Land use involves the management and modification of natural environment or wilderness into built environment such as settlements and semi-natural habitats such as arable fields and managed woods. It has been defined as "the total of arrangements and inputs that people undertake in a certain land cover type." Land use practices vary across the world. The United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization Water Development Division explains that "Land use concerns the products and/or benefits obtained from use of the land as well as the land management actions carried out by humans to produce those products and benefits." As of the early 1990s, about 13% of the Earth was considered arable land, with 26% in pasture, 32% forests and woodland, 1.5% urban areas. Land change modeling can be used to assess future shifts in land use; as Albert Guttenberg wrote many years ago, "'Land use' is a key term in the language of city planning." Political jurisdictions will undertake land-use planning and regulate the use of land in an attempt to avoid land-use conflicts.
Land use plans are implemented through land division and use ordinances and regulations, such as zoning regulations. Management consulting firms and non-governmental organizations will seek to influence these regulations before they are codified. In colonial America, few regulations existed to control the use of land, due to the endless amounts of it; as society shifted from rural to urban, public land regulation became important to city governments trying to control industry and housing within their boundaries. The first zoning ordinance was passed in New York City in 1916, and, by the 1930s, most states had adopted zoning laws. In the 1970s, concerns about the environment and historic preservation led to further regulation. Today, federal and local governments regulate growth and development through statutory law; the majority of controls on land, stem from the actions of private developers and individuals. Three typical situations bringing such private entities into the court system are: suits brought by one neighbor against another.
In these situations, judicial decisions and enforcement of private land-use arrangements can reinforce public regulation, achieve forms and levels of control that regulatory zoning cannot. Two major federal laws have been passed in the last half century that limit the use of land significantly; these are the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 and the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The US Department of Agriculture has identified six major types of land use in the US. Acreage statistics for each type of land use in the contiguous 48 states in 2017 were as follows: Pasture/range: 654 M Forest: 538.6 M Cropland: 391.5 M Special use: 168.8 M Miscellaneous: 68.9 M Urban: 69.4 M Land use and land management practices have a major impact on natural resources including water, nutrients and animals. Land use information can be used to develop solutions for natural resource management issues such as salinity and water quality. For instance, water bodies in a region, deforested or having erosion will have different water quality than those in areas that are forested.
Forest gardening, a plant-based food production system, is believed to be the oldest form of land use in the world. The major effect of land use on land cover since 1750 has been deforestation of temperate regions. More recent significant effects of land use include urban sprawl, soil erosion, soil degradation and desertification. Land-use change, together with use of fossil fuels, are the major anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide, a dominant greenhouse gas. According to a report by the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization, land degradation has been exacerbated where there has been an absence of any land use planning, or of its orderly execution, or the existence of financial or legal incentives that have led to the wrong land use decisions, or one-sided central planning leading to over-utilization of the land resources - for instance for immediate production at all costs; as a consequence the result has been misery for large segments of the local population and destruction of valuable ecosystems.
Such narrow approaches should be replaced by a technique for the planning and management of land resources, integrated and holistic and where land users are central. This will ensure the long-term quality of the land for human use, the prevention or resolution of social conflicts related to land use, the conservation of ecosystems of high biodiversity value; the urban growth boundary is one form of land-use regulation. For example, Oregon is required to have an urban growth boundary which contains at least 20,000 acres of vacant land. Additionally, Oregon restricts the development of farmland; the regulations are controversial, but an economic analysis concluded that farmland appreciated to the other land. Land-use and land-cover change defined at Encyclopedia of Earth Land Use Law News Alert Land Use Law by Prof. Daniel R. Mandelker The Relationship Between Land Use Decisions and the Impacts on Our Water and Natural Resources Land Use Accountability Project The Center for Public Integrity Schindler's Land Use Page Land Policy Institute at Michigan State University Land Use, Cornell University Law School
Gatineau is a city in western Quebec, Canada. It is the fourth-largest city in the province after Montreal, Quebec City, Laval, it is located on the northern bank of the Ottawa River across from Ottawa, together with which it forms Canada's National Capital Region. As of 2016, Gatineau had a population of 276,245, a metropolitan population of 332,057; the Ottawa–Gatineau census metropolitan area had a population of 1,323,783. Gatineau is coextensive with a territory equivalent to a regional county municipality and census division of the same name, whose geographical code is 81, it is the seat of the judicial district of Hull. The current city of Gatineau is centred on an area called Hull, the oldest European colonial settlement in the National Capital Region; this area was not developed until after the American Revolutionary War, when the Crown made land grants to Loyalists for resettlement in Upper Canada. Hull was founded on the north shore of the Ottawa River in 1800 by Philemon Wright at the portage around the Chaudière Falls just upstream from where the Gatineau and Rideau rivers flow into the Ottawa.
