A rector is a senior official in an educational institution, can refer to an official in either a university or a secondary school. Outside the English-speaking world the rector is the most senior official in a university, whilst in the United States the most senior official is referred to as President and in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth of Nations the most senior official is the Chancellor, whose office is ceremonial and titular; the term and office of a rector can be referred to as a rectorate. The title is used in universities in Europe, and is common in Latin American countries. It is used in Brunei, Russia, the Philippines, Indonesia and the Middle East. In the ancient universities of Scotland the office is sometimes referred to as Lord Rector, is the third most senior official, is responsible for chairing the University Court; the head of a university in Germany is called a president, rector magnificus or rectrix magnifica, as in some Belgian universities. In Dutch universities, the rector magnificus is the most publicly prominent member of the board, responsible for the scientific agenda of the university.
In the Netherlands, the rector is, not the chair of the university board. The chair has, in the most influence over the management of the University. In some countries, including Germany, the position of head teacher in secondary schools is designated as rector. In the Netherlands, the terms "rector" and "conrector" are used for high school directors; this is the case in some Maltese secondary schools. In the Scandinavian countries, the head of a university or a gymnasium is called a rektor. In Sweden and Norway, this term is used for the heads of primary schools. In Finland, the head of a primary school or secondary schools is called a rector provided the school is of sufficient size in terms of faculty and students, otherwise the title is headmaster; the head of some Finnish universities is called chancellor. In the Iberian Peninsula, Portugal's and Spain's university heads or presidents have the title; those universities whose foundation has been approved by the Pope, as e.g. the rector of the University of Coimbra, the oldest Portuguese university, is referred to as Magnífico Reitor.
The others are referred to as Excelentíssimo Senhor Reitor. In Spain, all Rectors must be addressed as Señor Rector Magnífico according to the law, but the Rector of the University of Salamanca, the oldest on the Iberian Peninsula, is styled according to academic protocol as Excelentísimo y Ilustrísimo Señor Profesor Doctor Don, Rector Magnífico de la Universidad de Salamanca. In a few "Crown lands" of the Austrian Empire, one seat in the Landtag was reserved for the rector of the capital's university, notably: Graz in Steiermark, Innsbruck in Tirol, Wien in Nieder-Österreich. Today Austrian universities are headed by a Rectorate consisting of one Rector and 3-5 additional Vizerectors; the Rector is the CEO of the university. The heads of Czech universities are called the rektor; the rector acts in the name of the university and decides the university's affairs unless prohibited by law. The rector is nominated by the University Academic Senate and appointed by the President of the Czech Republic.
The nomination must be agreed by a simple majority of all senators, while a dismissal must be agreed by at least three fifths of all senators. The vote to elect or repeal a rector is secret; the term of office is four years and a person may hold it for at most two consecutive terms. The rector appoints vice-rectors. Rectors' salaries are determined directly by the Minister of Education. Among the most important rectors of Czech universities were reformer Jan Hus, physician Jan Jesenius and representative of Enlightenment Josef Vratislav Monse. Jiřina Popelová became the first female Rector in 1950; the rectors are addressed "Your Magnificence Rector". In Danish, rektor is the title used in referring to the heads of universities, schools of commerce and construction, etc. Rektor may be used for the head of any educational institution above the primary school level, where the head is referred to as a'skoleinspektør'. In universities, the second-ranked official of governance is known as prorektor. Most English universities are formally headed by "chancellors".
