By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth
Moroni is the largest city, federal capital and seat of the government of the Union of the Comoros, a sovereign archipelago nation in the Indian Ocean. In Comorian, Moroni translates as in the heart of the fire, perhaps alluding to the location at the foot of Mount Karthala. Moroni is the capital of the semi-autonomous island Grande Comore, the largest of the three islands of the republic. The citys estimated population in 2003 was 41,557 residents, which lies along the Route Nationale 1, has a port and several mosques such as the Badjanani Mosque. Moroni was founded by Arab settlers, possibly during the 10th century, in December 2003, the Moroni Agreement on Transition Agreements was signed by the island presidents of the Union of Comoros. In the run up to the 2006 elections, the government-owned Radio Ngazidja and private station Moroni FM were raided by armed assailants, the city is on the western coast of Grande Comore island. Moroni has a rocky coastline, mostly without beaches. A small beach north of town at Itsandra contains the ruins of the Sultans Fort and Palace, settlements to the north of Moroni include Ntsoudjini, Bahani, Batsa and Vanadjou, and to the south are Mvouni and Selea.
Moroni is situated at the foot of Mount Karthala,10 kilometres northwest from the volcanos crater, the eruption of 2005 caused displacement of a large number of people due to volcanic ash. Moroni features a tropical rainforest climate, with heavy precipitation throughout the year—only October sees on average less than 100 mm of rain. The average annual rainfall is 2,700 millimetres and it rains during all months of the year, the monsoon season lasts from November to April. Humidity is in the range of 69 to 79 percent, moronis average temperatures throughout the year are relatively constant with a high in the range of 32–34 °C and a low in the range of 14–20 °C. As of 2011, Moroni had a population of about 54,000, sunni Muslims account for 98%, and there is a minority of Roman Catholics. Arabic and French are the official languages while Comorian, which is a Bantu language closely related to Swahili and heavily influenced by Arabic, is spoken. Goods produced on the island are vanilla, coffee, soft drinks and distilled essential oils and wood products, and processed pozzolana, the tourist infrastructure is poorly developed.
Financial institutions include Banque Centrale des Comores, Banque de Development des Comores, towards the south of Moroni are several markets, including the old market and the Dubai Market. The historic town centre, the Medina, contains a maze of narrow alleys, the old city centre is based on Zanzibars Stone Town, but is smaller. There are many mosques, notably the Badjanani Mosque pr Ancienne Mosquée de Vendredi and it was originally built in 1427, and a minaret was added in 1921
Windhoek is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Namibia. It is located in central Namibia in the Khomas Highland plateau area, at around 1,700 metres above sea level, the population of Windhoek in 2011 was 325,858, growing continually due to an influx from all over Namibia. The town developed at the site of a permanent spring known to the pastoral communities. It developed rapidly after Jonker Afrikaner, Captain of the Orlam, settled here in 1840, in the decades following, multiple wars and armed hostilities resulted in the neglect and destruction of the new settlement. Windhoek was founded a second time in 1890 by Imperial German Army Major Curt von François, Windhoek is the social, economic and cultural centre of the country. Nearly every Namibian national enterprise, governmental body and cultural institution is headquartered here, the city of Windhoek is traditionally known by two names, ǀAiǁGams, and Otjomuise. Both traditional indigenous names refer to the hot springs near todays city centre, theories vary on how the place got its modern name of Windhoek.
Most believe it is derived from the Afrikaans word wind-hoek, another theory suggests that Captain Jonker Afrikaner named Windhoek after the Winterhoek Mountains at Tulbagh in South Africa, where his ancestors had lived. The first known mention of the name Windhoek was in a letter from Jonker Afrikaner to Joseph Tindall, in 1840 Jonker Afrikaner established an Orlam settlement at Windhoek. He and his followers stayed near one of the hot springs. He built a church that held 500 people, it was used as a school. Two Rhenish missionaries, Carl Hugo Hahn and Franz Heinrich Kleinschmidt, two years they were driven out by two Methodist Wesleyans, Richard Haddy and Joseph Tindall. Gardens were laid out and for a while Windhoek prospered, wars between the Nama and Herero peoples eventually destroyed the settlement. After a long absence, Hahn visited Windhoek again in 1873 and was dismayed to see that nothing remained of the towns former prosperity, in June 1885, a Swiss botanist found only jackals and starving guinea fowl amongst neglected fruit trees.
