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Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo

The Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo is a specialized municipality located in northeastern Alberta. Formed as a result of the amalgamation of the City of Fort McMurray and Improvement District No. 143 on April 1, 1995, it is the second largest municipality in Alberta by area. It is home to vast oil sand deposits known as the Athabasca oil sands, helping to make the region one of the fastest growing industrial areas in Canada; until the Alberta electoral boundary re-distribution of 2004, the municipality was divided between the provincial electoral districts of Fort McMurray and Athabasca-Wabasca. The re-distribution amalgamated the municipality into a single electoral district covering the entire municipality; as a result, the new Wood Buffalo electoral district became the most populous such district in Alberta. The Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo is in the lower basin of the Athabasca River watershed and Fort McMurray is the largest community on the banks of the river. Local rivers include the Hangingstone River, Clearwater River and Christina River, a tributary of the Clearwater River.

The Hangingstone River drains an area of 1,070 km2, dominated by muskeg, flows into the Clearwater River just upstream of the Athabasca River at Fort McMurray. The river experiences high flows in the spring during snow melt, during heavy rainfall events and when ice jams occur during spring ice break; the RMWB warns citizens of the potential for sudden flash floods "especially in populated areas adjacent to the Athabasca River, Clearwater River and Christina River." Water levels have been monitored by the Water Survey of Canada since 1970. During the spring months there is increased monitoring of the "Clearwater River to the south of the urban service area to provide warning of an ice break" and the "Athabasca River upper basin, local river levels and overall weather patterns."The Clearwater River, designated as part of the Canadian Heritage Rivers System, flows 187 km from its headwaters in Lloyd Lake in northwest Saskatchewan into northeast Alberta before joining the Athabasca River at Fort McMurray.

"The lack of significant oil sands developments means that the Clearwater River can be used as a baseline river system to provide information on the variability and characteristics of natural systems." By June 12, 2013 after many days of heavy rain, Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo declared a state of emergency. They organized evacuations from some areas and placed others under boil water advisories as local waterways, such as the Hangingstone River, rose to dangerously high levels 30 kilometres south of Fort McMurray, causing the closure of Highway 63. From May 3, 2016 on, over 80,000 people were affected by evacuations, by May 3 at 6:49 pm, the entirety of Fort McMurray and surrounding areas were placed under a mandatory evacuation. Making it Alberta's largest evacuation for a wildfire. In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo recorded a population of 71,589 living in 25,659 of its 30,713 total private dwellings, a change of 9.2% from its 2011 population of 65,565.

With a land area of 61,777.65 km2, it had a population density of 1.2/km2 in 2016. The Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo's 2015 municipal census reported a population of 125,032 in the municipality, which includes permanent and shadow populations of 82,724 and 42,308 residents respectively. In the 2011 Census, the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo had a population of 65,565 living in 23,077 of its 28,000 total dwellings, a change of 27.3% from its 2006 population of 51,496. With a land area of 63,637.47 km2, it had a population density of 1.0/km2 in 2011. The determination of the RM of Wood Buffalo's population has twice been subject to controversy since 2007. First, Statistics Canada's March 2007 release of the population and dwelling counts from the 2006 census reported an overall population, 18,000 residents fewer than the number of permanent residents the municipality counted in its own census conducted in 2006. Second, the RM of Wood Buffalo published a total population of 103,334 as a result of its 2008 municipal census, which included both its permanent and non-permanent populations.

Alberta Municipal Affairs rejected the census result as the total population was generated through the use of extrapolation instead of door-to-door census enumeration. As of the 2006 census, nearly 11% of residents identified themselves as visible minorities and more than 10% of residents identified as Aboriginal. Nearly 85% of residents identified English, 3% identified French, as their first language; the next most common languages are Cree and Arabic at 1.2% each. Wood Buffalo is home to 2,000 recent immigrants who now make up more than 3% of the population. About 21% of these immigrants came from India, while about 10% came from each of Pakistan and the Philippines, about 9% came from Venezuela, about 8% from South Africa, about 6% from China, about 3% came from Colombia. More than 80% of residents identified as Christian at the time of the 2001 census while 17% indicated they had no religious affiliation. For specific denominations Statistics Canada counted 15,880 Roman Catholics, 4,985 Anglicans, 4,225 for the United Church of Canada, 1,730 Pentecostals, 1,195 Baptists, 965 for the Salvation Army, 900 Lutherans, 690 Muslims, 350 Latter-day Saints, 320 Presbyterians.