Wright brought his family, five other families, twenty-five labourers to establish an agricultural community. They considered the area a mosquito-infested wilderness, but soon after and his family took advantage of the large lumber stands and became involved in the timber trade. The original settlement was called Wrightstown, was renamed as Hull. In 2002, after amalgamation, it was part of a larger jurisdiction named the City of Gatineau. In 1820, before immigrants from Ireland and other parts of Great Britain arrived in great numbers, Hull Township had a population of 707, including 365 men, 113 women, 229 children; the high number of men were related to workers in the lumber trade. In 1824, there were 803 persons. During the rest of the 1820s, the population of Hull doubled, owing to the arrival of Ulster Protestants. By 1851, the population of the County of Ottawa was 11,104. By comparison, Bytown had a population of 7,760 in 1851. By 1861, Ottawa County had a population of 15,671. French Canadians migrated to the Township.
The Gatineau River, like the Ottawa River, was a basic transportation resource for the draveurs, workers who transport logs via the rivers from lumber camps until they arrived downriver. The log-filled Ottawa River, as viewed from Hull, was featured on the back of the Canadian one-dollar bill; the last of the dwindling activity of the draveurs on these rivers ended a few years later. Ottawa was founded as the terminus of the Rideau Canal; this was built under the command of Col. John By as part of fortifications and defences constructed after the War of 1812 against the United States. Named Bytown, Ottawa was not designated as the Canadian capital until the mid-19th century, after the original parliament in Montreal was torched by a rioting mob of Anglo-Canadians on 25 April 1849, its greater distance from the Canada–US border made the new parliament less vulnerable to foreign attack. Nothing remains of the original 1800 settlement of Hull; the downtown Vieux-Hull sector was destroyed by a terrible fire in 1900.
The bridge was rebuilt to join Ottawa to Hull at Victoria Island. In the 1940s, during World War II, along with various other regions within Canada, such as the Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean, Île Sainte-Hélène, was the site of prisoner-of-war camps. Hull's prison was identified only by a number; the prisoners of war were organized by status: civilian or military status. In the Hull camp, POWs were Italian and German nationals detained by the government as potential threats to the nation during the war; as a result of the Conscription Crisis of 1944, Canadians who had refused conscription were interned in the camp. The prisoners were required to perform hard labour, which included lumbering the land. During the 1970s and early 1980s, the decaying old downtown core of Hull was redeveloped. Old buildings were replaced by a series of large office complexes. In addition some 4,000 residents were displaced, many businesses uprooted along what was once the town's main commercial area. On 11 November 1992, Ghislaine Chénier, Mayoress by interim for the city of Hull, unveiled War Never Again, a marble stele monument that commemorates the cost of war for the men and children of the city of Hull.