In 1878, Britain annexed Walvis Bay and incorporated it into the Cape of Good Hope colony in 1884, a request by merchants from Lüderitzbucht resulted in the declaration of a German protectorate over what was called German South West Africa in 1884. The borders of the German colony were determined in 1890 and Germany sent a protective corps, von François stationed his garrison at Windhoek, which was strategically situated as a buffer between the Nama and Herero peoples. The twelve strong springs provided water for the cultivation of produce, colonial Windhoek was founded on 18 October 1890, when von François fixed the foundation stone of the fort, which is now known as the Alte Feste. After 1907, development accelerated as indigenous people migrated from the countryside to the town to seek work
Located on Angolas coast with the Atlantic Ocean, Luanda is both Angolas chief seaport and its administrative centre. It has a population of over 6 million. The city is undergoing a major reconstruction, with many large developments taking place that will alter its cityscape significantly. Portuguese explorer Paulo Dias de Novais founded Luanda on 25 January 1576 as São Paulo da Assumpção de Loanda, with one hundred families of settlers and four hundred soldiers. In 1618, the Portuguese built the fortress called Fortaleza São Pedro da Barra, of these, the Fortaleza de São Miguel is the best preserved. Luanda was Portugals bridgehead from 1627, except during the Dutch rule of Luanda, from 1640 to 1648, the city served as the centre of slave trade to Brazil from circa 1550 to 1836. The slave trade was conducted mostly with the Portuguese colony of Brazil and this slave trade involved local merchants and warriors who profited from the trade. In the 17th century, the Imbangala became the rivals of the Mbundu in supplying slaves to the Luanda market.
In the 1750s, between 5,000 and 10,000 slaves were annually sold, by this time, Angola, a Portuguese colony, was in fact like a colony of Brazil, paradoxically another Portuguese colony. A strong degree of Brazilian influence was noted in Luanda until the Independence of Brazil in 1822, in the 19th century, still under Portuguese rule, Luanda experienced a major economic revolution. The slave trade was abolished in 1836, and in 1844, tobacco, dried meat, and cassava flour are produced locally. The Angolan bourgeoisie was born by this time, in 1889, Governor Brito Capelo opened the gates of an aqueduct which supplied the city with water, a formerly scarce resource, laying the foundation for major growth. In 1972, a report called Luanda the Paris of Africa, Luanda has become one of the worlds most expensive cities. By the time of Angolan independence in 1975, Luanda was a modern city, the majority of its population was African, but it was dominated by a strong minority of white Portuguese origin.
There was a crisis, however, as the local African population lacked the skills and knowledge needed to run the city. For decades, Luandas facilities were not adequately expanded to handle this massive increase in the citys population, after 2002, with the end of the civil war and high economic growth rates fuelled by the wealth provided by the increasing oil and diamond production, major reconstruction started. Luanda is divided into two parts, the Baixa de Luanda and the Cidade Alta, the Baixa de Luanda is situated next to the port, and has narrow streets and old colonial buildings. However, massive new constructions have by now covered large areas beyond these limits
Tripoli is the capital city and the largest city of Libya. Tripoli, with its area, has a population of about 1.1 million people. The city is located in the part of Libya on the edge of the desert, on a point of rocky land projecting into the Mediterranean. Tripoli includes the Port of Tripoli and the countrys largest commercial and it is the site of the University of Tripoli. The vast Bab al-Azizia barracks, which includes the family estate of Muammar Gaddafi, is located in the city. Colonel Gaddafi largely ruled the country from his residence in this barracks, Tripoli was founded in the 7th century BC by the Phoenicians, who named it Oea. Due to the long history, there are many sites of archaeological significance in Tripoli. Tripoli may refer to the shabiyah, the Tripoli District, Tripoli is known as Tripoli-of-the-West, to distinguish it from its Phoenician sister city Tripoli, Lebanon known in Arabic as Ṭarābulus al-Sham meaning Levantine Tripoli. It is affectionately called The Mermaid of the Mediterranean, describing its turquoise waters, Tripoli English pronunciation, /ˈtrɪpəli/ is a Greek name that means Three Cities, introduced in Western European languages through the Italian Tripoli.
