SkyTeam is an airline alliance. Founded in June 2000, SkyTeam was the last of the three major airline alliances to be formed, the first two being Star Alliance and Oneworld; as of January 2019, SkyTeam consists of 19 carriers from five continents and operates with the slogan "Caring more about you". It operates a cargo alliance named SkyTeam Cargo, which partners ten carriers, all of them SkyTeam members, its centralised management team, SkyTeam Central, is based at the World Trade Center Schiphol Airport on the grounds of Amsterdam Airport Schiphol in Haarlemmermeer, Netherlands. In 2004, the alliance had its biggest expansion when Continental Airlines, Northwest Airlines and KLM joined as full members. In 2010, the alliance celebrated its 10th anniversary with the introduction of a special livery, the joining or upgrading status of four airlines, followed by the announcements of Aerolíneas Argentinas, China Airlines, Garuda Indonesia to become full members. In January 2011, incorporated both Saudi Arabian Airlines and Middle East Airlines during 2012.
Garuda Indonesia entered the alliance in March 2014. As of November 2018, SkyTeam flies to more than 1,000 destinations in more than 170 countries and operates more than 17,000 daily flights; the alliance and its members have 750 lounges worldwide. On 22 June 2000, representatives of Aeroméxico, Air France, Delta Air Lines and Korean Air held a meeting in New York to found a third airline alliance; these became the four founding carriers of SkyTeam. Upon its formation, SkyTeam would offer its customers a total of 6,402 daily flights to 451 destinations in 98 countries. In September 2000, the alliance established SkyTeam Cargo; the group's inaugural members were Aeromexpress, Air France Cargo, Delta Air Logistics and Korean Air Cargo. The following month, the newly established airline alliance announced its intentions to incorporate CSA Czech Airlines as the 5th member in April the following year; the alliance saw the joining of CSA Czech Airlines on 25 March 2001. On 30 September 2001, the alliance received KLM's application for membership, following the airline's plans to create a leading airline group with Air France.
In 2003, Delta's subsidiary, Delta Express, was replaced by Song. That same year, SkyTeam launched an improved website focused on providing passengers with more information, increased interactivity and other resources. On 24 May 2004, the flag carrier and principal airline of Russia, signed a Memorandum of Understanding with SkyTeam as it intended to become a full member; the event took place in Kremlin following the airline's application earlier in the year for membership. SkyTeam expressed that Aeroflot has not met the consortium's standards, but that the airline's large hub networks made it ideal for the alliance, made up for its deficiencies. On 28 August, China Southern Airlines, the largest carrier in the People's Republic of China, signed a preliminary agreement in Guangzhou in its bid to become a full member. In the presence of a number of Chinese and airline officials, Yan Zhiqing, the chairman of China Southern Airlines, said, "This agreement-signing event is an important step forward into the future for China Southern Airlines to adapt itself to the need of further reforms and opening to the international community, as it will strengthen the airline's international cooperation and global competitiveness."
On 13 September, KLM and Northwest Airlines joined the alliance. Their simultaneous entry was the largest expansion event in airline alliance history; as a result of the three new members, SkyTeam surpassed Oneworld to become the second largest airline alliance, serving more than 341 million customers with 14,320 daily flights to 658 destinations in 130 countries. Though member CSA Czech Airlines pledged to help Malév Hungarian Airlines become an associate member of the alliance, Malév Hungarian Airlines opted to join the Oneworld airline alliance, signing a Memorandum of Understanding late in May. A few days SkyTeam announced four new associate members due to join by 2006, each one being "sponsored" by an existing member: Madrid-based Air Europa, Panama-based Copa Airlines, Kenya Airways and Romania's TAROM; every associate adopted a frequent-flyer program of a full member: Copa Airlines used Continental's OnePass. Following a 23-month joining process since May 2004, Aeroflot joined on 14 April 2006.
