Regionalism (politics)

In politics, regionalism is a political ideology focusing on the "development of a political or social system based on one or more" regions and/or the national, normative or economic interests of a specific region, group of regions or another subnational entity, gaining strength from or aiming to strengthen the "consciousness of and loyalty to a distinct region with a homogeneous population" to nationalism. More "regionalism refers to three distinct elements: movements demanding territorial autonomy within unitary states. Regions may be delineated by administrative divisions, culture and religion, among others. Regionalists aim at increasing the political power and influence available to all or some residents of a region, their demands occur in "strong" forms, such as sovereignty, separatism and independence, as well as more moderate campaigns for greater autonomy. Regionalists favour confederations over unitary nation states with strong central governments, they may, embrace intermediate forms of federalism.

Proponents of regionalism claim that strengthening the governing bodies and political powers within a region, at the expense of a central government, will benefit local populations by improving regional or local economies, in terms of better fiscal responsibility, regional development, allocation of resources, implementation of local policies and plans, competitiveness among regions and the whole country, consistent with the principle of subsidiarity. Regionalism, autonomism and nationalism are interrelated concepts, yet they have different and sometimes opposite meanings. For instance, in Spain "regionalism" is regarded as associated with "nationalism" and "secessionism", whereas in Italy, it is seen as a synonym of "federalism" and the opposite of "nationalism". In some cases movements or parties campaigning for independence may push for federalism or autonomy within the pre-existing nation state. In developed, liberal-democratic countries, secessionist parties include the Parti Québécois in Quebec, the Basque Nationalist Party and Euskal Herria Bildu in the Basque Country, the New Flemish Alliance and Vlaams Belang in Flanders, the Catalan European Democratic Party and the Republican Left of Catalonia in Països Catalans, the Galician Nationalist Bloc and the Galician Left Alternative in Galicia, the Scottish National Party and the Scottish Green Party in Scotland, the Plaid Cymru in Wales and, to some extent, Sinn Féin in Northern Ireland.

In developing countries they include the Polisario Front in Western Sahara, the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad in Azawad, the Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda in the Cabinda Province, all national liberation movements. Federalist/autonomist regional parties include the Coalition Avenir Québec in Quebec, the New Progressive Party of Puerto Rico and the Popular Democratic Party in Puerto Rico, Lega Nord in Northern Italy, the Party of the Corsican Nation in Corsica, the Martinican Progressive Party in Martinique and the Communist Party of Réunion in Réunion, the New Macau Association in Macau. In some countries, the development of regionalist politics may be a prelude to further demands for greater autonomy or full separation when ethnic and economic disparities are present; this was demonstrated, among other examples, in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s. Political parties that are regional are not regionalist parties. A "regional party" is any political party with its base in a single region, whatever its objectives and platform may be, whereas "regionalist" parties are a subset of regional parties that campaign for greater autonomy or independence in their region.

Because regional parties – including regionalist parties – cannot receive enough votes or legislative seats to be politically powerful, they may join political coalitions or seek to be part of a coalition government. Notable examples include the Sinn Féin's participation in the Northern Ireland Executive since 1999, the New Flemish Alliance's participation in the Federal Government of Belgium since 2014, Lega Nord's participation in the Italian government in 1994, 2001–2006 and 2008–2011. Examples of regional parties that do not campaign for greater autonomy or federalism include most provincial parties in Canada, most regional and minority parties in Europe, notably including the Christian Social Union in Bavaria, most parties in Belgium, most parties in Northern Ireland, the Istrian Democratic Assembly in Istria and the Alliance of Primorje-Gorski Kotar in Primorje-Gorski Kotar, most political parties in India. Regional parties with an autonomist/federalist or secessionist agendas have included the aforementioned Bloc Québécois, Lega Nord, the Vlaams Belang, the New Flemish Alliance, the Catalan European Democratic Party, the Republican Left of Catalonia, the Scottish National Party, Plaid Cymru, Sinn Féin.

