Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
British nationality law
British nationality law is the law of the United Kingdom which concerns citizenship and other categories of British nationality. The law is complex due to the United Kingdom's historical status as an imperial power. English law and Scots law have always distinguished between the Monarch's subjects and aliens, but British nationality law was uncodified until the British Nationality and Status of Aliens Act 1914 codified existing common law and statute, with a few minor changes; some thought the single Imperial status of "British subject" was becoming inadequate to deal with a Commonwealth with independent member states. In 1948, the Commonwealth Heads of Government agreed that each member would adopt a national citizenship, but that the existing status of the British subject would continue as a common status held by all Commonwealth citizens; the British Nationality Act 1948 established the status of Citizen of the United Kingdom and Colonies, the national citizenship of the United Kingdom and colonies on 1 January 1949.
Until the early 1960s there was little difference, if any, in UK law between the rights of CUKCs and other British subjects, all of whom had the right at any time to enter and live in the UK. Independence Acts, passed when the remaining colonies were granted independence, contained nationality provisions. In general, these provisions withdrew the status of CUKC from anyone who became citizens of the newly independent country, unless one had a connection with the UK or a remaining colony. Exceptions were sometimes made in cases. Between 1962 and 1971, as a result of fears about increasing immigration by Commonwealth citizens, the UK tightened controls on immigration by British subjects from other parts of the Commonwealth, which included CUKCs without familial or residential ties to the UK; the Immigration Act 1971 introduced the concept of patriality, by which only British subjects with sufficiently strong links to the British Islands had right of abode, meaning they were free from immigration control and had the right to enter and work in the islands.
The act, had de facto created two types of CUKCs: those with right of abode in the UK, those without right of abode in the UK. Despite differences in immigration status was formally created, there existed no de jure difference between the two under the nationality context, as the 1948 law still specified one tier of citizenship throughout the UK and its colonies; this changed in 1983. The current principal British nationality law in force, since 1 January 1983, is the British Nationality Act 1981, which established the system of multiple categories of British nationality. To date, six tiers were created, viz. British citizens, British Overseas Territories citizens, British Overseas citizens, British Nationals, British subjects, British protected persons. Only British citizens and certain Commonwealth citizens have the automatic right of abode in the UK, with the latter holding residual rights they had prior to 1983. Aside from different categories of a nationality, the 1981 Act ceased to recognise Commonwealth citizens as British subjects.
There remain only two categories of people who are still British subjects: those who acquired British nationality through a connection with former British India, those connected with the Republic of Ireland before 1949 who have made a declaration to retain British nationality. British subjects connected with former British India lose British nationality if they acquire any other. In spite of the fact that the 1981 act repealed most of the provisions of the 1948 act and the nationality clauses in subsequent independence acts, the acquisition of new categories of British nationality created by the 1981 act was dependent on nationality status prior to 1 January 1983, the date the 1981 act came into effect, so many of the provisions of the 1948 act and subsequent independence acts are still relevant. Not taking this into account might lead one to the erroneous conclusion, for example, that the 1981 act's repeal of the nationality clauses in the Kenya Independence Act of 1963 restored British nationality to those who lost their CUKC status as a result of Kenya's independence in 1963.
This is one of the reasons for the complexity of British nationality law. There are six classes of British nationality; the following two classes of British nationality are "active", meaning that they can be acquired at birth, or by naturalization or registration for any eligible person. British citizen Persons who are British citizens hold this status through a connection with the United Kingdom, Channel Islands and Isle of Man. Citizens of the United Kingdom and Colonies who possessed right of abode under the Immigration Act 1971 through a connection with the UK and Islands became Br
A pseudonym or alias is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their first or true name. Pseudonyms include stage names and user names, ring names, pen names, aliases, superhero or villain identities and code names, gamer identifications, regnal names of emperors and other monarchs, they have taken the form of anagrams and Latinisations, although there are many other methods of choosing a pseudonym. Pseudonyms should not be confused with new names that replace old ones and become the individual's full-time name. Pseudonyms are "part-time" names, used only in certain contexts – to provide a more clear-cut separation between one's private and professional lives, to showcase or enhance a particular persona, or to hide an individual's real identity, as with writers' pen names, graffiti artists' tags, resistance fighters' or terrorists' noms de guerre, computer hackers' handles. Actors, voice-over artists and other performers sometimes use stage names, for example, to better channel a relevant energy, gain a greater sense of security and comfort via privacy, more avoid troublesome fans/"stalkers", or to mask their ethnic backgrounds.