It was the first Russian airline to be associated with any airline alliance. Aeroflot has increased its operational standards, passing International Air Transport Association's Operational Safety Audit. Delta's subsidiary Song continued to operate as Delta Air Lines. In June, it was announced that Portugália would become the alliance's next associate member candidate. However, in November, rival airline and Star Alliance member TAP Air Portugal, purchased 99.81% of the airline, bringing a sudden end to its candidacy. On 4 September 2007, Air Europa and Copa Airlines, Kenya Airways became members of SkyTeam's Associate program, launched to serve airlines in strategic regions which intended to become affiliated with the alliance. China Southern Airlines jo
AmericanConnection was an American flight connection service brand name for the spoke-hub of U. S. mainline carrier American Airlines, under which regional airline operator Chautauqua Airlines operated feeder flights for American Airlines at its Chicago hub. American Airlines uses affiliated companies operating under the American Eagle brand to provide regional service to its other hubs in addition to the AmericanConnection service, operated by Chautauqua Airlines. On April 6, 2010, American moved all existing AmericanConnection operations to Chicago-O'Hare as part of its restructuring plan, eliminating service by AmericanConnection at Lambert-St. Louis. At one time AmericanConnection operated over 180 flights a day to 21 destinations. AmericanConnection was an affiliate member of the Oneworld airline alliance. Most of the AmericanConnection carriers operated under a marketing agreement with TWA Trans World Airlines as TWE Trans World Express banner carriers and as TWC Trans World Connection marketing during the merger acquisition transition between TWA and American.
RegionsAir operated as AmericanConnection until March 2007 and Trans States Airlines operated as AmericanConnection until May 2009. Though not associated with TWA as many of former AmericanConnection airlines were, Business Express Airlines was yet another air carrier which flew under the AmericanConnection marketing banner. Prior to its acquisition by AMR Corporation and its integration into the American Eagle destinations route network, Business Express linked many smaller localities directly to American Airlines's expansive national and worldwide route network. On September 12, 2012 AMR Corporation, announced it was discontinuing the AmericanConnection marketing brand and reverting to using the sole marketing brand of American Eagle for its feeder services to small cities it contracts regional airlines to perform. However, in 2014 an announcement was made that Chautauqua, the last airline operating under the brand, would not seek renewal of its AmericanConnection contract and all flying would end by August 19, 2014.
AmericanConnection Flight 5329 from Westchester County to Chicago O'Hare was the final flight. Corporate Airlines Flight 5966 crashed on October 19, 2004, near Kirksville, killing 13 people, with two survivors
Continental Connection was a brand name under which several commuter airline carriers and their holding companies operated services marketed by Continental Airlines. As such, all Continental Connection banner carrier services were operated with turboprop aircraft in contrast to Continental Express, whose flights were operated by Continental's regional jet partners, ExpressJet Airlines and Chautauqua Airlines. Continental Connection operations were merged into Continental Express in 2012. According to the Official Airline Guide, earlier Continental Express flights, such as those operated by Royale Airlines followed by Britt Airways from the Continental hub at Houston Intercontinental Airport, were operated with such turboprop aircraft as the ATR-42, Embraer EMB-110 Bandeirante, Embraer EMB-120 Brasilia and Grumman Gulfstream I during the 1980s. All flights operated by Continental Connection carriers were given full OnePass frequent flyer credit, as if they were mainline Continental flights.
The "Continental Connection" name was discontinued and the operation was renamed United Express following the merger of Continental Airlines with United Airlines. CommutAir operated a sizeable hub at Albany, New York during the 2000s though Continental Airlines did not have any mainline presence at the city. GP Express Airlines of Grand Island, Nebraska operated as a Continental Connection carrier at Denver and Kansas City from 1994 through 1996. Continental Airlines had discontinued its hub operation at Denver by this time. GP Express operated Beechcraft 99 aircraft. In addition, other commuter and regional air carriers operated turboprop aircraft as Continental Express including Air New Orleans with Beechcraft C99 and British Aerospace BAe Jetstream 31 propjets with connecting service into the New Orleans airport and to destinations in Florida. Another Continental Express carrier was Royale Airlines operating Embraer EMB-110 Bandeirante and Grumman Gulfstream I turboprops with feeder service at Continental's Houston hub.
