the East Tunnel for rail transport and the West Bridge for road and rail transport combined.
The construction work was carried out by Sundlink Contractors, a consortium of Skanska, Hochtief, Højgaard & Schultz and Monberg & Thorsen. The work of lifting and placing the elements was carried out by Ballast Nedam using a floating crane. Built between 1991 and 1998 at a cost of US$950 million, the East Bridge is a suspension bridge between Halsskov and Sprogø, it is 6,790 metres long with a free span of 1,624 metres, making it the world's third-longest suspension bridge span, surpassed only by the Akashi Kaikyō Bridge and Xihoumen Bridge. The Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge was opened two months earlier; the East Bridge had been planned to be completed in time to be the longest bridge, but it was delayed. The vertical clearance for ships is 65 metres, meaning the world's largest cruise ship, an Oasis-class cruise ship, just fits under with its smokestack folded. At 254 metres above sea level, the two pylons of the East Bridge are the highest points on self-supporting structures in Denmark; some radio masts, such as Tommerup transmitter, are taller.
To keep the main cables tensioned, an anchorage structure on each side of the span is placed below the road deck. After 15 years, the cables have no rust, they were scheduled for a 15 million DKK paint job, but due to corroding cables on other bridges, the decision was made to instead install a 70 million DKK sealed de-humidifying system in the cables. Nineteen concrete pillars, 193 metres apart, carry the road deck outside the span; the West Bridge is a box girder bridge between Knudshoved. It is 6,611 metres long, has a vertical clearance for ships of 18 metres, it is two separate, adjacent bridges: the northern one carries rail traffic and the southern one road traffic. The pillars of the two bridges rest on common foundations below sea level; the West Bridge was built between 1988 and 1994.
Human Development Index
The Human Development Index is a statistic composite index of life expectancy and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores a higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, the GNI per capita is higher, it was developed by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq, with help from Gustav Ranis of Yale University and Meghnad Desai of the London School of Economics, was further used to measure a country's development by the United Nations Development Program's Human Development Report Office. The 2010 Human Development Report introduced an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index. While the simple HDI remains useful, it stated that "the IHDI is the actual level of human development", "the HDI can be viewed as an index of'potential' human development"; the index does not take into account several factors, such as the net wealth per capita or the relative quality of goods in a country. This situation tends to lower the ranking for some of the most advanced countries, such as the G7 members and others.
The index is based on the human development approach, developed by ul Haq framed in terms of whether people are able to "be" and "do" desirable things in life. Examples include—Being: well fed, healthy; the freedom of choice is central—someone choosing to be hungry is quite different from someone, hungry because they cannot afford to buy food, or because the country is in a famine. The origins of the HDI are found in the annual Human Development Reports produced by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme; these were devised and launched by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq in 1990, had the explicit purpose "to shift the focus of development economics from national income accounting to people-centered policies". To produce the Human Development Reports, Mahbub ul Haq formed a group of development economists including Paul Streeten, Frances Stewart, Gustav Ranis, Keith Griffin, Sudhir Anand, Meghnad Desai. Nobel laureate Amartya Sen utilized Haq's work in his own work on human capabilities.
Haq believed that a simple composite measure of human development was needed to convince the public and politicians that they can and should evaluate development not only by economic advances but improvements in human well-being. Published on 4 November 2010, the 2010 Human Development Report calculated the HDI combining three dimensions: A long and healthy life: Life expectancy at birth Education index: Mean years of schooling and Expected years of schooling A decent standard of living: GNI per capita In its 2010 Human Development Report, the UNDP began using a new method of calculating the HDI; the following three indices are used: 1. Life Expectancy Index = LE − 20 85 − 20 LEI is 1 when Life expectancy at birth is 85 and 0 when Life expectancy at birth is 20.2. Education Index = MYSI + EYSI 2 2.1 Mean Years of Schooling Index = MYS 15 Fifteen is the projected maximum of this indicator for 2025. 2.2 Expected Years of Schooling Index = EYS 18 Eighteen is equivalent to achieving a master's degree in most countries.3.
