A political party is an organized group of people with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. The party agrees on some proposed policies and programmes, with a view to promoting the collective good or furthering their supporters' interests. While there is some international commonality in the way political parties are recognized and in how they operate, there are many differences, some are significant. Many political parties have an ideological core, but some do not, many represent ideologies different from their ideology at the time the party was founded. Many countries, such as Germany and India, have several significant political parties, some nations have one-party systems, such as China and Cuba; the United States is in practice a two-party system but with many smaller parties participating and a high degree of autonomy for individual candidates. Political factions have existed in democratic societies since ancient times. Plato writes in his Republic on the formation of political cliques in Classical Athens, the tendency of Athenian citizens to vote according to factional loyalty rather than for the public good.
In the Roman Republic, Polybius coined the term ochlocracy to describe the tendency of politicians to mobilise popular factionalist sentiment against their political rivals. Factional politics remained a part of Roman political life through the Imperial period and beyond, the poet Juvenal coined the phrase "bread and circuses" to describe the political class pandering to the citizenry through diversionary entertainments rather than through arguments about policy. "Bread and circuses" survived as part of Byzantine political life - for example, the Nika revolt during the reign of Justinian was a riot between the "Blues" and the "Greens"—two chariot racing factions at the Hippodrome, who received patronage from different Senatorial factions and religious sects. The patricians who sponsored the Blues and the Greens competed with each other to hold grander games and public entertainments during electoral campaigns, in order to appeal to the citizenry of Constantinople; the first modern political factions, can be said to have originated in early modern Britain.
The first political factions, cohering around a basic, if fluid, set of principles, emerged from the Exclusion Crisis and Glorious Revolution in late 17th century England. The Whigs supported Protestant constitutional monarchy against absolute rule, they were interested in the citizens of United Kingdom being free from the aristocracy and opposed to any tyranny, however they supported the constitutional aristocracy and does not consider the British nobility abusive because of its limits; the leader of the Whigs was Robert Walpole, who maintained control of the government in the period 1721–1742. As the century wore on, the factions began to adopt more coherent political tendencies as the interests of their power bases began to diverge; the Whig party's initial base of support from the great aristocratic families widened to include the emerging industrial interests and wealthy merchants. As well as championing constitutional monarchy with strict limits on the monarch's power, the Whigs adamantly opposed a Catholic king as a threat to liberty, believed in extending toleration to nonconformist Protestants, or dissenters.
A major influence on the Whigs were the liberal political ideas of John Locke, the concepts of universal rights employed by Locke and Algernon Sidney. Although the Tories were out of office for half a century, for most of this period the Tories retained party cohesion, with occasional hopes of regaining office at the accession of George II and the downfall of the ministry of Sir Robert Walpole in 1742, they acted as a united, though unavailing, opposition to Whig corruption and scandals. At times they cooperated with the "Opposition Whigs", Whigs who were in opposition to the Whig government, they regained power with the accession of George III in 1760 under Lord Bute. When they lost power, the old Whig leadership dissolved into a decade of factional chaos with distinct "Grenvillite", "Bedfordite", "Rockinghamite", "Chathamite" factions successively in power, all referring to themselves as "Whigs". Out of this chaos, the first distinctive parties emerged; the first such party was the Rockingham Whigs under the leadership of Charles Watson-Wentworth and the intellectual guidance of the political philosopher Edmund Burke.
Burke laid out a philosophy that described the basic framework of the political party as "a body of men united for promoting by their joint endeavours the national interest, upon some particular principle in which they are all agreed". As opposed to the instability of the earlier factions, which were tied to a particular leader and could disintegrate if removed from power, the party was centred around a set of core principles and remained out of power as a united opposition to government. A coalition including the Rockingham Whigs, led by the Earl of She
Senate of Chile
The Senate of the Republic of Chile is the upper house of Chile's bicameral National Congress, as established in the current Constitution of Chile. According to the present Constitution of Chile, the Senate is composed of thirty-eight directly elected senators, chosen by universal popular suffrage vote in 19 senatorial circumscriptions; these serve eight-year terms, with half of them being replaced every fourth year. They must be eligible to vote, have completed secondary school, or its equivalent, be at least 35 years old; the Senate sessions at the new National Congress located in the port city of Valparaíso that replaced the old National Congress located in downtown Santiago, the nation's capital. Amendments to the Constitution, approved by a joint session of Congress on August 16, 2005, eliminated non-directly elected senators from March 11, 2006, the day 20 newly elected senators were sworn in, leaving the total number of senators at 38, all directly elected. According to the Constitution of 1980, "designated" or "institutional" senators were appointed to the chamber.