Royale operated Douglas DC-9-10 jet aircraft as a Continental Express carrier. The Royale service in Houston was replaced by Britt Airways operating as Continental Express and flying ATR-42 and Embraer EMB-120 Brasilia turboprops. On February 12, 2009, Colgan Air Flight 3407 operating on behalf of Continental Connection crashed into a house on Long Road in Clarence Center, New York while on approach to Buffalo Niagara International Airport. On September 7, 2011, Colgan Air Flight 3222, with 23 passengers en route from Houston, TX to Lake Charles, LA landed at Southland Field, not their scheduled destination; the crew was subsequently relieved of duty
St. Louis Lambert International Airport
St. Louis Lambert International Airport Lambert–St. Louis International Airport, is an international airport serving St. Louis, United States, it is 14 miles northwest of downtown St. Louis in unincorporated St. Louis County between Berkeley and Bridgeton. Referred to as Lambert Field or Lambert, it is the largest and busiest airport in Missouri with over 259 peak daily departures to 74 nonstop domestic and international locations. In 2018, 15.6 million passengers traveled through the airport. The airport is a focus city for Southwest Airlines and serves as a hub for Air Choice One and Cape Air, was a hub for Ozark Air Lines, Trans World Airlines, American Airlines, it is the largest U. S. airport classified as a medium-sized primary hub and the second busiest after Dallas–Love. Lambert covers 2,800 acres of land. St. Louis Lambert International Airport is the primary airport in the St. Louis area, with MidAmerica St. Louis Airport, about 37 miles east, serving as a secondary metropolitan commercial airport.
The two airports are connected by the Red Line of the city's light rail mass transit system, the MetroLink. Both airports are served by commercial passenger airlines. Named for Albert Bond Lambert, an Olympic medalist and prominent St. Louis aviator, the airport rose to international prominence in the 20th century thanks to its association with Charles Lindbergh, its groundbreaking air traffic control, its status as the primary hub of Trans World Airlines, its iconic terminal. Designed by Minoru Yamasaki, the building inspired terminals at John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City and Charles de Gaulle Airport in Paris, France; the airport originated as a balloon launching base called Kinloch Field, part of the 1890s Kinloch Park suburban development. The Wright brothers and their Exhibition Team visited the field while touring with their aircraft. During a visit to St. Louis, Theodore Roosevelt flew with pilot Arch Hoxsey on October 11, 1910, becoming the first U. S. president to fly.
Kinloch hosted the first experimental parachute jump. In June 1920, the Aero Club of St. Louis leased 170 acres of cornfield, the defunct Kinloch Racing Track and the Kinloch Airfield in October 1923, during The International Air Races; the field was dedicated as Lambert–St. Louis Flying Field in honor of Albert Bond Lambert, an Olympic silver medalist golfer in the 1904 Summer Games, president of Lambert Pharmaceutical Corporation, the first person to receive a pilot's license in St. Louis. In February 1925, "Major" Lambert added hangars and a passenger terminal. Charles Lindbergh's first piloting job was flying airmail for Robertson Aircraft Corporation from Lambert Field. In February 1928, the City of St. Louis leased the airport for $1; that year, Lambert sold the airport to the City after a $2 million bond issue was passed, making it one of the first municipally-owned airport in the United States. In the late 1920s, Lambert Field became the first airport with an air traffic control system–albeit one that communicated with pilots via waving flags.