In a few colleges, the equivalent person is called a "president", "provost", or "warden". At two Oxford colleges, Lincoln College and Exeter College, the head is called "rector". At Oxford and Cambridge, the university's overall head is called "chancellor", but this is chiefly a ceremonial position while the academic head of each university is the "vice-chancellor". At St Chad's College, one of the two so-called "recognised colleges" of the University of Durham, there is a "rector" as titular head while the academic head is the "principal"; the University of London has a chancellor (a
Pontifical Biblical Institute
The Pontifical Biblical Institute, is a research and postgraduate teaching institution specialised in biblical and ancient Near Eastern studies. It is an institution of the Holy See entrusted to the Society of Jesus; the Pontifical Biblical Institute was founded by Pope Pius X in the Apostolic Letter Vinea Electa in 1909 as a centre of advanced studies in Holy Scripture. At first, the institute prepared students for exams at the Pontifical Biblical Commission. In 1916, it was licensed by Pope Benedict XV to grant academic degrees in the name of the Commission, in 1928, it was licensed by Pope Pius XI to grant doctorates in affiliation with the Pontifical Gregorian University, independently of the Commission. In 1927, a branch was opened in Jerusalem. In 1932, the Oriental Faculty was founded. All of its rectors have been Jesuit priests. Cardinal Bea is noteworthy for having defended the university against charges of Modernism before the Second Vatican Council. Among the prominent alumni of the Biblicum, the following were elevated to the episcopate and/or the cardinalate: École Biblique Studium Biblicum Franciscanum Apostolic Letter - Vinea Electa, Pope Pius X, 7 May 1909, Vatican website
A chancellor is a leader of a college or university either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system. In most Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is a ceremonial non-resident head of the university. In such institutions, the chief executive of a university is the vice-chancellor, who may carry an additional title, such as "president & vice-chancellor"; the chancellor may serve as chairman of the governing body. In many countries, the administrative and educational head of the university is known as the president, principal or rector. In the United States, the head of a university is most a university president. In U. S. university systems that have more than one affiliated university or campus, the executive head of a specific campus may have the title of chancellor and report to the overall system's president, or vice versa. In both Australia and New Zealand, a chancellor is the chairman of a university's governing body.
The chancellor is assisted by a deputy chancellor. The chancellor and deputy chancellor are drawn from the senior ranks of business or the judiciary; some universities have a visitor, senior to the chancellor. University disputes can be appealed from the governing board to the visitor, but nowadays, such appeals are prohibited by legislation, the position has only ceremonial functions; the vice-chancellor serves as the chief executive of the university. Macquarie University in Sydney is a noteworthy anomaly as it once had the unique position of Emeritus Deputy Chancellor, a post created for John Lincoln upon his retirement from his long-held post of deputy chancellor in 2000; the position was not an honorary title, as it retained for Lincoln a place in the University Council until his death in 2011. Canadian universities and British universities in Scotland have a titular chancellor similar to those in England and Wales, with day-to-day operations handled by a principal. In Scotland, for example, the chancellor of the University of Edinburgh is Anne, Princess Royal, whilst the current chancellor of the University of Aberdeen is Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay.
In Canada, the vice-chancellor carries the joint title of "president and vice-chancellor" or "rector and vice-chancellor." Scottish principals carry the title of "principal and vice-chancellor." In Scotland, the title and post of rector is reserved to the third ranked official of university governance. The position exists in common throughout the five ancient universities of Scotland with rectorships in existence at the universities of St Andrews, Aberdeen and Dundee, considered to have ancient status as a result of its early connections to the University of St Andrews; the position of Lord Rector was given legal standing by virtue of the Universities Act 1889. Rectors appoint a rector's assessor a deputy or stand-in, who may carry out their functions when they are absent from the university; the Rector chairs meetings of the university court, the governing body of the university, is elected by the matriculated student body at regular intervals. An exception exists at Edinburgh, where the Rector is elected by staff.
In Finland, if the university has a chancellor, he is the leading official in the university. The duties of the chancellor are to promote sciences and to look after the best interests of the university; as the rector of the university remains the de facto administrative leader and chief executive official, the role of the chancellor is more of a social and historical nature. However some administrative duties still belong to the chancellor's jurisdiction despite their arguably ceremonial nature. Examples of these include the appointment of new docents; the chancellor of University of Helsinki has the notable right to be present and to speak in the plenary meetings of the Council of State when matters regarding the university are discussed. Despite his role as the chancellor of only one university, he is regarded as the political representative of Finland's entire university institution when he exercises his rights in the Council of State. In the history of Finland the office of the chancellor dates all the way back to the Swedish Empire, the Russian Empire.
The chancellor's duty was to function as the official representative of the monarch in the autonomous university. The number of chancellors in Finnish universities has declined over the years, in vast majority of Finnish universities the highest official is the rector; the remaining universities with chancellors are University of Åbo Akademi University. In France, chancellor is one of the titles of the rector, a senior civil servant of the Ministry of Education serving as manager of a regional educational district. In his capacity as chancellor, the rector awards academic degrees to the university's gradua
Tyndale University College and Seminary
Tyndale University College and Seminary is a Canadian accredited Protestant institution of higher education in the evangelical tradition located in Toronto, Ontario. Tyndale students come from over 40 different Christian denominations and more than 30 different ethnic groups. Tyndale offers graduate programs. A student residence is located on its campus; the Toronto Bible Training School was founded in 1894 by a group of brethren under the supervision of Elmore Harris pastor of Walmer Road Baptist Church. Elmore Harris became the first President. William Boyd Stewart was the first Principal. Courses were held at the Walmer Road Church for the first four years until they relocated to new facilities the Gothic Revival building at 110 College Street in 1898 financed chiefly through generous contributions of the Harris family.. The name of the school was changed to Toronto Bible College in 1912 and in September 1928 relocated to 16 Spadina Road when the lease expired, it became only the third in North America.