The Regional Mu

Sure Know Something

"Sure Know Something" is a song by American hard rock band Kiss, released on their 1979 album Dynasty. The B-side is "Dirty Livin'", another album track featured on the Dynasty album, co-written and sung by drummer Peter Criss. Written by vocalist/guitarist Paul Stanley and producer Vini Poncia, "Sure Know Something" reached number 47 on the U. S. Billboard Hot 100 singles chart in 1979, in the Top Ten in some countries around the world, it would become another top ten hit for the band in Australia. A promotional video, directed by John Goodhue, was filmed for the single and featured the band on a mock-up of what was their Dynasty-era stage show. "Sure Know Something" was performed by the band acoustically during their MTV Unplugged performance in 1995 and with the Melbourne Symphony Ensemble on their live album Kiss Symphony: Alive IV. The song incorporates disco music into the usual style of a rock ballad, it is one of two disco rock hits for the band, the other being "I Was Made for Lovin' You".

It is seen as being one of the more sophisticated songs written by Paul Stanley, with critics noting the heartfelt feelings of confusion and sorrow. The song musically and lyrically is darker than most Kiss songs, with the song being played in a minor key and the lyrics referring to being overwhelmed by loss of virginity; the song is still heard today on Australian Rock radio stations. Paul Stanley – lead vocals and lead guitar Gene Simmonsbass guitar Ace Frehley - additional guitar, backing vocals Anton Figdrums, percussion Vini Poncia – keyboards, backing vocals A number of artists have released cover versions of "Sure Know Something". A partial listing: In 1995, Bobby Bandiera released a cover of the song on the tribute album Dressed to Kill - An Independent Tribute to Kiss. In 2001, German hard-rock band Demon Drive covered the song on Rock'N' Roll Star. In 2009, guitarist/vocalist, Tim McPhate released a cover of the song on the album Succession - A 30th Anniversary Tribute to Dynasty.

In 2009, Italian hard rock band Lost Reflection released a cover of the song as single. It charted in Japan. In 2009, Argentinian Roots Reggae band, Los Cafres released a cover of the song on the album Classic Lover Covers. In 2014, Italian hard rock band Virus released a cover of the song for the CD Kissed By Kiss In 2019 The Hindley Street Country Club “Australia” released a cover version and video of the song

Terrorist incidents in Pakistan in 2006

In 2006, 30 terrorist attacks, including 10 of a sectarian nature, took place, leaving 100 people dead and 230 others injured. 25 January:- At least six people were killed and five others hurt after a bus ran over a landmine in Dera Bugti District, Balochistan. 5 February:- A bomb explosion killed 13 people including three army personnel and injured 18 on a Lahore-bound bus en route from Quetta in Kolpur, Bolan District, Balochistan. No groups claimed of responsibility for the attack. 9 February:- Sectarian violence marred the holiest day of the Shiite calendar, with at least 36 people killed and more than 100 wounded in attacks and clashes in Pakistan and Afghanistan. The violence erupted with a suspected suicide attack on Shiites in Hangu, in the northwestern part of the country, as they celebrated Day of Ashura. 2 March:- A power suicide car bomb attack in the high security zone near the US Consulate, killed four people including a US diplomat, a day before President George W. Bush was to reach Pakistan.