The first controller was Archie League. In 1925, the airport became home to Naval Air Station St. Louis, a Naval Air Reserve facility that became an active-duty installation during World War II. In 1930, the airport was christened Lambert–St. Louis Municipal Airport by Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd; the first terminal building opened in 1933. By the 1930s, Robertson Air Lines, Marquette Airlines and Eastern Air Lines provided passenger service to St. Louis, as did Trans World Airlines. In August 1942, voters passed a $4.5 million bond issue to expand the airport by 867 acres and build a new terminal. During World War II, the airport became a manufacturing base for McDonnell Aircraft and Curtiss-Wright. After the war, NAS St. Louis reverted to a reserve installation, supporting carrier-based fighters and land-based patrol aircraft; when it closed in 1958, most of its facilities were acquired by the Missouri Air National Guard and became Lambert Field Air National Guard Base. Some other facilities were retained by non-flying activities of the Naval Reserve and Marine Corps Reserve, while the rest was redeveloped to expand airline operations at the airport.
Ozark Air Lines began operations at the airport in 1950. To handle increasing passenger traffic, Minoru Yamasaki was commissioned to design a new terminal, which began construction in 1953. Completed in 1956 at a total cost of $7.2 million, the three-domed design preceded terminals at John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City and Paris–Charles de Gaulle Airport. A fourth dome was added in 1965 following the passage of a $200 million airport revenue bond; the April 1957 Official Airline Guide shows TWA with 44 weekday departures. The first jets were TWA 707s in July 1959. In 1971, the airport became Lambert–St. Louis International Airport. In the 1970s St. Louis city officials proposed to replace the airport with a new one in suburban Illinois. After Missouri residents objected in 1977, Lambert received a $290-million expansion that lengthened the runways, increased the number of gates to 81, boosted its capacity by 50 percent. Concourse A and Concourse C were rebuilt into bi-level structures with jet bridges as
Piedmont Airlines, Inc. is an American regional airline operating for American Eagle US Airways Express. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of the American Airlines Group, headquartered in unincorporated Wicomico County, near the city of Salisbury, it conducts flight operations using Embraer ERJ 145 aircraft. Piedmont Airlines, Inc. provides ground handling and customer service for airports in the Northeastern & Western parts of the United States. Its main base is Philadelphia International Airport with an additional hub at Charlotte Douglas International Airport; the airline was formed in 1961 by Richard A. Henson as Henson Aviation, a fixed-base operator in Hagerstown, Maryland, it began its first scheduled flights to Washington National Airport in 1962 under the Hagerstown Commuter name changed to Henson Airlines. Allegheny Airlines and Henson began one of the world's first code sharing arrangements in 1967. Henson re-branded itself as an Allegheny Commuter carrier using Beechcraft 99 aircraft.
It developed a route structure serving Washington D. C. Philadelphia and Baltimore, while establishing a new headquarters for Allegheny Commuter at Salisbury, Maryland in 1968. In the 1970s, the airline upgraded to Short de Havilland Canada DHC-7 Dash 7 turboprops. In 1983, Piedmont Aviation bought Henson and re-branded the airline as "Henson, The Piedmont Regional Airline." Under Piedmont's control, the airline expanded particularly in Florida. Both were purchased by the USAir Group in 1987 with Piedmont absorbed two years and Henson's aircraft repainted in USAir Express livery; the 1980s saw rapid growth by the company with the upgrade of its fleet to the de Havilland Canada Dash 8 aircraft and fleet expansion. With the growth in capacity, the airline expanded to Florida, including numerous intrastate routes in Florida, it opened a maintenance facility in Jacksonville; the Piedmont name was resurrected in 1993, when USAir renamed Henson to "Piedmont Airlines", to protect the Piedmont brand name, which could be used by others if not exercised in trade use for a period of time.