The founders' vision of TBC was to train laypeople as "Sunday School teachers, Pastors' Assistants, as City and Foreign Missionaries." The institution's leadership was Baptist and Presbyterian, but included Methodists and Anglicans. The TBC graduation service was always a significant Toronto event, held at Massey Hall, moved to the University of Toronto's Varsity Stadium to accommodate crowds as large as 6,000. In the 1940s, the school's president, John McNicol, steered a path between modernism and ultra-fundamentalism --both of which McNicol denounced as threats to the health of the church; this unique position gained TBC the support of evangelicals in a variety of mainline denominations. In 1968, Toronto Bible College merged with the London College of Bible and Missions from London, Ontario. LCBM began in 1935 as the London Bible Institute, led by J. Wilmot Mahood; the newly merged institution was named Ontario Bible College. This merger brought more students to the Toronto-based institution from other evangelical denominations including the Associated Gospel Churches, the Brethren, the Mennonite Brethren.
In 1976 OBC relocated to a former Jesuit seminary in Willowdale, designed by modernist architect Peter Dickinson. In the same year, the institution established a graduate school named Ontario Theological Seminary. OBC/OTS was given degree-granting powers by the Government of Ontario in 1986, received full accreditation by the Association of Theological Schools in 1989. By 1995, the institution had become insolvent and filed to make a proposal to creditors under the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act in Canada. A new president, Brian Stiller, CFO, Winston Ling, were brought on and a new board was chosen. In 1998 the school was renamed Tyndale College and Seminary after William Tyndale, a Reformation theologian of the sixteenth century; the leadership intended the name change to indicate their vision to build "a world-class centre of Christian higher education in Canada." In 2003, the Ontario Legislature authorized Tyndale to change its name to Tyndale University College & Seminary. Tyndale was given the right to confer the Bachelor of Arts degree in the humanities, social sciences and business, as well as undergraduate and doctoral level degrees in religion and divinity.
On December 5, 2007, Tyndale was given ministerial consent by the Province of Ontario to offer a 12-month Bachelor of Education program to prepare teachers for primary and intermediate grades. In June 2006, Tyndale entered into an agreement to acquire a neighbouring facility, St. Joseph's Morrow Park, 3377 Bayview Avenue, from the Sisters of St. Joseph of Toronto. A key reason for Vatican approval of the pending transfer of the campus from Catholic to Protestant hands was Tyndale's commitment to maintain the aesthetically significant chapel as "sacred space"; the facility transfer was completed on March 31, 2013, all departments and offices were moved to 3377 Bayview Avenue in the Spring of 2015. The Catholic girls' high school will continue to operate in a wing of the property until at least June 2018. Tyndale Seminary is the largest accredited seminary in Canada with more than 700 students at the masters or doctoral level, the University College received high rankings in the 2009 Maclean's University issue's measure of student satisfaction.
In 2011, student satisfaction was amongst the highest of all Canadian universities. While students ranked the quality of teaching and classroom discussion above average, the Maclean's study found the institution below average in some educational practices, including active and collaborative learning; the university college offers the following degrees: Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Religious Education, Bachelor of Education. The four-year Bachelor of Arts offers an integrative Great Books program in its first year. Majors in business administration, history, philosophy and religious studies receive a foundation of general knowledge before moving on to their areas of specialization. Tyndale offers a Bachelor of Arts degree in human services conjointly with Seneca College, which allows a student to earn a BA degree from Tyndale plus a diploma in either early childhood education or social service work from Seneca. Graduates of the twelve-month BEd program are eligible for a Certificate of Qu
Society of Jesus
The Society of Jesus is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church for men founded by Ignatius of Loyola and approved by Pope Paul III. The members are called Jesuits; the society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations. Jesuits work in education, intellectual research, cultural pursuits. Jesuits give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes, sponsor direct social ministries, promote ecumenical dialogue. Saint Ignatius of Loyola, a Basque nobleman from the Pyrenees area of northern Spain, founded the society after discerning his spiritual vocation while recovering from a wound sustained in the Battle of Pamplona, he composed the Spiritual Exercises to help others follow the teachings of Jesus Christ. In 1534, Ignatius and six other young men, including Francis Xavier and Peter Faber and professed vows of poverty and obedience, including a special vow of obedience to the Pope in matters of mission direction and assignment. Ignatius's plan of the order's organization was approved by Pope Paul III in 1540 by a bull containing the "Formula of the Institute".