In Arabic, طرابلس it is called Ṭarābulus, compare Sanskrit, tri meaning the number 3, and pura meaning a fortress, city or town. Hence, in Sanskrit Tripura means Three Cities, the city passed into the hands of the rulers of Cyrenaica, although the Carthaginians wrested it from the Greeks. By the half of the 2nd century BC it belonged to the Romans, who included it in their province of Africa, and gave it the name of Regio Syrtica. Around the beginning of the 3rd century AD, it known as the Regio Tripolitana. It was probably raised to the rank of a province by Septimius Severus. In spite of centuries of Roman habitation, the only visible Roman remains, apart from scattered columns, the fact that Tripoli has been continuously inhabited, unlike e. g. Following the conquest, Tripoli was ruled by dynasties based in Cairo, for some time it was a part of the Berber Almohad empire and of the Hafsids kingdom. It was part of the Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 19th centuries, finding themselves in very hostile territory, the Knights enhanced the citys walls and other defenses.
Though built on top of a number of buildings, much of the earliest defensive structures of the Tripoli castle are attributed to the Knights of St John
Other countries near the Comoros are Tanzania to the northwest and the Seychelles to the northeast. Its capital is Moroni, on Grande Comore, the Union of the Comoros has three official languages – Comorian and French. The religion of the majority of the population is Islam, at 1,660 km2, excluding the contested island of Mayotte, the Comoros is the third-smallest African nation by area. The population, excluding Mayotte, is estimated at 798,000, as a nation formed at a crossroads of different civilisations, the archipelago is noted for its diverse culture and history. The archipelago was first inhabited by Bantu speakers who came from East Africa, supplemented by Arab, the country consists of three major islands and numerous smaller islands, all in the volcanic Comoros archipelago. The major islands are known by their French names, northwestern-most Grande Comore, Mohéli. France has vetoed United Nations Security Council resolutions that would affirm Comorian sovereignty over the island, in addition, Mayotte became an overseas department and a region of France in 2011 following a referendum passed overwhelmingly.
It became part of the French colonial empire in the 19th century before becoming independent in 1975, since declaring independence, the country has experienced more than 20 coups détat or attempted coups, with various heads of state assassinated. As of 2008 about half the population lived below the poverty line of US$1.25 a day. The Comoros is the state to be a member of the African Union, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Arab League. The name Comoros derives from the Arabic word قمر qamar, the first human inhabitants of the Comoro Islands are thought to have been Polynesian and Melanesian settlers and Indonesians, travelling by boat. The islands of the Comoros were populated by a succession of peoples from the coast of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and the Persian Gulf, the Malay Archipelago, and Madagascar. Bantu-speaking settlers reached the islands as a part of the greater Bantu expansion that took place in Africa throughout the first millennium, according to pre-Islamic mythology, a jinni dropped a jewel, which formed a great circular inferno.
This became the Karthala volcano, which created the island of the Comoros, development of the Comoros was divided into phases. The earliest reliably recorded phase is the Dembeni phase, during each island maintained a single. From the eleventh to the centuries, trade with the island of Madagascar and merchants from the Middle East flourished, smaller villages emerged. Many Comorians can trace their genealogies to ancestors from Yemen, mainly Hadhramaut, and Oman. According to legend, in 632, upon hearing of Islam, islanders are said to have dispatched an emissary, Mtswa-Mwindza, to Mecca—but by the time he arrived there, the Islamic prophet Muhammad had died
Maseru is the capital and largest city of Lesotho. It is the capital of the Maseru District, located on the Caledon River, Maseru lies directly on the Lesotho-South Africa border. Maseru is Lesothos capital city with a population of approximately 253,000, the city was established as a police camp and assigned as the capital after the country became a British protectorate in 1869. When the country achieved independence in 1966, Maseru retained its status as capital, the name of the city is a Sesotho word meaning red sandstones. Maseru was founded by the British as a police camp in 1869. Maseru is located at the edge of the conquered territories relinquished to the Orange Free State as part of the peace terms and it was located 24 kilometres west of Basotho King Moshoeshoe Is stronghold of Thaba Bosiu, the previous de facto capital. A bustling market town grew around the area. Maseru initially functioned as the administrative capital between 1869 and 1871, before administration of Basutoland was transferred to the Cape Colony.