As part of the 2000–06 municipal reorganization in Quebec, the five municipalities that constituted the Communauté urbaine de l'Outaouais were merged on 1 January 2002 to constitute the new city of Gatineau. They were: Aylmer Buckingham Hull Gatineau Masson-AngersAlthough Hull was the oldest and most central of the merged cities, the name Gatineau was chosen for the new city; the main reasons given were that Gatineau had more residents, this name was associated with the area: it was the name of the former county, the valley, the hills, the park and the main river within the new city limits. Some argued that the French name of Gatineau was more appealing to the majority French-speaking residents. Since the former city of Hull represents a large area distinct from what was known as Gatineau, some people refer to "Vieux Hull"; the name "Hull" was informally use
The Magdalen Islands is a small archipelago in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence with a land area of 205.53 square kilometres. Though closer to Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia, the islands are part of the Canadian province of Quebec; the islands form the territory equivalent to a regional county municipality and census division of Les Îles-de-la-Madeleine. Its geographical code is 01; the islands form the urban agglomeration of Les Îles-de-la-Madeleine, divided into two municipalities. These are Les Îles-de-la-Madeleine, the central municipality, Grosse-Île; the mayors are Rose Elmonde Clarke, respectively. There are eight major islands: Amherst, Grande Entrée, Grosse-Île, House Harbour, Pointe-Aux-Loups, Entry Island and Brion. All except Brion are inhabited. There are several other tiny islands that are considered part of the archipelago: Bird Rock, Seal Island, Île Paquet and Rocher du Corps Mort; the islands' interiors were once covered with pine forests. An ancient salt dome underlies the archipelago.
The inherent buoyancy of the salt forces the uplift of overlying Permian red sandstone. Nearby salt domes are believed to be sources of fossil fuels. Rock salt is mined on the Islands. In 1534, Jacques Cartier was the first known European to visit the islands. However, Mi'kmaqs had been visiting the islands for hundreds of years as part of a seasonal subsistence migration to harvest the abundant walrus population. A number of archaeological sites have been excavated on the archipelago; the archipelago was named in 1663 by François Doublet, the seigneur of the island, after his wife, Madeleine Fontaine. In 1765, the islands were inhabited by their families, they were hunting walruses for British trader Richard Gridley. To this day, many inhabitants of the Magdalen Islands fly the Acadian flag and identify as both Acadian and Québécois; the islands were administered as part of the British Colony of Newfoundland from 1763 until 1774. That year they were joined to Quebec by the Quebec Act. A segment of the population are descendants of survivors of the more than 400 shipwrecks on the islands.
Some of the historic houses were built from wood from the shipwrecks. The islands have some of Quebec's oldest English-speaking settlements. Although the majority of anglophones have long since assimilated with the francophone population or migrated elsewhere, English-speaking settlements are found at Old Harry, Grosse-Ile, Entry Island; the islands are known for a children's French camp. Activities include a night alone in the woods. To improve ship safety, the government constructed lighthouses on the islands, they indicate navigable channels and have reduced the number of shipwrecks, but many old hulks are found on the beaches and under the waters. Until the 20th century, the islands were isolated during the winter, since the pack ice made the trip to the mainland impassable by boat; the inhabitants of the islands had no means of communication with the mainland. An underwater cable was installed to enable communication by telegraph. In the winter of 1910, the cable broke and the islands were again isolated.
Residents sent an urgent request for help to the mainland by writing letters and sealing them inside a molasses barrel, which they set adrift. It reached the shore on Cape Breton Island, where residents notified the government of the Madelinots' emergency; the government sent an icebreaker to bring aid. Within a few years, the government constructed new wireless telegraph stations on the Magdalens to ensure they had communication in the winter; the puncheon became famous as a symbol of survival. At one time, large walrus herds were found near the islands but they had been destroyed by the end of the 18th century due to overhunting. In the 21st century, the islands' beaches provide habitat for the endangered piping plover and the roseate tern; the maritime climate enjoyed by Magdalen Islands is markedly different from that of the mainland. The huge water masses that circle the archipelago temper the weather and create milder conditions in each season. On the islands, winter is mild, spring is cool, there are few heat waves in summer, fall is warm.