10 March:- At least 26 people women and children, were killed in Dera Bugti District, Balochistan after their bus hit a landmine. Both tribal rebels and security forces planted land mines in the area. 11 April:- Over 50 people, including Sunni scholars, were killed in a bomb explosion at a religious gathering celebrating the birthday of Prophet Muhammad in Nishtar Park, Karachi. 12 June:- At least five people were killed and 17 wounded in a bomb attack in Quetta hotel. 15 June:- Unidentified gunmen killed a senior prison official Amanullah Khan Niazi and four others in the southern Pakistani city of Karachi. 16 June:- Two female teachers and two children were shot dead in Khoga Chiri village in Orakzai Agency. 14 July:- Allama Hassan Turabi, a Shiite religious scholar and chief of Tehrik-e-Jafaria Pakistan, his 12-year-old nephew were killed in a suicide attack near his Abbas Town residence. The suicide bomber was identified as Abdul Karim, a Bangladeshi-speaking, resident of a shanty town in the central city area of Karachi.

26 August:- Tribal leader Nawab Akbar Bugti was killed in a battle between tribal militants and government forces in Balochistan. At least five soldiers and at least 30 rebels are thought to have died too. 26–31 August:- Akbar Bugti's killing sparked five days of rioting that left six people dead, dozens wounded and 700 under arrest. 8 September:- At least six people were killed and 17 injured, four of them when a powerful bomb blast hit the Rakhni bazaar area of Barkhan District, Balochistan. 6 October:- 17 people were killed in fighting between Sunni and Shia Muslims over a dispute over ownership of the shrine to 18th Century figure Syed Amir Anwar Shah shrine in Pakistan's Orakzai tribal region. 20 October:- A bomb blast killed at least six people and left 21 injured in a busy shopping district of Peshawar. 8 November:- A suicide bomber killed 42 Pakistani Army soldiers and injured 20 in the northwestern town of Dargai in retaliation to the Chenagai airstrike which killed 80 people in the same Bajaur region in the previous month.

This was the second such attack on the Army since the 2004 assassination attempt on Karachi Corps commander


Fibrils are structural biological materials found in nearly all living organisms. Not to be confused with fibers or filaments, fibrils tend to have diameters ranging from 10-100 nanometers. Fibrils are not found alone but rather are parts of greater hierarchical structures found in biological systems. Due to the prevalence of fibrils in biological systems, their study is of great importance in the fields of microbiology and materials science. Fibrils are composed of linear biopolymers, are characterized by rod-like structures with high length-to-diameter ratios. Oftentimes, they spontaneously arrange into helical structures. In biomechanics problems, fibrils can be characterized as classical beams with a circular cross-sectional area on the nanometer scale; as such, simple beam bending equations can be applied to calculate flexural strength of fibrils under ultra-low loading conditions. Like most biopolymers, stress-strain relationships of fibrils tend to show a characteristic toe-heel region before a linear, elastic region.

Unlike biopolymers, fibrils do not behave like homogeneous materials, as yield strength has been shown to vary with volume, indicating structural dependencies. Differences in structure between fibrils of different origin is determined by x-ray diffraction. A scanning electron microscope can be used to observe specific details on larger fibril species such as the characteristic 67 nm bands in collagen, but is not fine enough to determine the full structure. Hydration has been shown to produce a noticeable effect in the mechanical properties of fibrillar materials; the presence of water has been shown to decrease the stiffness of collagen fibrils, as well as increase their rate of stress relaxation and strength. From a biological standpoint, water content acts as a toughening mechanism for fibril structures, allowing for higher energy absorption and greater straining capabilities. Fibrillogenesis is the expansion of fine fibrils, common in collagen fibers of connective tissue; the definite mechanisms of fibrillogenesis are still unknown, although many hypotheses resulting from basic research help discover many possible mechanisms.