During their rule between 1871 and 1884, Basutoland was treated similarly to territories that had been forcefully annexed and this led to the Gun War in 1881 and the burning of many buildings in Maseru. In 1884, Basutoland was restored its status as a Crown colony, when Basutoland gained its independence and became the Kingdom of Lesotho in 1966, Maseru remained the countrys capital. The annual population growth rates remained around 7% for several decades, after the 1998 parliamentary elections in Lesotho led to suspicions of vote fraud and a military intervention by South Africa, much of the city was damaged by riots and pillaging. The cost of repairing the damage done to the city was estimated at two billion rand, and after nearly a decade, the effects of the riots could still be seen within the city. Maseru is located in northwest Lesotho by the South African border, the two countries are connected by a border post at the Maseru Bridge, which crosses the river. On the South African side, Ladybrand is the town closest to Maseru, the city lies in a shallow valley at the foot of the Hlabeng-Sa-Likhama, foothills of the Maloti Mountains.
The elevation of the city is listed as 1,600 metres above sea level, the city has an area of around 138 square kilometres. Maseru has a highland climate, categorised by warm, rainy summers and cool to chilly. The average mean temperature during summer — from December to March in the Southern Hemisphere — is 22 °C. During winter, between June and September, the temperature is 9 °C
Pretoria is a city in the northern part of Gauteng Province, South Africa. It is one of the three capital cities, serving as the seat of the executive branch of government. Pretoria is the part of the Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality which was formed by the amalgamation of several former local authorities including Centurion. There have been proposals to change the name of Pretoria itself to Tshwane, the elder Pretorius had become a national hero of the Voortrekkers after his victory over Dingane and the Zulus in the Battle of Blood River. The elder Pretorius negotiated the Sand River Convention, in which Britain acknowledged the independence of the Transvaal and it became the capital of the South African Republic on 1 May 1860. The founding of Pretoria as the capital of the South African Republic can be seen as marking the end of the Boers settlement movements of the Great Trek, during the First Boer War, the city was besieged by Republican forces in December 1880 and March 1881. The peace treaty ended the war was signed in Pretoria on 3 August 1881 at the Pretoria Convention.
The Second Boer War resulted in the end of the Transvaal Republic, the city surrendered to British forces under Frederick Roberts on 5 June 1900 and the conflict was ended in Pretoria with the signing of the Peace of Vereeniging on 31 May 1902. The Pretoria Forts were built for the defence of the city just prior to the Second Boer War, though some of these forts are today in ruins, a number of them have been preserved as national monuments. The Boer Republics of the ZAR and the Orange River Colony were united with the Cape Colony, Pretoria became the administrative capital of the whole of South Africa, with Cape Town the legislative capital and Bloemfontein served as the judicial capital. Between 1910 and 1994, the city was the capital of the province of Transvaal, on 14 October 1931, Pretoria achieved official city status. When South Africa became a republic in 1961, Pretoria remained its administrative capital and it lies at an altitude of about 1,339 m above sea level, in a warm, fertile valley, surrounded by the hills of the Magaliesberg range.