Ignatius was a nobleman who had a military background, the members of the society were supposed to accept orders anywhere in the world, where they might be required to live in extreme conditions. Accordingly, the opening lines of the founding document declared that the society was founded for "whoever desires to serve as a soldier of God to strive for the defence and propagation of the faith and for the progress of souls in Christian life and doctrine." Jesuits are thus sometimes referred to colloquially as "God's soldiers", "God's marines", or "the Company", which evolved from references to Ignatius' history as a soldier and the society's commitment to accepting orders anywhere and to endure any conditions. The society participated in the Counter-Reformation and in the implementation of the Second Vatican Council; the Society of Jesus is consecrated under the patronage of Madonna Della Strada, a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary, it is led by a Superior General. The headquarters of the society, its General Curia, is in Rome.
The historic curia of Ignatius is now part of the Collegio del Gesù attached to the Church of the Gesù, the Jesuit mother church. In 2013, Jorge Mario Bergoglio became the first Jesuit to be elected Pope, taking the name Pope Francis; as of 2012, the Jesuits formed the largest single religious order of priests and brothers in the Catholic Church. The Jesuits have experienced a decline in numbers in recent decades; as of 2017 the society had 16,088 members, 11,583 priests and 4,505 Jesuits in formation, which includes brothers and scholastics. This represents a 42.6 percent decline since 1977, when the society had a total membership of 28,038, of which 20,205 were priests. This decline is most pronounced in Europe and the Americas, with modest membership gains occurring in Asia and Africa. There seems to be no "Pope Francis effect" in counteracting the fall of vocations among the Jesuits; the society is divided into 83 provinces along with six independent regions and ten dependent regions. On 1 January 2007, members served in 112 nations on six continents with the largest number in India and the US.
Their average age was 57.3 years: 63.4 years for priests, 29.9 years for scholastics, 65.5 years for brothers. The current Superior General of the Jesuits is Arturo Sosa; the society is characterized by its ministries in the fields of missionary work, human rights, social justice and, most notably, higher education. It operates colleges and universities in various countries around the world and is active in the Philippines and India. In the United States the Jesuits have historical ties to 28 colleges and universities and 61 high schools; the degree to which the Jesuits are involved in the administration of each institution varies. As of September 2018, 15 of the 28 Jesuit universities in the US had non-Jesuit lay presidents. According to a 2014 article in The Atlantic, "the number of Jesuit priests who are active in everyday operations at the schools isn’t nearly as high as it once was". Worldwide it runs 172 colleges and universities. A typical conception of the mission of a Jesuit school will contain such concepts as proposing Christ as the model of human life, the pursuit of excellence in teaching and learning, lifelong spiritual and intellectual growth, training men and women for others.
Ignatius laid out his original vision for the new order in the "Formula of the Institute of the Society of Jesus", "the fundamental charter of the order, of which all subsequent official documents were elaborations and to which they had to conform." He ensured that his formula was contained in two papal bulls signed by Pope Paul III in 1540 and by Pope Julius III in 1550. The formula expressed the nature, community life, apostolate of the new religious order, its famous opening statement echoed Ignatius' military background: Whoever desires to serve as a soldier of God beneath the banner of the Cross in our Society, which we desire to be designated by the Name of Jesus, to serve the Lord alone and the Church, his spouse, under the Roman Pontiff, the Vicar of Christ on earth, after a solemn vow of perpetual chastity and obedience, keep what follows in mind. He is a member of a Society founded chiefly for this purpose: to strive for the defence and propagation of the faith and for the progress of souls in Christian life and doctrine, by means of public preaching and any other ministration whatsoever of the Word of God, further by means of ret
Bernard Joseph Francis Lonergan was a Canadian Jesuit priest and theologian, regarded by many as one of the most important thinkers of the 20th century. Lonergan's works include Insight: A Study of Human Understanding and Method in Theology, as well as two studies of Thomas Aquinas, several theological textbooks, numerous essays, including two posthumously published essays on macroeconomics. A projected, he held appointments at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Regis College, Toronto, as Distinguished Visiting Professor at Boston College, as Stillman Professor of Divinity at Harvard University. Lonergan set out to do for human thought in our time. Aquinas had applied Aristotelian thought to the service of a Christian understanding of the universe. Lonergan's program was to come to terms with modern scientific and hermeneutical thinking in a comparable way, he pursued this program in his two most fundamental works and Method in Theology. The key to Lonergan's project is "self-appropriation", that is, the personal discovery and personal embrace of the dynamic structure of inquiry, insight and decision.