USAir continued this practice by changing the name of its two other wholly owned regional airline subsidiaries and Suburban Airlines, to PSA Airlines and Allegheny Airlines, respectively. In 1997, USAir was renamed US Airways, Piedmont and Allegheny were re-branded as US Airways Express carriers. US Airways merged Allegheny Airlines into Piedmont in 2004; the airline had more than 7,000 employees, as of December 2017. As of December 2017, the airline operated 400 daily flights to more than 55 destinations; as of August 2018, Piedmont is the exclusive operator at Williamsport Regional Airport, Salisbury Regional Airport. Piedmont Airlines flies under the American Eagle brand, after a merger of American Airlines and US Airways in December 2013. Piedmont has crew bases in two locations: Charlotte Douglas International Airport Philadelphia International Airport As of March 2019 the Piedmont Airlines fleet consists of the following aircraft. On September 23, 1985, Henson Airlines Flight 1517, a Beechcraft B99 Airliner 15-passenger turboprop airplane, crashed near Grottoes, Virginia.
The crash was fatal to all both crewmembers. S. pilot, First Officer Zilda A. Spadaro-Wolan; the National Transportation Safety Board concluded that part of the probable cause of the crash was the airline's failure to standardize the cockpit configurations of its aircraft and on its failure to provide adequate training to its pilots. On November 16, 2008, Flight 4551, a US Airways Express de Havilland Dash-8 turboprop operated by Piedmont Airlines, took off from Lehigh Valley International Airport at 8:20am heading to Philadelphia International Airport, had to make an emergency landing; the flight crew was indicated that the front nose gear hadn't come down and had to make a flyover the runway for confirmation. Of 35 passengers and 3 crew, there were no injuries; the aircraft was returned to service shortly thereafter. On January 1, 2011, US Airways Express Flight 4352, a Piedmont Airlines-operated de Havilland Dash-8 turboprop forced an evacuation of the U. S. Capitol and fighter jets were scrambled from Andrews Air Force Base after Flight 4352 suffered radio problems on approach to Washington, DC's Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport and strayed into restricted airspace.
The Capitol was evacuated for 20 minutes until the Dash-8 aircraft landed at Reagan National Airport. On January 7, 2011, a Bombardier Dash 8-100, operating as Piedmont Airlines Flight 4507 under US Airways Express from Philadelphia International Airport to Tweed New Haven Regional Airport in Connecticut was struck by lightning over the Long Island Sound; the captain reported electrical problems and diverted safely to Long Island Macarthur Airport due to more favorable weather conditions. The aircraft had 33 passengers aboard who were bussed to New Haven. On May 18, 2013, US Airways Express Flight 4560 made a belly landing at Newark Liberty International Airport after landing gear would not extend. All passengers and crew members were evacuated safely; the airline began sponsoring NASCAR as the primary sponsor for Ricky Rudd and Richard Childress Racing in 1982. They won a championship as the primary sponsor for Terry Labonte in 1984. Air transportation in the United States List of airlines of the United States List of airports in the United States Transportation in
Essential Air Service
Essential Air Service is a U. S. government program enacted to guarantee that small communities in the United States, served by certificated airlines prior to deregulation in 1978, maintained commercial service. Its aim is to maintain a minimal level of scheduled air service to these communities that otherwise would not be profitable; the program is codified at 49 U. S. C. §§ 41731–41748. The United States Department of Transportation subsidizes airlines to serve communities across the country that otherwise would not receive scheduled air service; as of June 1, 2015, 159 communities in the US received EAS subsidies, of which 44 were in Alaska, two were in Hawaii, one community in Puerto Rico. The decision as to what degree of subsidized service a community requires is made based on identifying a specific hub for the community and from there determining the number of trips and type of aircraft that are necessary to serve that hub. In fiscal year 2015, the federal budget provided $263 million in funding for the EAS program.