In some cases, pseudonyms are adopted because they are part of a cultural or organisational tradition: for example devotional names used by members of some religious institutes, "cadre names" used by Communist party leaders such as Trotsky and Lenin. A pseudonym may be used for personal reasons: for example, an individual may prefer to be called or known by a name that differs from their given or legal name, but is not ready to take the numerous steps to get their name changed. A collective name or collective pseudonym is one shared by two or more persons, for example the co-authors of a work, such as Carolyn Keene, Ellery Queen, Nicolas Bourbaki. Or James S. A. Corey; the term is derived from the Greek ψευδώνυμον "false name", from ψεῦδος, "lie, falsehood" and ὄνομα, "name". A pseudonym is distinct from an allonym, the name of another person, assumed by the author of a work of art; this may occur when someone is ghostwriting a book or play, or in parody, or when using a "front" name, such as by screenwriters blacklisted in Hollywood in the 1950s and 1960s.
See pseudepigraph, for falsely attributed authorship. Sometimes people change their name in such a manner that the new name becomes permanent and is used by all who know the person; this is not an alias or pseudonym, but in fact a new name. In many countries, including common law countries, a name change can be ratified by a court and become a person's new legal name. For example, in the 1960s, black civil rights campaigner Malcolm Little changed his surname to "X", to represent his unknown African ancestral name, lost when his ancestors were brought to North America as slaves, he changed his name again to Malik El-Shabazz when he converted to Islam. Some Jews adopted Hebrew family names upon immigrating to Israel, dropping surnames, in their families for generations; the politician David Ben-Gurion, for example, was born David Grün in Poland. He adopted his Hebrew name in 1910, when he published his first article in a Zionist journal in Jerusalem. Many transgender people choose to adopt a new name around the time of their social transitioning, to resemble their desired gender better than their birth name.
Businesspersons of ethnic minorities in some parts of the world are sometimes advised by an employer to use a pseudonym, common or acceptable in that area when conducting business, to overcome racial or religious bias. Criminals may use aliases, fictitious business names, dummy corporations to hide their identity, or to impersonate other persons or entities in order to commit fraud. Aliases and fictitious business names used for dummy corporations may become so complex that, in the words of the Washington Post, "getting to the truth requires a walk down a bizarre labyrinth" and multiple government agencies may become involved to uncover the truth. A pen name, or "nom de plume", is a pseudonym adopted by an author; some female authors used male pen names, in particular in the 19th century, when writing was a male-dominated profession. The Brontë family used pen names for their early work, so as not to reveal their gender and so that local residents would not know that the books related to people of the neighbourhood.
The Brontës used their neighbours as inspiration for characters in many of their books. Anne Brontë published The Tenant of Wildfell Hall under the name Acton Bell. Charlotte Brontë published Jane Eyre under the name Currer Bell. Emily Brontë published Wuthering Heights as Ellis Bell. A well-known example of the former is Mary Ann Evans. Another example is Amandine Aurore Lucile Dupin, a 19th-century French writer who used the pen name George Sand. In contrast, some twentieth and twenty first century male romance novelists have used female pen names. A few examples of male authors using female pseudonyms include Brindle Chase, Peter O'Donnell and Christopher Wood. A pen name may be used if a writer's real name is to be confused with the name of another writer or notable individual, or if their real name is deemed to be unsuitable. Authors who write both fiction and non-fiction, or in different genres, may use
Death is the permanent cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism. Phenomena which bring about death include aging, malnutrition, suicide, starvation and accidents or major trauma resulting in terminal injury. In most cases, bodies of living organisms begin to decompose shortly after death. Death – the death of humans – has been considered a sad or unpleasant occasion, due to the affection for the being that has died and the termination of social and familial bonds with the deceased. Other concerns include fear of death, anxiety, grief, emotional pain, sympathy, solitude, or saudade. Many cultures and religions have the idea of an afterlife, hold the idea of reward or judgement and punishment for past sin; the word death comes from Old English dēaþ. This comes from the Proto-Indo-European stem *dheu- meaning the "process, condition of dying"; the concept and symptoms of death, varying degrees of delicacy used in discussion in public forums, have generated numerous scientific and acceptable terms or euphemisms for death.