In early experiments, collagen I could be distilled from tissues and recombined into fibrils with controlling the solutions. Studies help understand the composition and structure of binding sites on the collagen monomers. Collagen is synthesized as a soluble precursor, which supports collagen self-assembly. Since collagen fibrils have 50 binding components in vivo, the definite requirement to generate fibrillogenesis in vivo is still cryptic. With acidic or saline solution, collagen can be extracted from tissues and rearrange into fibril by changing temperature or pH value. Experiments discovered attractive force between collagen monomers. Collagen serves as a precursor, procollagen, in synthesizing reaction, which identifies self-polymerization of collagen. There are over 30 collagens in nature that are similar in chemical composition but differ in terms of crystal structure. By far, collagen I and II are the most abundant, they initiatively form fibrils in vitro, while fibronectin, fibronectin-binding, collagen-binding integrins and collagen V are essential for collagen I forming and collagen XI for collagen II forming.

Therefore, cellular mechanisms play key role in the protein self-assembly process. Collagen is the major structural protein outside cells in many connective tissues of animals; as the primary component of connective tissue, it has the largest amount among protein in mammals, occupying 25% to 35% of all protein content in the body. The fibrils in collagen are packed in a crimp structure; the stress/strain curve of collagen, such as tendon, can be subdivided into several regions. The region of small strains,"toe"region, corresponds to the removal of a macroscopic crimp, uncrimping, in the collagen fibrils, visible in light microscope. At larger strains, "heel" and "linear" region, there's no further structural change visible. Tropocollagen is the molecular component fiber, consisting of three left handed polypeptide chains coiled around each other, forming a right-handed triple helix. Muscles contract and stretch via the steerable sliding/grasping of the myosin interacting with actin fibers. Actin consists of two polypeptides in a helix and myosin has a small heart-shaped structure, cross-bridge.

The bind and unbind processes of cross-bridge attaching on actin filament help relative movement of these collagens and hence the whole muscle. Elastin is a fibrous protein common in various soft tissues, like skin, blood vessels and lung tissue; each monomer connects with each other, forming a 3D network, with ability to endure over 200% strain before deformation. Keratin is a structural protein found in hair, hooves, quills. Keratin is formed by polypeptide chains, which coil into α-helices with sulfur cross-links or bond into β-sheets linked by hydrogen bonding. Β-keratin, tougher than α-conformation, is more common in birds and reptiles. Resilin is an elastomeric insect protein, consisting of both β-sheets structure, it is one of the most resilient protein in nature. It has a low stiffness ~0.6MPa but a high energy restoring percentage ~98%, efficiently helps flying insects to flap wings or fleas to jump. Spider silk fibril is composed of stiff crystallized β-sheets structure, responsible for strength, amorphous matrix surrounding, improving toughness and elongation ability.

It has exceptionally high tensile strength and ductility, with low density, compared to other nat

Parc de Gerland

Parc de Gerland called Parc du Confluent, is a large greenspace in Lyon situated on a former industrial site in the south of the city near the confluence of the Rhône and the Saone. Construction began in 1996, the park was developed over an area of 80 hectares; the initial two phases of construction concluded in 2000 and 2006, were carried out by landscape architect Michel Corajoud. The project was managed by Grand Lyon; the park includes a skatepark and a botanical garden. It is situated next to the Stade de Gerland, was used during the French archery championship finals in 2007 and 2012. Parc de la Tête d'or Parc de Parilly Parc Sergent Blandan Parks in Lyon Official website Grand Lyon official website for Parc de Gerland

2008 Korea Professional Baseball season

The 2008 Korea Professional Baseball season was the 27th season in the history of the KBO League. The season commenced on March 29 Regular Season: 126 games for each team Semiplayoff: Regular Season 3rd place vs. Regular Season 4th place - Best of 5 Playoff: Regular Season 2nd place vs. Semiplayoff winner - Best of 7 Korean Series: Regular Season 1st place vs. Playoff winner - Best of 7 Champion: Korean Series winner Runner-up: Korean Series loser 3rd–8th place: Sort by Regular Season record except teams to play in the Korean Series Hyundai stopped their sponsorship after the 2007 season, the Unicorns were renamed the Woori Heroes after Centennial Investments sold the naming rights to the Woori Tobacco Company, they announced possible player salary reductions Samsung Lions win the series, 3–0 Doosan Bears win the series, 4–2 SK Wyverns win the series, 4–1 Final Official website Standings