Income Index = ln − ln ln − ln II is 1 when GNI per capita is $75,000 and 0 when GNI per capita is $100. The HDI is the geometric mean of the previous three normalized indices: HDI = LEI ⋅ EI ⋅ II 3. LE: Life expectancy at birth MYS: Mean years of schooling EYS: Expected years of schooling GNIpc: Gross national income at purchasing power parity per capita The HDI combined three dimensions last used in its 2009 Report: Life expectancy at birth, as an index of population health and longevity to HDI Knowledge and education, as measured by the adult literacy rate and the combined primary and tertiary gross enrollment ratio. Standard of living, as indicated by the natural logarithm of gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity; this methodology was used by the UNDP until their 2011 report. The formula defining the HDI is promulgated by the United Nations Development Programme. In general, to transform a raw variable, say x, into a unit-free index between 0 and 1 (which allo
Central Denmark Region
Central Denmark Region, or more directly translated as Central Jutland Region and sometimes Mid Jutland, is an administrative region of Denmark established on 1 January 2007 as part of the 2007 Danish Municipal Reform. The reform abolished the traditional counties and replaced them with five new administrative regions. At the same time, smaller municipalities were merged into larger units, cutting the total number of municipalities from 271 to 98. Central Denmark Region comprises 19 municipalities; the Danish name of the region means "Region of Mid Jutland" and describes the location in the central part of the Jutland peninsula, in contrast to Northern Jutland and Southern Jutland. For communication in English, the regional administration has decided to use another term, not a direct translation of the Danish name, supposing that the name Jutland might be too unknown to the English speaking public. A similar policy is followed by the North Denmark Region. However, the name of the region is untranslated when used in English-language publications not by the regional council itself, but by governmental authorities such as Statistics Denmark.
From 2007 to 2013, five so-called State Administrations or governorates existed in Denmark, covering the five regions as separate entities from the regional councils. One of these was named the "State Administration of Central Jutland" in English and covered the same area as the regional council, but had its administration in Ringkøbing as opposed to the regional council in Viborg. In English-language media and literature by various authors the names Central Jutland are commonly used. Central Denmark Region comprises most of the traditional geographical regions of Østjylland and Vestjylland. Smaller areas within these larger designations include the peninsula of Djursland, the central parts of the Jutland Ridge with the hilly interior lake district Søhøjlandet, the sometimes so-called "Kronjylland" or Ommersyssel around Randers and Bjerreherred; the region borders the North Sea coast in the west, Kattegat in the east and the Limfjord in the northwest. It includes the eastern islands of Samsø and Anholt as well as the smaller ones Endelave, Tunø, Hjarnø and Alrø.
In the Limfjord it includes the peninsulas of Salling and Thyholm and the islands of Venø, Jegindø and Fur. The western parts of the region are characterised by coastal dunes and inland heaths while the elevated central parts and the hilly eastern parts are characterised by forests and streams, with plenty of fertile soils; the eastern parts are the most densely populated area within the region and form a large part of the proposed East Jutland metropolitan area with a population of about 1.4 million. Århus is the largest city of Jutland, the second-largest city of Denmark as well as the hub of eastern Jutland. Other cities with a population above 30,000 include Randers, Horsens, Herning and Holstebro. Most of these are situated in the eastern part; the administration and regional council is situated in the sixth largest city, the medieval capital of Jutland. Administratively, Central Denmark Region consists of the former counties of Ringkjøbing and Århus, most of the former county of Viborg, the northern half of Vejle County.
The areas in question from the two latter counties were the former municipalities of Bjerringbro, Hvorslev, Kjellerup, Møldrup, Skive, Spøttrup, Sundsøre, Viborg from Viborg County and Brædstrup, Hedensted, Juelsminde, Nørre-Snede and Tørring-Uldum from Vejle County. The neighbouring administrative region to the south is called Southern Denmark, as it includes not only the southern parts of Jutland, but the island of Funen and smaller neighbouring islands. Furthermore, Sønderjylland is the traditional name for the Danish part of the former Duchy of Schleswig/Slesvig. Geologically the region lies in the northern part of Denmark, rising because of post-glacial rebound. For statistical purposes the region has East Jutland and West Jutland; these are but not identical with the parliamentary constituencies of East Jutland and West Jutland. The western constituency has a smaller population than the eastern one. Significant local antagonism arose before the region came into effect in 2007 and in the first years of its existence.
