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Windhoek Observer

The Windhoek Observer is an English-language Saturday weekly newspaper, published in Namibia by Paragon Investment Holding. It is the country's largest circulating weekly; as of 2009 it had a circulation of 12,000 to 13,000 copies. The Windhoek Observer was founded in 1978 by Gwen Lister. Lister was the political editor and wanted to give SWAPO, Namibia's liberation movement, "a'human face', showing the people, including whites, that they were not the'terrorists' and'communists' and the'black threat' that the colonial regime made them out to be through their blanket propaganda."The newspaper was banned in May 1984 after Lister travelled to Zambia to report on Namibian independence talks. Though the ban was lifted after an appeal to Pretoria's Publications Appeal Board, Observer management demoted her for having brought it on, triggering Lister's resignation and a walkout of the newspaper's staff; the following year, Lister began The Namibian. Smith ran the Windhoek Observer as a one-man operation, calling himself "reporter-in-chief".

His daughter, Yanna Erasmus joined him at the newspaper. Smith adopted a "hard-line editorial stance against those in authority" and "did not bow to the South African nor the SWAPO government."After Smith's death in 2008, Erasmus took over as editor. The following year, the newspaper was sold to Paragon Investment Holding, Kuvee Kangueehi was appointed editor. Official website

Tsonga people

The Tsonga people are a Bantu ethnic group native to Southern Mozambique and South Africa. They speak Xitsonga, a Southern Bantu language which has Nguni influence in particular Swazi and Zulu; the Swazis and the Zulus were the original neighbours of the Tsonga people for more than 1,000 years. Evidence of a close neighborhood between the Tsonga and the Swazis as well as the Zulus can be seen in similarities in surnames. For example, Mnisi is a surname shared between the Tsonga and Zulu people. In all these three groups, Mnisi means "the one who causes the rain to fall". Tshabalala is another popular surnames found between the Tsonga, the Swati and the Zulu people. In Tsonga and Zulu, again in all these three groups, Tshabalala means "Mshengu". A small number of Tsonga people are found in Zimbabwe and Northern Swaziland; the Tsonga people of South Africa share some history with the Tsonga people of Southern Mozambique. The Tsonga people originated from Central and East Africa somewhere between AD 200 and 500, have been migrating in-and-out of South Africa for over a thousand years.

The Tsonga people settled on the coastal plains of Northern Mozambique but settled in the Transvaal Province and around parts of St Lucia Bay in South Africa from as early as the 1300s. One of the earliest reputable written accounts of the Tsonga people is by Henri Philipe Junod titled "Matimu ya Vatsonga 1498-1650", formally published in 1977, it speaks of the earliest Tsonga kingdoms. Before this, the older Henri Alexandri Junod released his work titled "The life of a South African Tribe", first published under two volumes in 1912-1913 and re-published in 1927; the historical movements of the Tsonga people is dominated by separate migrations, with the Tembe people settling at the Southern parts of Swaziland around the 1350s and the Van'wanati and Vanyayi settling in the eastern Limpopo region between the late 1400s and 1650s. Separate migrations from parts of Mozambique occurred shortly thereafter and during the 1800s. According to historical records acquired from the Portuguese and Swiss Missionaries who arrived to Mozambique and South Africa in the 1800s, Portuguese sailors encountered Tsonga tribes near the coast of Mozambique.

Early tribes identified are names such as the Mpfumo who belong to the Rhonga clan within the wider Tsonga ethnicity, further identified during the 1500-1650 are the Valenga, Vatonga and Vandzawu. The Vatsonga people from early on were much like a confederacy where different groups settled and assimilated within a particular area and adopted a similar language that differed on the basis of geographic location. Various dialects of the Thonga/Tsonga language emerged from around the 1200s or earlier, such as Xirhonga, Xin'walungu, Xibila and Xidjonga, they held large territorial areas in southern Mozambique and parts of South Africa and extracted tribute for those who passed through. The Tsonga tribes operated like a confederacy in supplying regiments to different groups in the northern Transvaal region during times of Great Zimbabwe establishment and engaged in trade; the Nkuna and Valoyi tribes. The Tsonga people have an age-old custom of leading their own tribes, with a senior traditional leader at the forefront of their own tribal establishment and is seen with a status equal to that of a king.