By self-appropriation, one finds in one's own intelligence and responsibility the foundation of every kind of inquiry and the basic pattern of operations undergirding methodical investigation in every field. He is associated with his fellow Jesuits Karl Rahner, Joseph Maréchal with "transcendental Thomism", i.e. a philosophy which attempts to combine Thomism with certain views or methods associated with Kant's transcendental idealism. However, Lonergan did not regard this label as helpful for understanding his intentions. Bernard Joseph Francis Lonergan was born on December 17, 1904, in Buckingham, Canada. After four years at Loyola College, he entered the Upper Canada province of the Society of Jesus in 1922, made his profession of vows on the Feast of St Ignatius of Loyola, July 31, 1924. After two further years of formation and education, he was assigned to study scholastic philosophy at Heythrop College, London, in 1926. Lonergan respected the competence and honesty of his professors at Heythrop, but was dissatisfied with their Suarezian philosophy.
While at Heythrop, Lonergan took external degrees in mathematics and classics at the University of London. In 1930 he returned to Canada where he taught for three years at Montreal. In 1933, Lonergan was sent for theological studies at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome, he was ordained to the Catholic priesthood in 1936. After a year of Jesuit formation in Amiens, Lonergan returned to the Gregorian University in 1937 to pursue doctoral studies in theology. Due to the Second World War, he was whisked out of Italy and back to Canada in May, 1940, just two days before the scheduled defence of his doctoral dissertation, he began teaching theology at College de l'Immaculee Conception, the Jesuit theology faculty in Montreal in 1940, as well as the Thomas More Institute in 1945-46. In the event, he would not formally defend his dissertation and receive his doctorate until a special board of examiners from the Immaculee Conception was convened in Montreal on December 23, 1946. Lonergan taught theology at Regis College from 1947 to 1953, at the Gregorian University from 1953 to 1964.
At the Gregorian, Lonergan taught Trinity and Christology in alternate years, produced substantial textbooks on these topics. In 1964, he made another hasty return to this time to be treated for lung cancer, he was appointed again to Regis College from 1965 to 1975, was Stillman Professor of Divinity at Harvard University in 1971-72, Distinguished Visiting Professor at Boston College from 1975 until 1983. He died at the Jesuit infirmary in Pickering, Ontario, on 26 November 1984. Lonergan names John Henry Newman as major influences upon his early thinking. J. A. Stewart's study of Plato's doctrine of ideas was influential. In the epilogue to Insight, Lonergan mentions the important personal transformation wrought in him by a decade's apprenticeship to the thought of Thomas Aquinas, he produced two major exegetical studies of Thomas Aquinas: Grace and Freedom, Verbum: Word and Idea in Aquinas. The University of Toronto Press is in the process of publishing Lonergan's work in a projected 25-volume series, Collected Works of Bernard Lonergan.
Archival materials are available at bernardlonergan.com. Lonergan's doctoral dissertation was an exploration of the theory of operative grace in the thought of Thomas Aquinas, his director, Charles Boyer, S. J. pointed him to a passage in the Summa theologiae and suggested that the received interpretations were mistaken. A study of Thomas Aquinas on divine grace and human freedom was well-suited to his interest in working out a theoretical analysis of history; the dissertation was completed in 1940. After his return from Rome, Lonergan wrote a series of four articles for Theological Studies on the inner word in Thomas Aquinas which became influential in the study of St. Thomas' accounts of knowledge and cognition; the articles were collected and published under the title Verbum: Word and Idea in Aquinas. In 1945 Lonergan gave a course at the Thomas More Institu
University of St. Michael's College
The University of St. Michael's College is a college of the University of Toronto, founded in 1852 by the Congregation of St. Basil of Annonay, France. While an undergraduate college for liberal arts and sciences, St. Michael's retains its Roman Catholic affiliation through its postgraduate theology faculty. St. Michael's is most associated with teaching and research in the humanities and in theology, it is known for being home to Marshall McLuhan throughout his influential career as a philosopher and communication theorist, from 1946 until his death in 1980. The Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies resides within the college. St. Michael's College School is an affiliated boys school, once the high school section of the college. St. Michael's College was founded in 1852 as a Basilian college by Pierre Tourvieille, Superior General of the Congregation of St. Basil of Annonay, France; the following year, it merged with St. Mary's Lesser Seminary under the unified control of the Basilian Fathers, whose establishment in Canada began with Bishop Armand-François-Marie de Charbonnel.