The Magdalen Islands have the least amount of annual frost in the Province of Québec. The warm breezes of summer persist well into September, sometimes early October. However, in spite of this under the Köppen climate classification its climate is humid continental, due to its winters averaging far below freezing by maritime standards. Seasonal lag is strong due to the freezing water and the time it takes for the Gulf to warm up again. There is occasional sea ice formation in winter that impedes offshore communications and activities; the highest temperature recorded in Îles-de-la-Madeleine was 31.1 °C on 31 July 1949. The coldest temperature recorded was −27.2 °C on 14 February 1891. Tourism is a major industry on the Magdalen Islands; the islands have many kilometres of white sand beaches, along with eroding sandstone cliffs. They are a destination for bicycle camping, sea kayaking and kitesurfing. During the winter months, beginning in mid-February, eco-tourists visit to observe new-born and young harp seal pups on the pack ice in the Gulf of St. Lawrence surrounding the islands.
The island is home to Canadian Salt Company Seleine Mines, which produces road salt for use in Quebec, Atlantic Canada and the United States' eastern seaboard. Opened in 1982, the salt mine and plan
Wendake is the current name for an urban reserve of the Huron-Wendat Nation in the Canadian province of Quebec. It is an enclave surrounded by the La Haute-Saint-Charles borough of Quebec City, within the former city of Loretteville. One of the Seven Nations of Canada, the settlement was known as Village-des-Hurons, as -Lorette. Since the late 20th century, archeologists have found large 16th-century villages of the Wendat in the northern Lake Ontario region, where they believe the people coalesced as a distinct group, they migrated south and by the early 17th century had settled in their historical territory of Wendake in the Georgian Bay region. The Wyandot Confederation was made up of loosely associated tribes who spoke a mutually intelligible Iroquoian language. Archeologists have excavated 16th-century settlements north of Lake Ontario at the Mantle Site, Aurora Site and Ratcliff Site in Whitchurch-Stouffville, all attesting to distinctly Wendat occupancy, they have concluded the people coalesced in this area as a distinct group.
They migrated to the Georgian Bay area, where they encountered Europeans in the 17th century. Until the middle of the 17th century, the Wendake ancestors occupied a vast territory straddling part of what is now the United States, south-eastern Ontario and Quebec, they trapped throughout this territory. Between 1634 and 1650, the Wyandot Confederation was dismembered, it is estimated that the Huron population totalled 20,000 to 30,000 people in 1634. By 1650, only a few hundred individuals remained. Most had been decimated by infectious disease epidemics. Part of the Huron population had been integrated into the Iroquois Confederation; the survivors of this tragic period divided into two groups in Canada: the Great-Lake Wyandot and the Huron-Wendat. The latter were the ancestors of the Huron-Wendat of Wendake; this marked the beginning of a period of exile for the 300 or so Wendat who remained, an era during which they would occupy as many as six different sites in the province of Quebec. They settled for good in the village of Lorette in 1697.
First established on Île d'Orléans in 1651, the community moved to Quebec City in 1668. Subsequently, the Wendat temporarily resided in Beauport, Notre Dame de Foy, Ancienne-Lorette and New Lorette in 1673; the current population of the Indian reserve is 2,134 persons. The land area is only 1.46 km². The leader of Wendake is Grand Chef Konrad Sioui, who succeeded Max Gros-Louis in 2008; the Huron had called their historic homeland Wendake. The region was informally known as "Huronia" or the Georgian Triangle. A large 15th-century Huron-Wendat settlement has been discovered in Whitchurch–Stouffville, its discovery has added to archeologists and anthropologists believing that the Wendat arose as a people in this area. Other remnants of the Wendat and Petun peoples formed the Wyandot and migrated south, to present-day Michigan, to Indian Territory in Kansas and Oklahoma. In the United States, there are three federally recognized Wyandot tribes: the Wyandotte Nation of Oklahoma, the Wyandot Nation of Kansas, the Wyandot Nation of Anderdon in Michigan.
In August 1999, these nations joined the contemporary Wendat Confederacy, pledging to provide mutual aid to each other in a spirit of peace and unity. Community Profile: Wendake Indian Reserve, Québec.