The USDOT proposed a further 7.6 percent increase for a proposed FY2016 funding of $283 million. The budgeted funding for EAS increased from $193 million in FY2012 to $233 million in FY2013 to $268 million in FY2014, before decreasing in FY2015 to $263 million. Between FY2012 and FY 2015, annual EAS expenditures rose 36%. Per passenger EAS subsidy in the 48 contiguous states plus Puerto Rico ranged from $10 to more than $977 per passenger in 2014; these increases occurred despite numerous Congressional measures to contain program spending. The George W. Bush Administration sought to reduce the cost of the program to $50 million by stricter eligibility criteria and requiring the local governments of the areas served to contribute to the cost; the Heritage Foundation argued in 2014 that rural airports should receive no federal subsidies through the Essential Air Service program. The Congressional Research Service has reported that since the early 2000s federal subsidies for the EAS have nearly tripled to $300 million per year.
Pursuant to the Department of Transportation and Related Agencies Appropriations Act of 2000, no community within the 48 contiguous states may receive a subsidy greater than $200 per passenger unless the community is more than 210 miles from the nearest large or medium hub airport. Pursuant to the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012, to be eligible for the program, a community in the contiguous 48 states must either maintain an average of 10 or more enplanements per service day or be located more than 175 miles from the nearest large or medium hub airport; the criteria for 10 or more enplanements can be waived by the Secretary of Transportation, on an annual basis, if a community can demonstrate that it is due to a temporary decline. The Department of Transportation, pursuant to the Consolidated and Further Appropriations Act of 2015, is required to negotiate a local cost share with communities located less than 40 miles from a small hub airport. Critics question the economic efficiency of the service.
According to a 2006 New York Times article on the program, the subsidy per passenger, averaged across the entire program excluding Alaska, is $74, much higher on some poorly patronized flights where subsidies are as high as $801 per passenger. Patronage on many flights is low; the majority of EAS airplanes have fewer than 20 seats, flights are less than half full. However, the program is politically popular in the cities receiving the subsidized flights, many of which use an airport with scheduled service as a selling point to attract industry to their regions. Several subsidized airports are within an hour's drive from an unsubsidized airport; the following tables list all Essential Air Service communities under the various funding programs. This is based on the most recent reports issued by the U. S. Department of Transportation, updated to reflect changes based on DOT orders. Docket and order numbers link to their respective pages on the docket management site, which includes the original files in PDF and other formats.
The hubs are designated using the three-letter IATA airport code assigned by the International Air Transport Association. The Alternate Essential Air Service program grants funds directly to the municipality or airport authority instead of the air carrier; this allows the community to recruit air service that would not otherwise meet EAS guidelines, such as more frequent service with smaller aircraft, less-than-daily service, flights to differing destinations at different times of the year or week, on-demand air taxi service, scheduled or on-demand ground surface transportation, regionalized air service, or purchasing an aircraft. This alternative program has most occurred as a public charter arrangement as prescribed by Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 380; the first airport to enter this program was Manistee County Blacker Airport in 2012. Under the Community Flexibility Pilot Program, established in 2003, up to ten communities can receive a grant equal to two years worth of subsidy in exchange for their forgoing their EAS service for ten years.
These grants must be used to fund projects. As of November 2017, only one community has taken advantage of the program: The following tables list airports which had Essential Air Service subsidized routes. US Department of Transportation: Policy - Essential Air Service US Department of Transportation: Policy - Essential Air Service Reports Regulations.gov - Federal Docket Management System Air Choice One - St. Louis, MO: Home Page Island Air Service - Kodiak, AK
Federal Aviation Administration
The Federal Aviation Administration is a governmental body of the United States with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation in that nation as well as over its surrounding international waters. Its powers include the construction and operation of airports, air traffic management, the certification of personnel and aircraft, the protection of U. S. assets during the launch or re-entry of commercial space vehicles. Powers over neighboring international waters were delegated to the FAA by authority of the International Civil Aviation Organization. Created in August 1958, the FAA replaced the former Civil Aeronautics Administration and became an agency within the US Department of Transportation; the FAA's roles include: Regulating U. S. commercial space transportation Regulating air navigation facilities' geometric and flight inspection standards Encouraging and developing civil aeronautics, including new aviation technology Issuing, suspending, or revoking pilot certificates Regulating civil aviation to promote transportation safety in the United States through local offices called Flight Standards District Offices Developing and operating a system of air traffic control and navigation for both civil and military aircraft Researching and developing the National Airspace System and civil aeronautics Developing and carrying out programs to control aircraft noise and other environmental effects of civil aviation The FAA is divided into four "lines of business".