Citizens in the northwestern areas protested against the closure of the hospital of Holstebro. In the 2009 regional election, a local protest party, Fælleslisten, surged to 40 percent of the votes in the northwestern municipalities, but failed to get any seats in the 2013 election. Official website Central Denmark Office to the EU Media related to Region Midtjylland at Wikimedia Commons
Faaborg-Midtfyn or Fåborg-Midtfyn is a municipality in Region of Southern Denmark in Denmark. It covers an area of 638 km² and a total population of 51,950. On 1 January 2007 Faaborg-Midtfyn municipality was created as the result of Kommunalreformen, consisting of the former municipalities of Broby, Aarslev and Faaborg; the ten largest urban areas in the municipality are: Faaborg-Midtfyn's municipal council consists of 25 members, elected every four years. The municipal council has six political committees. Below are the municipal councils elected since the Municipal Reform of 2007. Official website Municipal statistics: NetBorger Kommunefakta, delivered from KMD a.k.a. Kommunedata Municipal mergers and neighbors: Eniro new municipalities map
Nordfyn is a municipality in Region of Southern Denmark in Denmark. It covers an area of 451 km2 and a total population of 29,651. On 1 January 2007 Nordfyn municipality was created as the result of Kommunalreformen, consisting of the former municipalities of Bogense, Otterup and Søndersø, it was planned that the new entity should have continued the existing name of Bogense municipality but a local referendum preferred the name Nordfyn and this decision was approved by the Danish Interior Minister, Lars Løkke Rasmussen, in June 2006. Nordfyn's municipal council consists of 25 members, elected every four years; the municipal council has six political committees. Below are the municipal councils elected since the Municipal Reform of 2007; the largest towns in Nordfyns Municipality are: 1. Otterup - 4.726 inhabitants 2. Bogense - 3.424 inhabitants 3. Søndersø - 2.993 inhabitants Other towns and villages: Morud - 1.588 inhabitants Skamby - 467 inhabitants Official website Municipal statistics: NetBorger Kommunefakta, delivered from KMD a.k.a.
Kommunedata Municipal mergers and neighbors: Eniro new municipalities map Population information Danmarks Statistisk Politics http://www.nordfynskommune.dk/Politik/Kommunalbestyrelsen
Fanø is a Danish island in the North Sea off the coast of southwestern Denmark, is the northernmost of the Danish Wadden Sea Islands. Fanø municipality is the municipality that covers its seat is the town of Nordby. Fanø is separated from the mainland by the Wadden Sea over a span of five kilometres; the island is 16 kilometres long and 5 kilometres wide, it is located off the coast from the city of Esbjerg to which it is connected by ferry. The ferry ride takes 12 minutes. A variety of environments are to be found on Fanø. Not a common one is sand; the island's whole western shore is one long beach. The island's northwestern corner is a vast sandbank called "Søren Jessens Sand". Søren Jessen was an entrepreneur and captain from Hjerting, today the westernmost suburb of Esbjerg and the bank is named after him because his ship, the "Anne Catriane", stranded here in 1712; the vegetation on Fanø is heath and small pine trees, never growing tall because of the predominant strong westerly winds from the North Sea.
Fanø relies on tourism and is visited by some 30,000 people each summer. The main attraction is the fine white sand beach, a popular playground for all kinds of wind and water sports, such as kite flying and buggies. Long before paved roads, the beach - being long and quite firm - hosted a yearly motorcycle and car racing event from 1919 and until 1923, where a tragic accident killed a local boy and put a stop to further events. Today is possible to drive your own car on the beach all the way from Sønderho to Fanø Vesterhavsbad. A public bus service is operated on the beach. 1 January 2018 the municipality will take over the responsibilities of public mass transit on the island from the Region of Southern Denmark. Unique is the Wadden Sea with seals and migrating birds, as well as the two sailor towns Nordby and Sønderho with their maritime history, once among the most wealthy and influential in Denmark, their vernacular architecture consisting of thatched-roof houses all oriented west-east, again because of the westerly winds.
During World War II, Fanø was part of the Atlantic Wall and the remains of the 300 bunkers built by the Nazis can still be spotted along the coast line. A number of animals that are otherwise common in Denmark, such as vipers, squirrels and badgers, are nonexistent on the island, whereas foxes, roebucks and rabbits exist in abundance. Fanø has the highest rate of alcohol abuse in Denmark, with a rate of 34.6% among males and 15.8% among females. The island has the highest murder rate, divorce rate and cancer rate in Denmark. Fanø's municipal council consists of 11 members, elected every four years. Below are the municipal councils elected since the Municipal Reform of 2007. Henriette Nielsen was playwright, she used. The first student to graduate as an illustrator from the Danish Design School in 1972 Thomas Sneum Naval pilot who, with Keld Pedersen, delivered vital photographs of a Nazi radar installation on Fano to British authorities by using a fragile and risky biplane Bo Knudsen is a Danish librarian and local politician Eva Louise Buus is a Danish artist.