Pretoria has a subtropical climate with long hot rainy summers and short cool to cold. The city experiences the typical winters of South Africa with cold, clear nights, although the average lows during winter are mild it can get bitterly cold due to the clear skies, with nighttime low temperatures in recent years in the range of 2 to −5 °C. The average annual temperature is 18.7 °C, rain is chiefly concentrated in the summer months, with drought conditions prevailing over the winter months, when frosts may be sharp. Snowfall is a rare event, snowflakes were spotted in 1959,1968 and 2012 in the city. During a nationwide heatwave in November 2011, Pretoria experienced temperatures that reached 39 °C, similar record-breaking extreme heat events occurred in January 2013, when Pretoria experienced temperatures exceeding 37 °C on several days. The year 2014 was one of the wettest on record for the city, a total of 914 mm fell up to the end of December, with 220 mm recorded in this month alone
Lusaka is the capital and largest city of Zambia. One of the cities in southern Africa, Lusaka is in the southern part of the central plateau at an elevation of about 1,279 metres. As of 2010, the population was about 1.7 million. Lusaka is the centre of commerce and government in Zambia and connects to the countrys four main highways heading north, south. English is the language of the city, but Nyanja. Lusaka was the site of a named after its headman Lusaka. In the Nyanja language, Manda means graveyard, the area was expanded by European settlers in 1905 with the building of the railway. After the federation of Northern and Southern Rhodesia in 1953, it was a centre of the movement amongst some of the educated elite that led to the creation of the Republic of Zambia. In 1964, Lusaka became the capital of the newly independent Zambia, in recent years, Lusaka has become a popular urban settlement for Zambians and tourists alike. Its central nature and fast growing infrastructure sector have increased confidence and as such Zambians are seeing signs of development in the form of job creation, housing.
Consequently, it is thought that with proper and effective economic reforms, Lusaka is home to a diverse community of foreign nationals, many of whom work in the aid industry as well as diplomats, representatives of religious organizations and some business people. The Parliament is situated at the Parliament complex, which features a 15-story building, the city is the capital of Lusaka Province, the smallest and most populous of the countrys nine provinces, and forms an administrative district run by Lusaka City Council. In 2007, the mayor was Steven Chilatu, and the deputy mayor was Mary Phiri, mwewa up to 1982 List of Governors Simon C. Mwewa 1982 to 1983 Donald C, the children of the late President, Levy Mwanawasa as well as the children of Vice-President George Kunda, attend the Rhodes Park School. The city is home to the University of Zambia. The city centre includes several blocks west of Cairo Road, around which lie the New City Market and Kamwala Market, further east lies the government area, including the State House and the various ministries, around Cathedral Hill and Ridgeway neighborhoods.
One of the streets and points of interest upon business is Cairo Road. Cairo Road was a section of the Great North Road and was so named because it is a link in Cecil Rhodes dream of a Cape to Cairo Road through British colonies in Africa
Laayoune is the largest city of the disputed territory of Western Sahara. The modern city is thought to have founded by the Spanish colonizer Antonio de Oro in 1938. In 1940, Spain designated it as the capital of the Spanish Sahara, laâyoune is the capital of the Laâyoune-Sakia El Hamra region administered by Morocco under the supervision of the UN peace-keeping mission in Western Sahara. The town is divided in two by the dry river of Saguia el Hamra, on the south side is the old lower town, constructed by Spanish colonists. A cathedral from that era is still active, its priests serve this city, laâyoune orEl Aaiún are respectively the French and Spanish transliterations of the Maghrebi Arabic name Layoun which means the water springs. Laâyoune has a desert climate, moderated by the Canary Current with an average annual temperature of 20 °C. The city has a population of 196,331 and is the largest city in Western Sahara and it is a growing economic hub. The city is a hub for fishing and for mining in the region.
In 2010 that country was negotiating a new fishing agreement with Europe over offshore fishing, the football club of the city is Jeunesse Massira. The club plays in the Moroccan Premier League, the highest football league in the country, Jeunesse Massira uses Stade Sheikh Mohamed Laghdaf in training and games. Laâyoune is served by Hassan I Airport, there is a Spanish international school, Colegio Español La Paz, owned by the Spanish government
Algeria, officially the Peoples Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast. Its capital and most populous city is Algiers, located in the far north. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres, Algeria is the tenth-largest country in the world, the country is a semi-presidential republic consisting of 48 provinces and 1,541 communes. Abdelaziz Bouteflika has been President since 1999, Berbers are the indigenous inhabitants of Algeria. Algeria is a regional and middle power, the North African country supplies large amounts of natural gas to Europe, and energy exports are the backbone of the economy. According to OPEC Algeria has the 16th largest oil reserves in the world, the national oil company, is the largest company in Africa. Algeria has one of the largest militaries in Africa and the largest defence budget on the continent, most of Algerias weapons are imported from Russia, with whom they are a close ally. Algeria is a member of the African Union, the Arab League, OPEC, the countrys name derives from the city of Algiers.