Each LOB has a specific role within the FAA. Airports: plans and develops projects involving airports, overseeing their construction and operations. Ensures compliance with federal regulations. Air Traffic Organization: primary duty is to safely and efficiently move air traffic within the National Airspace System. ATO employees manage air traffic facilities including Airport Traffic Control Towers and Terminal Radar Approach Control Facilities. See Airway Operational Support. Aviation Safety: Responsible for aeronautical certification of personnel and aircraft, including pilots and mechanics. Commercial Space Transportation: ensures protection of U. S. assets during the launch or reentry of commercial space vehicles. The FAA is headquartered in Washington, D. C. as well as the William J. Hughes Technical Center in Atlantic City, New Jersey, the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center in Oklahoma City and its nine regional offices: Alaskan Region – Anchorage, Alaska Northwest Mountain – Seattle, Washington Western Pacific – Los Angeles, California Southwest – Fort Worth, Texas Central – Kansas City, Missouri Great Lakes – Chicago, Illinois Southern – Atlanta, Georgia Eastern – New York, New York New England – Boston, Massachusetts The Air Commerce Act of May 20, 1926, is the cornerstone of the federal government's regulation of civil aviation.
This landmark legislation was passed at the urging of the aviation industry, whose leaders believed the airplane could not reach its full commercial potential without federal action to improve and maintain safety standards. The Act charged the Secretary of Commerce with fostering air commerce and enforcing air traffic rules, licensing pilots, certifying aircraft, establishing airways, operating and maintaining aids to air navigation; the newly created Aeronautics Branch, operating under the Department of Commerce assumed primary responsibility for aviation oversight. In fulfilling its civil aviation responsibilities, the Department of Commerce concentrated on such functions as safety regulations and the certification of pilots and aircraft, it took over the building and operation of the nation's system of lighted airways, a task initiated by the Post Office Department. The Department of Commerce improved aeronautical radio communications—before the founding of the Federal Communications Commission in 1934, which handles most such matters today—and introduced radio beacons as an effective aid to air navigation.
The Aeronautics Branch was renamed the Bureau of Air Commerce in 1934 to reflect its enhanced status within the Department. As commercial flying increased, the Bureau encouraged a group of airlines to establish the first three centers for providing air traffic control along the airways. In 1936, the Bureau itself began to expand the ATC system; the pioneer air traffic controllers used maps and mental calculations to ensure the safe separation of aircraft traveling along designated routes between cities. In 1938, the Civil Aeronautics Act transferred the federal civil aviation responsibilities from the Commerce Department to a new independent agency, the Civil Aeronautics Authority; the legislation expanded the government's role by giving the CAA the authority and the power to regulate airline fares and to determine the routes that air carriers would serve. President Franklin D. Roosevelt split the authority into two agencies in 1940: the Civil Aeronautics Administration and the Civil Aeronautics Board.
CAA was responsible for ATC, airman and aircraft certification, safety enforcement, airway development. CAB was entrusted with safety regulation, accident investigation, economic regulation of the airlines; the CAA was part of the Department of Commerce. The CAB was an independent federal agency. On the eve of America's entry into World War II, CAA began to extend its ATC responsibilities to takeoff and landing operations at airports; this expanded role became permanent after the war. The application of radar to ATC helped controllers in their drive to keep abreast of the postwar boom in commercial air transportation. In 1946, Congress gave CAA the added task of administering the federal-aid airport program, the first peacetime program of financial assistance aimed exclusivel