Two former heads of state, Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle and Augusto Pinochet, were installed as senators for life. Pinochet resigned from this position and Frei lost his seat in the 2005 reform. However, Frei remained in the Senate by winning an elective seat; the Senate of Chile was created in 1812 to support the formulations of policies of the Government Junta. Since it has undergone several constitutional reorganizations that have altered the scope of its constitutional powers, its composition and the generation of its members. Created by Article 7 of the Provisional Constitutional Manual of 1812, it was composed of seven titular members and three alternate members and was supposed to serve as a counterbalance to the executive power of the Government Junta. The senators were directly nominated by the provinces in agreement with the central government, it functioned from November, 1812 to January, 1814, when it was reorganized to better respond to the problems caused by the successive military defeats at the hands of the advancing Spanish Army.
Created by Article 13 of the Provisional Government Manual of 1814. As its predecessor, it was composed of seven titular members nominated by the provinces in lists of three from which they were selected by the Supreme Director, it functioned from March to July, 1814, when the Spanish Army captured Santiago, putting an end to the Patria Vieja government. Created by Title III of the Constitution of 1818, it was composed of five titular members and five alternate members selected directly by the Supreme Director. It was supposed to function only when the lower house was not in function or could not meet, had the power to enact "provisory rules" that had the same effect as laws It functioned from October, 1818 to May, 1822. Key to Senate classes by regions: Class 1 consists of:-the 23 current senators whose seats expire in March 2026. Class 2 consists of:-the 20 current senators whose seats expire in March 2022. Plus 7 new senators, who will be elected in 2022 President of the Senate of Chile National Congress of Chile Chamber of Deputies of Chile Politics of Chile List of legislatures by country Senate of Chile Official web site Article from the Economist dealing with the Senate composition
Citizen Power (political party)
Citizen Power was a Chilean left-wing political party, founded in 2015. It was created by former supporters of Michelle Bachelet, Marcel Claude, Franco Parisi and Alfredo Sfeir, who were presidential candidates for the 2013 elections. In 2017, the party joined a new leftist coalition called Broad Front, which competed in the presidential and parliamentary elections that year. On September 27, 2018, Autonomous Left merged with Poder Ciudadano, the latter saying via Twitter to "...create a new party of feminist and democratic left..." The following is a list of the presidential candidates supported by Power.. 2017: Beatriz Sánchez Power Party
Communist Party of Chile
The Communist Party of Chile is a Chilean political party inspired by the thoughts of Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin. It was founded in 1922, as the continuation of the Socialist Workers Party, in 1932 it established its youth wing, the Communist Youth of Chile, it achieved congressional representation shortly thereafter and played a leading role in the development of the Chilean labor movement. Tied to the Soviet Union and the Third International, the PCCh participated in the Popular Front government of 1938, growing among the unionized working class in the 1940s, it participated to the Popular Front's successor, the Democratic Alliance. Concern over the PCCh's success at building a strong electoral base, combined with the onset of the Cold War, led to its being outlawed in 1948 by a Radical government, a status it had to endure for a decade until 1958 when it was again legalized. By the 1960s, the party had become a veritable political subculture, with its own symbols and organizations and the support of prominent artists and intellectuals such as Pablo Neruda, the Nobel Prize-winning poet, Violeta Parra, the songwriter and folk artist.
At the time, the U. S. State Department estimated the party membership to be 27,500, it came to power along with the Socialist Party in the Unidad Popular coalition in 1970. Within the broad Unidad Popular alliance, the communists sided with Allende, a relative moderate from the Socialist Party, other more moderate forces of that coalition, supporting more gradual reforms and urging to find a compromise with the Christian Democrats; this line was opposed by more radically leftist factions of the Socialist Party and smaller far-left groups. The party was outlawed after the 1973 coup d'état. Much of the Communist leadership went underground, for a while the party's moderation continued after the coup had taken place, it has been argued by Mark Ensalaco that crushing the Communist Party was not a top priority for the military junta. In its first statement after the coup, the party leadership still argued that the coup could succeed because the Unidad Popular was too isolated, due to actions of the'far-left'.