In 2015, she exhibited works in Fanø Museum Jacob Bymar is a Danish footballer playing for B68. He is a former Danish youth international; the municipality is in Region of Southern Denmark, covers an area of 56 square kilometres. It has a total population of 3,192, its mayor is a member of the Venstre political party. The main town and the site of its municipal council is the town of Nordby. Other towns include Fanø Vesterhavsbad and Rindby. Fanø Municipality was not merged with any adjacent municipality under the municipal reform of 2007, as it agreed to enter into a "municipal cooperation agreement" with Esbjerg Municipality. Municipality's official website Tourist Information Office Municipal statistics: NetBorger Kommunefakta, delivered from KMD aka Kommunedata Municipal mergers and neighbors: Eniro new municipalities map C. Michael Hogan. 2011. Wadden Sea. Eds. P. Saundry & C. Cleveland. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC
Tønder is a town in the Region of Southern Denmark. With a population of 7,595, it is the main town and the administrative seat of the Tønder Municipality; the first mention of Tønder might have been in the mid-12th century, when the Arab geographer Muhammad al-Idrisi mentioned the landmark Tundira, which might have been a reference to either Tønder, or the nearby town of Møgeltønder. Tønder was granted port privileges by the Hanseatic League in 1243, making it Denmark's oldest privileged market town. In 1532 it was hit by severe floods, with water levels reaching 1.8 m in St Laurent's church, 5.3 m above sea level. In the 1550s, Tønder's port lost direct access to the sea due to dykes being built to the west of town at the direction of Duke Hans the Elder of Schleswig-Holstein-Haderslev, the son of Frederick I of Denmark; the town center is dominated by houses from the late 17th and early 18th century, when the town experienced rapid growth as a result of its lace industry. Prior to 1864, Tønder was situated in the Duchy of Schleswig, so its history is intertwined with the contentious history of Schleswig-Holstein.
In the 1920s, when the Schleswig Plebiscite incorporated Northern Schleswig into Denmark, 76.5% of Tønder's inhabitants voted to remain part of Germany and 23.5% voted to join Denmark. During World War I, a Zeppelin base was operated in Tønder by the Imperial German Navy; the base was attacked by the British on 19 July 1918, in. Seven Sopwith Camels from the aircraft carrier HMS Furious bombed the base, hitting two of the three airship hangars; the Zeppelins L.54 and L.60 inside one hangar were destroyed and a balloon inside the other was damaged. After this, Tønder was abandoned as an active airship base, was used only as an emergency landing site. A wartime aircraft hangar survives, as do some of the ancillary buildings, but only the foundations remain of the large airship hangars; the site now houses a museum, named Garrison Museum Tønder. After the First World War, Tønder was detached from Germany in spite of the majority of its population casting a pro-German vote in the Schleswig Plebiscites - as Tønder was included in Zone I, which as a whole had a strong pro-Danish majority.
In the years that followed, German political parties enjoyed a majority in the city council, until 1945, the city was bilingual. After the end of the German occupation of Denmark, the political influence of the German population dwindled considerably. In spite of the improvement in cross-border traffic, the location of the town continued to hamper industrial growth through the late 20th century, although some companies did set up businesses. Tourism has grown in importance. In 1989, Tønder Seminarium, the oldest teacher training college in Scandinavia, established in 1788, was closed; every August, the Tønder Festival offers visitors a wide variety of traditional and modern folk music. The Scouts of Tønder are twinned with Hemyock, in Devon and make exchange trips between the countries every few years. In the last few years, Tønder has been growing into a notable wedding marriages per year; this is in part due to Denmark's liberal marriage laws between to non-European/European couples. Compared to three months administration time in Germany, Denmark instead requires just around a week, fewer documents and the vows can be done in languages other than Danish.
Oluf Gerhard Tychsen a German Orientalist and Hebrew scholar, a founding father of Islamic numismatics Heinrich Wilhelm von Gerstenberg a German poet and critic. Johan Christian Fabricius a Danish zoologist, specialising in "Insecta", arthropods: insects and crustaceans Nicolai Andresen a Norwegian merchant and member of Stortinget Geskel Saloman a Danish–Swedish portrait and genre painter Julius Bahnsen a German philosopher, originator of characterology Gustav Adolf Neuber a German surgeon Jannik Petersen Bjerrum a Danish ophthalmologist from Skærbæk, did pathogenetic research of glaucoma Bernhard M. Jacobsen emigrated in 1876, became a U. S. Representative from Iowa Captain Max Valentiner a German U-boat commander during World War I Svend Wiig Hansen a Danish sculptor and painter from Møgeltønder Poul Schlüter a Danish politician, Prime Minister of Denmark 1982-1993 Henning Munk Jensen a Danish former association football player, played 392 games for AaB and 62 matches for the Denmark national football team 1966-1978, 24 of these as team captain.
Jan Beyer Schmidt-Sørensen a Danish economist and Director of Business Development at Aarhus Municipality Jakob Michelsen a Danish unattached football manager. Concerning the Friary in Tønder Media related to Tønder at Wikimedia Commons