The Tsonga people have lived according to these customs for ages and they hold the belief that "vukosi a byi peli nambu", a metaphor meaning "kingship does not cross territorial or family borders". Within apartheid South Africa, a Tsonga "homeland", Gazankulu Bantustan, was created out of part of northern Transvaal Province during the 1960s and was granted self-governing status in 1973; this bantustan's economy depended on gold and on a small manufacturing sector. However, only an estimated 500,000 people—less than half the Tsonga population of South Africa—ever lived there. Many others joined township residents from other parts of South Africa around urban centres Johannesburg and Pretoria; the Constitution of South Africa stipulates that all South Africans have a right to identify with their own language, points out that tribal affiliations or "ethnicity" is identifiable through a common language. The various groups who speak the Xitsonga language or one of its dialects are therefore united by the language and take its name from it, hence Constitutionally they are the Tsonga people.

There are other Tsonga groups in parts of Mozambique and Swaziland. Other related groups outside of South Africa who are ancestral or related to the South African Tsonga people go by various tribal names but they are sometimes classified within the heritage and history of the Tsonga people of South Africa; the Tsonga people speak the Xitsonga language, one of the official languages of the Republic of South Africa. According to historians, the Xitsonga language had alread

Violin Concerto (Beethoven)

Ludwig van Beethoven composed his Violin Concerto in D major, Op. 61, in 1806. Its first performance by Franz Clement was unsuccessful and for some decades the work languished in obscurity, until revived in 1844 by Joseph Joachim. Since it has become one of the best-known violin concertos. Beethoven had written a number of pieces for violin and orchestra. At some point in 1790–2, before his musical maturity, he began a Violin Concerto in C, of which only a fragment of the first movement survives. Whether the work, or the first movement, had been completed is not known. In any event, it was neither published. In the 1790s, Beethoven had completed two Romances for violin – first the Romance in F and the Romance in G; these works show a strong influence from the French school of violin playing, exemplified by violinists such as Giovanni Battista Viotti, Pierre Rode and Rodolphe Kreutzer. The two Romances, for instance, are in a similar style to slow movements of concerti by Viotti; this influence can be seen in the D major Concerto.

Beethoven wrote the concerto for his colleague Franz Clement, a leading violinist of the day, who had earlier given him helpful advice on his opera Fidelio. The work was premiered on 23 December 1806 in the Theater an der Wien in Vienna, the occasion being a benefit concert for Clement; the first printed edition was dedicated to Stephan von Breuning. It is believed that Beethoven finished the solo part so late that Clement had to sight-read part of his performance. To express his annoyance, or to show what he could do when he had time to prepare, Clement is said to have interrupted the concerto between the first and second movements with a solo composition of his own, played on one string of the violin held upside down; the premiere was not a success, the concerto was little performed in the following decades. The work was revived in 1844, well after Beethoven's death, with a performance by the 12-year-old violinist Joseph Joachim with the orchestra of the London Philharmonic Society conducted by Felix Mendelssohn.

Since, it has been one of the most important works of the violin concerto repertoire, is performed and recorded today. It has been said that not only in this piece, but "Recordings demonstrate that... it was the practice in the early twentieth century to vary the tempo within a movement," and that in the concerto, there is "often one big trough in the central G major passage." The work is in three movements: It is scored, in addition to the solo violin, for flute, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets and strings. The first movement has a duration of about 25 minutes; the second and third movements last about 10 minutes each. There is no break between the third movements; the entire work itself is 45 minutes in duration. Cadenzas for the work have been written by several notable violinists, including Joachim; the cadenzas by Fritz Kreisler are most employed. More composer Alfred Schnittke provided controversial cadenzas with a characteristically 20th-century style. New klezmer-inspired cadenzas written by Montreal based klezmer clarinetist and composer Airat Ichmouratov for Alexandre Da Costa in 2011 have been recorded by the Taipei Symphony Orchestra for Warner Classics.