Around 1977, the party changed direction. Communist Party members set up the Manuel Rodríguez Patriotic Front. With the restoration of democracy and the election of a new president in 1990, the Communist Party of Chile was legalized again; as part of the Popular Unity coalition the PCCh advocated a broad alliance. Since the restoration of democracy it has acted independently of its previous partners. Between 1983 and 1987 it was a member of the People's Democratic Movement. In the 1999/2000 presidential elections the party supported Gladys Marín Millie for the national presidential elections, she won 3.2% of the vote in the first round. At the 2005 legislative election, 11 December 2005, the party won 5.1% of the popular vote, but as a result of Chile's binomial electoral rules, no seats. The small but significant support of the PCCh is believed to have aided in the electoral victories of former socialist president Ricardo Lagos in the 2000 elections, in the more recent victory of Chile's first female president, the socialist Michelle Bachelet in January 2006, both of whom won in competitive second round runoffs.
The PCCh is a member of “New Majority”, a leftist coalition led by Michelle Bachelet. KeysRP = supported a candidate from the Radical Party SP = supported a candidate from the Socialist Party PU–SP = member of the Popular Unity coalition, supported the candidate from the Socialist Party PDC = supported a candidate from the Christian Democratic Party Ind = supported an independent candidate HP = supported a candidate from the Humanist Party NM–SP = member of the New Majority coalition, supported the candidate from the Socialist Party NM–Ind = member of the New Majority coalition, supported an independent candidate Communist Youth of Chile Luis Emilio Recabarren Popular Unity Co-ordinating Committee of Communist Parties in Britain Juntos PODEMOS Más Norte Grande insurrection Olga Ulianova and Alfredo Riquelme, Chile en los archivos soviéticos: 1922-1991: Tomo I, Komintern y Chile, 1922-1931. Santiago: Centro de Investigaciones Diego Barros Arana, Lom Ediciones, 2005. Olga Ulianova and Alfredo Riquelme, Chile en los archivos soviéticos: 1922-1991: Tomo II, Komintern y Chile, 1931-1935.
Santiago: Centro de Investigaciones Diego Barros Arana, Lom Ediciones, 2009. Homepage
Chamber of Deputies of Chile
The Honourable Chamber of Deputies of the Republic of Chile is the lower house of Chile's bicameral Congress. Its organisation and its powers and duties are defined in articles 42 to 59 of Chile's current constitution. Deputies must: be aged at least 21. Since 2017, Chile's congressional elections are governed by an Open list proportional representation. Before 2017, a unique binomial system was used; these system rewards coalition slates. Each coalition could run two candidates for each electoral district's two Chamber seats; the two largest coalitions in a district divided the seats, one each, among themselves. Only if the leading coalition ticket out-polls the second-place coalition by a margin of more than two-to-one did the winning coalition gain both seats. With seats allocated using the simple quotient; the Chamber of Deputies meets in Chile's National Congress located in the port city of Valparaíso, some 120 km west of the capital, Santiago. The Congress building in Valparaíso replaced the old National Congress, located in downtown Santiago, in 1990.
List of Presidents of the Chamber of Deputies of Chile National Congress of Chile Senate of Chile List of legislatures by country Official website
Amplitude (political party)
Amplitude is a Chilean classical-liberal political party founded in January 2014. Although grouped as centre-right independents that had no militancy in the parties of the Alliance, the party's leanings were grouped with the "liberal center" and the party is associated with other movements outside the coalition. On January 7, 2014, deputies Karla Rubilar, Pedro Browne and Joaquín Godoy Ibáñez decided to leave their party, the National Renewal party, due to ideological differences. Among the reasons that were given for leaving was the party's refusal to support the closing of the Penal Cordillera, its lack of support for the allowance of civil unions, its position on economic and educational policies; the same day, Browne, Ibáñez presented a manifesto entitled "Amplitud", which outlined a new political movement. The positions detailed included the rejection of human rights violations committed during the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet and support for political reforms, including the reform of the electoral system and the vote of Chileans living abroad.