St. Michael's College educated pupils at three levels, operating as a preparatory school, as a liberal arts college, as a minor seminary; the Basilians received a large estate in 1853 from John Elmsley, son of the Chief Justice of Upper Canada and a prominent philanthropist. St. Michael's College relocated to the new site east of the University of Toronto, established the college parish, St. Basil's Church; the incorporation of the college was granted Royal Assent in 1855. In the late 19th century when universities were closed to new Irish immigrants and many Canadians of Irish descent, St Michael's was seen as the only viable option and thus the school became a traditionally Irish filled college. Since this time St Michael's has been a bastion for higher education and a beacon for the Irish-Canadian community in Toronto and southern Ontario, with others coming from all over the rest of Canada to attend the dominantly Irish school. By withdrawing its financial support in 1868, the provincial government encouraged denominational colleges to seek closer relations with secular institutions.
St. Michael's affiliated with the University of Toronto in 1883, having secured a guarantee that it would conduct its own teaching in philosophy and history; the university senate authorized. On December 8, 1910, St. Michael's College became a federated college of the University of Toronto; the college maintained autonomy in faculty hiring and teaching in liberal arts subjects, while the University of Toronto governed examinations and the granting of degrees in all subjects except theology. In 1912, Sir Robert Falconer, president of the University of Toronto, recognized the wish of St. Joseph's College and Loretto College to affiliate with the university. St. Joseph's and Loretto both became colleges of St. Michael's College, thereby allowing their female students to receive University of Toronto degrees; as the 20th century began, professional education expanded beyond the traditional fields of theology and medicine. Graduate training based on the German-inspired American model of specialized course work and the completion of a research thesis was introduced.
With the opening of the Institute of Mediaeval Studies in 1929, St Michael's expanded further into graduate teaching and research. Ten years Pope Pius XII signed a papal charter creating the Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies; the preparatory school division of the college was reorganized in 1950 as St. Michael's College School, an independent private school, ending the college's direct governance while maintaining its affiliation. In 1952, the last lectures for women were held at Loretto and St. Joseph's Colleges, which became residential units of the college. Thereafter, all teaching was conducted coeducationally in the classrooms of St. Michael's College. Throughout much of its history, St. Michael's benefited from a common practice whereby staff and faculty who were members of religious orders would donate their salaries back to the college; this source of income disappeared as new faculty members were hired with secular backgrounds, compelling the college to seek new revenue. The college's first modern fundraising attempt was launched in 1927, but was only successful due to the onset of the Great Depression.
The Basilian Fathers of St. Michael's College was registered as a charitable organization in 1972. Subsequent campaigns and land sales allowed the college to increase its endowment, expand its academic programs and construct new residence buildings; the Canadian Catholic Bioethics Institute became affiliated with St. Michael's College in 2001. In 2002, the college marked the sesquicentennial of its founding with an anniversary mass held in St. Basil's Church; the oldest buildings of St. Michael's College were constructed on the original Clover Hill estate donated by John Elmsley, were designed by noted Scottish architect William Hay. With subsequent land acquisitions in 1890, 1920, 1926 and 1928, the college expanded from Clover Hill westward to reach Queen's Park; the present grounds of St. Michael's College form the eastern end of the University of Toronto campus, with Victoria College to the north and Regis College to the south; the main quadrangle of St. Michael's College is in the northwestern section of the college grounds, with its northern side leading into Victoria College.
The cornerstone was laid at Clover Hill on September 16, 1855, for the college building and the college parish of St. Basil's Church, consecrated November 16, 1856; this building is the oldest building at the University of Toronto in continuous academic use. A further addition, designed by William Irving, was construc