The following violinists and composers have written cadenzas: Perhaps due to the Violin Concerto's lack of success at its premiere, at the request of Muzio Clementi, Beethoven revised it in a version for piano and orchestra, published as Op. 61a. For this version, present as a sketch in the Violin Concerto's autograph alongside revisions to the solo part, Beethoven wrote a lengthy, somewhat bombastic first movement cadenza which features the orchestra's timpanist along with the solo pianist; this and the cadenzas for the other movements were arranged for the violin by Max Rostal, Ottokar Nováček, Christian Tetzlaff and Wolfgang Schneiderhan. Gidon Kremer, on his recording with Nikolaus Harnoncourt, adapts these cadenzas for violin and piano, although the piano does not play in any other parts of the recording. Patricia Kopatchinskaja adapted the cadenza of the first movement for two violins and timpani, for the other movements for violin. Seiji Ozawa wrote an arrangement for piano. More it has been arranged as a concerto for clarinet and orchestra by Mikhail Pletnev.

Robert Bockmühl arranged the solo violin part for cello & played it as a Cello Concerto. The first known recording of Beethoven's violin concerto was made in 1925 for Polydor by violinist Josef Wolfsthal, with Hans Thierfelder conducting the Berlin Staatsoper Orchestra. Hundreds of recordings have been made since, among which the following have received awards and outstanding reviews: 1947: Yehudi Menuhin/Lucerne Festival Orchestra/Wilhelm Furtwängler 1953: Wolfgang Schneiderhan, Berliner Philharmoniker, Eugen Jochum, Deutsche Grammophon – "Rosette" by the Penguin Guide 1954: David Oistrakh with Sixten Ehrling cond. the Stockholm Festival Orchestra in Stockholm over 10-11 June 1954. Testament CD: "David Oistrakh Beethoven & Sibelius", 1994. 1955: Jascha Heifetz, Boston

Gustavo Turecki

Gustavo Turecki is a Canadian psychiatrist and professor at McGill University. He holds a Tier 1 Canada Research Chair Tier in Suicide, he is the sitting Chair of the Department of Psychiatry, works at the Douglas Mental Health University Institute, where he heads both the McGill Group for Suicide Studies and the Depressive Disorders Program. He is the director of the FRQS/FRQSC-funded Quebec Network on Suicide, Mood Disorders and Related Disorders, the co-director of the Douglas Bell-Canada Brain Bank; as a clinician and neuroscientist, his research focuses on examining the influence of life experiences on brain function, their relationship to depression and suicide risk. Among his major contributions, published in over 400 peer-reviewed publications and book chapters, is the first description of the long-term impact of childhood abuse on the brain how it affects the activity of key genes involved in stress-response. Turecki's neurobiological work has focused on the processes underlying depression and suicide.

A defining moment in his career came from a collaboration with Michael Meaney and Moshe Szyf, in which they uncovered that early-life adversity epigenetically regulates the glucocorticoid receptor gene, a key component of response to stress. This groundbreaking study helped to reconcile the longstanding debate about the relative influences of genes and environment on behaviour, garnered international attention, leading to Turecki's selection as the scientist of the year by Radio Canada/Canadian Broadcasting Corporation in 2009, along with Meaney and Szyf. Turecki's further research on the human brain explored the epigenetic control of genes related to stress-response systems, such as the hypothalamus- pituitary-adrenal axis in association with childhood abuse and suicide; the promising results obtained in studying the epigenetic control of the HPA axis prompted Turecki to study the role of epigenetics in another pathway, the polyamine stress response, which his team had shown to be linked to suicide risk.

More and in parallel to the classic epigenetic studies focusing on DNA and histone methylation, Turecki's focus has expanded to non-coding RNAs and their involvement in depression and suicide, as well as in response to antidepressants. Turecki conducts work aiming at refining the depression and suicide phenotype, his clinical work focuses on depression. He leads the Depressive Disorders Program, a clinical group that treats patients affected with major depression and integrates research projects into clinical practice. Two key aspects of this work are exploring how impulsive-aggressive behaviours contribute to suicide risk, implementing novel protocols and standards in the field. Turecki's ongoing research endeavours have a strong impact on international neuropsychiatric research, his clinical intervention protocols have helped to improve patient care, his laboratory has become an international leader in the investigation of the neurobiology of suicide, focusing on functional genomics and other molecular factors.