Lists of regional and regionalist parties are available at: List of political parties campaigning for self-government List of historical separatist movements Category

Pete Schourek

Peter Alan Schourek is a former Major League Baseball left-handed pitcher who played for the New York Mets, Cincinnati Reds, Houston Astros, Boston Red Sox, Pittsburgh Pirates from 1991 to 2001. He was the runnerup for the National League's Cy Young Award in 1995. Schourek grew up in Falls Church, Virginia in the Washington Metropolitan Area and attended George C. Marshall High School in Falls Church. While at Marshall the Statesmen finished as runners up in the Virginia High School League State Championship. Schourek lives in the Northern Virginia area with his daughter, he still displays his skills as a baseball player in semi-pro leagues in the area. His best season came in 1995, as he posted an 18-7 record with a 3.22 ERA. He gave up 2 runs in 14​1⁄3 IP in the postseason, but took an 0-1 record in 2 starts behind an untimely offensive slump, he was the runner-up for the NL Cy Young Award, losing to Greg Maddux. As Opening Day starter on April 1, 1996, he witnessed the death of umpire John McSherry, only seven pitches into the top of the 1st inning.

He won the makeup game the next day, but struggled the rest of the way before his season ended due to injury in July with a 4-5 record and 6.01 ERA. He was plagued by various injuries in subsequent seasons; this limited his effectiveness and moved around to various teams until his retirement after the 2001 season. Schourek, along with Rodney "Crash" McCray, managed Team Crash Test Dummies to a title in Week 1 of the 2017 New York Mets Fantasy Camp. Schourek managed Team PYT to a title in Week 2 of the 2017 New York Mets Fantasy Camp, his father, Joe, is a respected teacher and successful baseball coach at Gonzaga College High School. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference

Hull speed

Hull speed or displacement speed is the speed at which the wavelength of a vessel's bow wave is equal to the waterline length of the vessel. As boat speed increases from rest, the wavelength of the bow wave increases, its crest-to-trough dimension increases as well; when hull speed is exceeded, a vessel in displacement mode will appear to be climbing up the back of its bow wave. From a technical perspective, at hull speed the bow and stern waves interfere constructively, creating large waves, thus a large value of wave drag. Though the term "hull speed" seems to suggest that it is some sort of "speed limit" for a boat, in fact drag for a displacement hull increases smoothly and at an increasing rate with speed as hull speed is approached and exceeded with no noticeable inflection at hull speed; the concept of hull speed is not used in modern naval architecture, where considerations of speed/length ratio or Froude number are considered more helpful. As a ship moves in the water, it creates standing waves.

This effect increases in full-formed hulls at a Froude number of about 0.35 because of the rapid increase of resistance from the transverse wave train. When the Froude number grows to ~0.40, the wave-making resistance increases further from the divergent wave train. This trend of increase in wave-making resistance continues up to a Froude number of ~0.45, peaks at a Froude number of ~0.50. This sharp rise in resistance at speed/length ratio around 1.3 to 1.5 seemed insurmountable in early sailing ships and so became an apparent barrier. This led to the concept of hull speed. Hull speed can be calculated by the following formula: v h u l l ≈ 1.34 × L W L where L W L is the length of the waterline in feet, v h u l l is the hull speed of the vessel in knotsIf the length of waterline is given in metres and desired hull speed in knots, the coefficient is 2.43 kn·m−½. The constant may be given as 1.34 to 1.51 knot·ft−½ in imperial units, or 4.50 to 5.07 km·h−1·m−½ in metric units, or 1.25 to 1.41 m·s−1·m−½ in SI units.

The ratio of speed to L W L is called the "speed/length ratio" though it is a ratio of speed to the square root of length. Wave making resistance depends on the general proportions and shape of the hull: many modern displacement designs can exceed their hull speed without planing; these include hulls with fine ends, long hulls with narrow beam and wave-piercing designs. Such hull forms are realised by some canoes, competitive rowing boats, fast ferries and other commercial and military vessels. Vessel weight is a critical consideration: it affects wave amplitude, therefore the energy transferred to the wave for a given hull length. Heavy boats with hulls designed for planing cannot exceed hull speed without planing. Light, narrow boats with hulls not designed for planing can exceed hull speed without planing. For example, world-class racing kayaks can exceed hull speed by more than 100% though they do not plane. Semi-displacement hulls are intermediate between these two extremes. Ultra light displacement boats are designed to plane and thereby circumvent the limitations of hull speed.

Ship resistance and propulsion Wave making resistance A simple explanation of hull speed as it relates to heavy and light displacement hulls Hull speed chart for use with rowed boats On the subject of high speed monohulls, Daniel Savitsky, Professor Emeritus, Davidson Laboratory, Stevens Institute of Technology Low Drag Racing Shells Converter: knots > km/h & km/h > knots