Waste management are the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal. This includes the collection, transport and disposal of waste, together with monitoring and regulation of the waste management process. Waste can be solid, liquid, or gaseous and each type has different methods of disposal and management. Waste management deals with all types of waste, including industrial and household. In some cases waste can pose a threat to human health. Waste is produced by for example the extraction and processing of raw materials. Waste management is intended to reduce adverse effects of waste on human health, the environment or aesthetics. Waste management practices are not uniform among countries. A large portion of waste management practices deal with municipal solid waste, the bulk of the waste, created by household and commercial activity; the waste hierarchy refers to the "3 Rs" reduce and recycle, which classifies waste management strategies according to their desirability in terms of waste minimisation.
The waste hierarchy is the cornerstone of most waste minimisation strategies. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of end waste; the waste hierarchy is represented as a pyramid because the basic premise is that policies should promote measures to prevent the generation of waste. The next step or preferred action is to seek alternative uses for the waste, generated i.e. by re-use. The next is recycling. Following this step is material recovery and waste-to-energy; the final action is disposal, through incineration without energy recovery. This last step is the final resort for waste which has not been diverted or recovered; the waste hierarchy represents the progression of a product or material through the sequential stages of the pyramid of waste management. The hierarchy represents the latter parts of the life-cycle for each product; the life-cycle begins with design proceeds through manufacture and primary use and follows through the waste hierarchy's stages of reduce and recycle.
Each stage in the life-cycle offers opportunities for policy intervention, to rethink the need for the product, to redesign to minimize waste potential, to extend its use. Product life-cycle analysis is a way to optimize the use of the world's limited resources by avoiding the unnecessary generation of waste. Resource efficiency reflects the understanding that global economic growth and development can not be sustained at current production and consumption patterns. Globally, humanity extracts more resources to produce goods. Resource efficiency is the reduction of the environmental impact from the production and consumption of these goods, from final raw material extraction to last use and disposal; the polluter-pays principle mandates that the polluting party pays for the impact on the environment. With respect to waste management, this refers to the requirement for a waste generator to pay for appropriate disposal of the unrecoverable material. Throughout most of history, the amount of waste generated by humans was insignificant due to low population density and low societal levels of the exploitation of natural resources as well as industrial since few decades.
Common waste produced during pre-modern times was ashes and human biodegradable waste, these were released back into the ground locally, with minimum environmental impact. Tools made out of wood or metal were reused or passed down through the generations. However, some civilizations do seem to have been more profligate in their waste output than others. In particular, the Maya of Central America had a fixed monthly ritual, in which the people of the village would gather together and burn their rubbish in large dumps. Following the onset of industrialisation and the sustained urban growth of large population centres in England, the buildup of waste in the cities caused a rapid deterioration in levels of sanitation and the general quality of urban life; the streets became choked with filth due to the lack of waste clearance regulations. Calls for the establishment of a municipal authority with waste removal powers occurred as early as 1751, when Corbyn Morris in London proposed that "... as the preservation of the health of the people is of great importance, it is proposed that the cleaning of this city, should be put under one uniform public management, all the filth be...conveyed by the Thames to proper distance in the country".
However, it was not until the mid-19th century, spurred by devastating cholera outbreaks and the emergence of a public health debate that the first legislation on the issue emerged. Influential in this new focus was the report The Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population in 1842 of the social reformer, Edwin Chadwick, in which he argued for the importance of adequate waste removal and management facilities to improve the health and wellbeing of the city's population. In the UK, the Nuisance Removal and Disease Prevention Act of 1846 began what was to be a evolving process of the provision of regulated waste management in London; the Metropolitan Board of Works was the first citywide authority that centralized sanitation regulation for the expanding city and the Public Health Act 1875 made it compulsory for every household to deposit their weekly waste in "moveable receptacles: for disposal—the first concept for a dust-bin. The dram
Montreal is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada. Called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city; the city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city, a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of, Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with cold, snowy winters. In 2016, the city had a population of 1,704,694, with a population of 1,942,044 in the urban agglomeration, including all of the other municipalities on the Island of Montreal; the broader metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927. French is the city's official language and is the language spoken at home by 49.8% of the population of the city, followed by English at 22.8% and 18.3% other languages. In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 65.8% of the population speaks French at home, compared to 15.3% who speak English.