On January 20, Senator Lily Pérez joined the movement, having resigned from National Renewal four days earlier. That year, on March 28, former-senator Carlos Cantero and regional councilor of Antofagasta Constantino Zafirópulos joined the party, its initial intentions were to remain within the Alliance, forming a political party with Political Evolution and other center-right organizations, presenting its own candidate for the eventual presidential primary in 2017. However, its path changed towards the end of 2014 when Amplitude made a political-reforms agreement with Public Force, a political movement led by Andrés Velasco, Liberal Network. Lily Pérez had expressed the party's intention to hold a presidential primary between herself and Velasco. On March 7, 2015, Amplitude elected its provisional board of directors; the new board took office on March 15, 2015. On May 15, 2015, founding member Deputy Karla Rubilar quit Amplitude; the next day the General Council was held in the former National Congress building in Santiago, where a new emblem was presented and it was decided to initiate proceedings for registration as a political party.
On September 28, 2015, Amplitude announced the formation of a liberal political coalition, joining with Citizens and Liberal Network to face the municipal elections of 2016. On January 2016 the coalition was named Future Sense; the following is a list of the presidential candidates supported by Amplitude.. 2017: Sebastián Piñera Amplitude
The Citizen Left Party of Chile, known until 2013 as Christian Left Party of Chile was a Chilean left-wing political party. Founded in 1971, in its early days it was suppressed by the Pinochet dictatorship, it is nowadays part of the Nueva Mayoría coalition, supporting the presidential candidacy of former president Michelle Bachelet. The Christian Left Party was founded when a number of Christian Democrats left their party in protest against the party's cooperation with the right-wing forces and confrontation with the Allende government. Thus, on 31 July 1971, Bosco Parra declared that he saw no future for Christian left positions within the Christian Democrat party, he was joined by six other MPs, Fernando Buzeta, Jaime Concha, Alberto Jaramillo, Luís Maira, Pedro Urra and Pedro Videla, as well as by Silvia Alvarez, the only woman and Luís Badilla, the leader of the Christian Democratic youth organization. At this stage, the new organization was joined by a number of MAPU militants who were dissatisfied with their party's affiliation with Marxism-Leninism.
Christian Left was part of the Unidad Popular coalition, declared itself to be a revolutionary party of Christian and Humanist tradition, in favour of constructing socialism. It tended to agree with the radical wing of the Unidad Popular. After the 1973 coup, the party members were subject to arrest and torture, like people from other leftist groups; the party's militants continued operating together within left-wing groups. After democracy was restored in Chile in 1990, most of the militants joined the Socialist Party while others continued as the Christian Left party. In 2003, IC became a member of the political alliance "Together We Can Do More", together with the Communist Party of Chile and the Humanist Party, their joint presidential candidate in 2005 was Tomás Hirsch of the Humanist Party. The second national congress of the Christian Left took place in 2006; the activists chose Manuel Jacques as the president of the Party. On 3 October 2007, it started a process to re-enter the Political Party Registry, from which it was removed in 1989, for not having obtained enough votes to continue as a legal party.
The process ended on 25 May 2008, when the Electoral Service of Chile re-registered it as a legal political party. In 2012 formed a party with other political leftist movements called Citizen Left. On the eve of the 2013 presidential election, the Citizen Left joined the opposition pact Nueva Mayoría and supported the presidential candidacy of Michelle Bachelet, formalizing its existence to change the legal name of the Christian Left in the Electoral Service. In 2018, Citizen Left merged with MAS Region to become MAS Citizen Left; the following is a list of the presidential candidates supported by the Citizen Left.. 1988 plebiscite: "No" 1989: Patricio Aylwin, PDC-Concertación 1993: Eugenio Pizarro, Ind.-ADI 1999: Ricardo Lagos, PPD-Concertación 2005: Tomás Hirsch, PH-Juntos Podemos 2009: Jorge Arrate, PCCh-Juntos Podemos 2013: Michelle Bachelet, PS-Nueva Mayoría 2017: Alejandro Guillier, Ind.-Nueva Mayoría Christian left Christian socialism Home page