His contributions in creating and managing the Suicide Brain Bank within the Douglas Bell-Canada Brain Bank has allowed researchers from around the world to access unique and valuable human tissues. Turecki has three children, he was born in La Plata and moved to Montreal in 1994. Turecki is an FRQS Chercheur National, his contributions have been recognized through numerous prizes and awards. 2005 William Dawson Chair, McGill University 2009 Scientist of the year Award, Radio Canada/CBC, 2009 Top 10 findings of the year, Quebec Science 2010 Celebrity of the Week, La Presse 2012 Heinz Lehmann Award, CCNP 2012 Research Career Award, American Foundation for Suicide Prevention 2014 Samarthji Lal Award, Graham Boeck Foundation & CIHR-INMHA 2014 Top 10 findings of the year, Québec Science 2015 Joel Elkes Award for Clinical Research, ACNP 2016 ACFAS Léo-Pariseau prize View ACFAS website 2016 NARSAD Distinguished Investigator Award View NARSAD website McGowan, P. Nat Neurosci. 12: 342–8. Doi:10.1038/nn.2270.

PMC 2944040. PMID 19234457. Turecki, G. "The neurodevelopmental origins of suicidal behavior". Trends Neurosci. 35: 14–23. Doi:10.1016/j.tins.2011.11.008. Labonté, B. Am J Psychiatry. 170: 511–20. Doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12050627. Nagy, C. Mol Psychiatry. 20: 320–328. Doi:10.1038/mp.2014.21. PMC 5293540. PMID 24662927. Lopez, JP. Nat Med. 20: 764–8. Doi:10.1038/nm.3582. PMC 4087015. PMID 24908571. Turecki, G. "The molecular bases of the suicidal brain". Nat Rev Neurosci. 15: 802–16. Doi:10.1038/nrn3839. PMC 5293539. PMID 25354482. Turecki, G. "Suicide and suicidal behaviour". Lancet. 387: 1227–39. Doi:10.1016/S0140-673600234-2. PMC 5319859. PMID 26385066. Dumais, A.

Nangal Dewat

Nangal Dewat is a census town in the South West district of the Indian state of Delhi. Airport Authority of India acquired the village in 1965 for future expansion, due to repeated protests, it was not acquired until 2007, it is inhabited by Sehrawat Gotra Jats. The settlement has many parks and lands for future use; this is the first modern village in India with multi-story homes. Rental properties are a source of income for the villagers; as of 2001 census, Nangal Dewat had a population of 13,168. Males constitute 56% of the population and females 44%. Nangal Dewat has an average literacy rate of 64%, higher than the national average of 59.5%. Male literacy is 73% and female literacy is 52%. In Nangal Dewat, 14% of the population is under 6 years of age; this village was demolished in 2007 for the IGI airport extension. The inhabitants were moved to Vasant Kunj. AAI and DDA are doing major malfunctioning to allot the alternative plots. Many villagers would not get alternative plots until August 2013, most of the villagers do not live in the new Nangal Dewat as the plots are still not allotted to them.

More than 58 families including children and elderly were on hunger strike since 12 December 2016 although they possess the proofs from the High Court and Lt. Governor's Order. People were waiting for justice as of 2017 however village were displaced on 2007 by AAI without paying a single rupee. DDA has been accused of corruption in allotting plots by using a population survey from 1972. By 2007 the families in the 1972 survey had grown and the single plot leads to loss of valuable land. Plots were a maximum plot size of 650 meters square; the government displaced the entire village without paying for construction. DDA saved half of the land acquired for villagers by using an old survey, villagers didn't receive half of their land share; the people of this village are considered to be sincere and trustworthy. This village has produced many government officers; this village used to have the largest chunk of land compared to nearby villages and the people of this village are considered wealthy and influential for many decades having records from 1300 AD