The agglomeration Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with over 59% of the population able to speak both English and French. Montreal is the second-largest French-speaking city in the world, after Paris, it is situated 258 kilometres south-west of Quebec City. The commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and in economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s, it remains an important centre of commerce, transport, pharmaceuticals, design, art, tourism, fashion, gaming and world affairs. Montreal has the second-highest number of consulates in North America, serves as the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006. In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking, the best city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings. Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics.
It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as an Alpha− world city; as of 2016 the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. In the Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià:ke Tsi, it is a name referring to the Lachine Rapids to the island's Ka-wé-no-te. It means "a place where nations and rivers unite and divide". In the Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang which means "the first stopping place" and is part of the seven fires prophecy; the city was first named Ville Marie by European settlers from La Flèche, or "City of Mary", named for the Virgin Mary. Its current name comes from the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. According to one theory, the name derives from mont Réal,. A possibility by the Government of Canada on its web site concerning Canadian place names, is that the name was adopted as it is written nowadays because an early map of 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, Monte Real.
Archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages; the Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnically and culturally distinct group from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee based in present-day New York, established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century; the French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people". Evidence of earlier occupation of the island, such as those uncovered in 1642 during the construction of Fort Ville-Marie, have been removed. Seventy years the French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley.
This is believed to be due to epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars. In 1611 Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal, on a site named La Place Royale. At the confluence of Petite Riviere and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands. On his 1616 map, Samuel de Champlain named the island Lille de Villemenon, in honour of the sieur de Villemenon, a French dignitary, seeking the viceroyship of New France. In 1639 Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Notre Dame Society of Montreal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives. Dauversiere hired Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury; the colonists left France in 1641 for Quebec, arrived on the island the following year. On May 17, 1642, Ville-Marie was founded on the southern shore of Montreal is
La Tuque (urban agglomeration)
The Urban agglomeration of La Tuque is an urban agglomeration in Quebec, in Canada, that consists of: the city of La Tuque, the municipality of La Bostonnais, the municipality of Lac-Édouard. The actual agglomeration consists of the elements of the amalgamated city of La Tuque as it existed after amalgamation on March 26, 2003, including the two municipalities that chose to de-merge on January 1, 2006, it differs from the census division of La Tuque in that the latter contains three Indian reserves, namely: Coucoucache, Obedjiwan. The agglomeration of La Tuque succeeded to the regional county municipality of Haut-Saint-Maurice; the latter was created in 1982 from part of the County's of Champlain, of Quebec of Saint-Maurice and of Abitibi. Le Haut-Saint-Maurice was dissolved during the merger of all municipalities in 2003 to create the city of La Tuque. Following the referendum on recreating La Bostonnais and Lac-Édouard, the agglomeration of La Tuque was created to allow municipalities to manage in common some competencies.
Municipal history of Quebec Bostonnais, homonymy Lac-Édouard, Quebec Mauricie La Bostonnais, Quebec La Tuque railway station La Tuque, Quebec La Tuque Airport La Tuque Water AerodromeRivers Bostonnais River Little Bostonnais River Croche River Jeannotte River Manouane River Saint-Maurice River Trenche River Vermillon River Lakes Grand Lake Bostonnais Lake Brignolet Lac de la Trenche Lake Édouard Kempt Lake Lake Kiskissink Lake Manouane Lake Ventadour Lake WayagamacZec Zec de la Croche Zec de la Bessonne Zec Borgia, Zec Frémont, Zec du Gros-Brochet, Zec Jeannotte, Zec Kiskissink, Zec Menokeosawin, Zec Tawachiche, Zec Wessonneau. Réserves autochtones Coucoucache, Quebec Obedjiwan Wemotaci, Quebechamlets Sanmaur Van Bruyssels Kiskissink