The citys name in turn derives from the Arabic al-Jazāir, a form of the older Jazāir Banī Mazghanna. In the region of Ain Hanech, early remnants of hominid occupation in North Africa were found, neanderthal tool makers produced hand axes in the Levalloisian and Mousterian styles similar to those in the Levant. Algeria was the site of the highest state of development of Middle Paleolithic Flake tool techniques, tools of this era, starting about 30,000 BC, are called Aterian. The earliest blade industries in North Africa are called Iberomaurusian and this industry appears to have spread throughout the coastal regions of the Maghreb between 15,000 and 10,000 BC. Neolithic civilization developed in the Saharan and Mediterranean Maghreb perhaps as early as 11,000 BC or as late as between 6000 and 2000 BC and this life, richly depicted in the Tassili nAjjer paintings, predominated in Algeria until the classical period. The amalgam of peoples of North Africa coalesced eventually into a native population that came to be called Berbers.
These settlements served as market towns as well as anchorages, as Carthaginian power grew, its impact on the indigenous population increased dramatically. Berber civilization was already at a stage in which agriculture, trade, by the early 4th century BC, Berbers formed the single largest element of the Carthaginian army. In the Revolt of the Mercenaries, Berber soldiers rebelled from 241 to 238 BC after being unpaid following the defeat of Carthage in the First Punic War. They succeeded in obtaining control of much of Carthages North African territory, the Carthaginian state declined because of successive defeats by the Romans in the Punic Wars
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers. It is bordered by South Africa to the south, Botswana to the west and southwest, Zambia to the northwest, although it does not border Namibia, less than 200 metres of the Zambezi River separates it from that country. The capital and largest city is Harare, a country of roughly 13 million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a route for migration. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s, in 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. Zimbabwe rejoined the Commonwealth of Nations—which it withdrew from in 2003 and it is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community, the African Union, and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa.
Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the following the end of white minority rule. Under Mugabes authoritarian regime, the security apparatus has dominated the country. Mugabe has maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric from the Cold War era, the name Zimbabwe stems from a Shona term for Great Zimbabwe, an ancient ruined city in the countrys south-east whose remains are now a protected site. Two different theories address the origin of the word, many sources hold that Zimbabwe derives from dzimba-dza-mabwe, translated from the Karanga dialect of Shona as large houses of stone. The Karanga-speaking Shona people live around Great Zimbabwe in the province of Masvingo. Zimbabwe was formerly known as Southern Rhodesia and Zimbabwe Rhodesia, a further alternative, put forward by nationalists in Matabeleland, had been Matopos, referring to the Matopos Hills to the south of Bulawayo. In a 2001 interview, black nationalist Edson Zvobgo recalled that Mawema mentioned the name during a rally, and it caught hold.
The black nationalist factions subsequently used the name the during the Second Chimurenga campaigns against the Rhodesian government during the Rhodesian Bush War of 1964-1979, major factions in this camp included the Zimbabwe African National Union, and the Zimbabwe African Peoples Union. Proto-Shona-speaking societies first emerged in the middle Limpopo valley in the 9th century before moving on to the Zimbabwean highlands, the Zimbabwean plateau eventually became the centre of subsequent Shona states, beginning around the 10th century. Around the early 10th century, trade developed with Arab merchants on the Indian Ocean coast, the main archaeological site uses a unique dry stone architecture. The Kingdom of Mapungubwe was the first in a series of sophisticated trade states developed in Zimbabwe by the time of the first European explorers from Portugal and they traded in gold and copper for cloth and glass. From about 1300 until 1600, Mapungubwe was eclipsed by the Kingdom of Zimbabwe and this Shona state further refined and expanded upon Mapungubwes stone architecture, which survives to this day at the ruins of the kingdoms capital of Great Zimbabwe