When a person has died, it is said they have passed away, passed on, expired, or are gone, among numerous other accepted, religiously specific and irreverent terms. Bereft of life, the dead person is a corpse, cadaver, a body, a set of remains, when all flesh has rotted away, a skeleton; the terms carrion and carcass can be used, though these more connote the remains of non-human animals. As a polite reference to a dead person, it has become common practice to use the participle form of "decease", as in the deceased; the ashes left after a cremation are sometimes referred to by the neologism cremains, a portmanteau of "cremation" and "remains". Senescence refers to a scenario when a living being is able to survive all calamities, but dies due to causes relating to old age. Animal and plant cells reproduce and function during the whole period of natural existence, but the aging process derives from deterioration of cellular activity and ruination of regular functioning. Aptitude of cells for gradual deterioration and mortality means that cells are sentenced to stable and long-term loss of living capacities despite continuing metabolic reactions and viability.
In the United Kingdom, for example, nine out of ten of all the deaths that occur on a daily basis relates to senescence, while around the world it accounts for two-thirds of 150,000 deaths that take place daily. All animals who survive external hazards to their biological functioning die from biological aging, known in life sciences as "senescence"; some organisms experience negligible senescence exhibiting biological immortality. These include the jellyfish Turritopsis dohrnii, the hydra, the planarian. Unnatural causes of death include homicide. From all causes 150,000 people die around the world each day. Of these, two thirds die directly or indirectly due to senescence, but in industrialized countries – such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany – the rate approaches 90%. Physiological death is now seen as a process, more than an event: conditions once considered indicative of death are now reversible. Where in the process a dividing line is drawn between life and death depends on factors beyond the presence or absence of vital signs.
In general, clinical death is neither sufficient for a determination of legal death. A patient with working heart and lungs determined to be brain dead can be pronounced dead without clinical death occurring; as scientific knowledge and medicine advance, formulating a precise medical definition of death becomes more difficult. Signs of death or strong indications that a warm-blooded animal is no longer alive are: Respiratory arrest Cardiac arrest Brain death Pallor mortis, paleness which happens in the 15–120 minutes after death Algor mortis, the reduction in body temperature following death; this is a steady decline until matching ambient temperature Rigor mortis, the limbs of the corpse become stiff and difficult to move or manipulate Livor mortis, a settling of the blood in the lower portion of the body Decomposition, the reduction into simpler forms of matter, accompanied by a strong, unpleasant odor. The concept of death is a key to human understanding of the phenomenon. There are many scientific approaches to the concept.
For example, brain death, as practiced in medical science, defines death as a point in time at which brain activity ceases. One of the challenges in defining death is in distinguishing it from life; as a point in time, death would seem to refer to the moment. Determining when death has occurred is difficult, as cessation of life functions is not simultaneous across organ systems; such determination therefore requires drawing precise conceptual boundaries between death. This is due to there being little consensus on how to define life; this general problem applies to the particular challenge of defining death in the context of medicine. It is possible to define life in terms of consciousness; when consciousness ceases, a living organism can be said to have died. One of the flaws in this approach is that there are many organisms which are alive but not conscious. Another problem is in defining consciousness, which has many different d
England and Wales
England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four nations of the United Kingdom. "England and Wales" forms the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England and follows a single legal system, known as English law. The devolved National Assembly for Wales was created in 1999 by the Parliament of the United Kingdom under the Government of Wales Act 1998 and provides a degree of self-government in Wales; the powers of the Assembly were expanded by the Government of Wales Act 2006, which allows it to pass its own laws, the Act formally separated the Welsh Government from the Assembly. There is no equivalent body for England, directly governed by the Parliament and the government of the United Kingdom. During the Roman occupation of Britain, the area of present-day England and Wales was administered as a single unit, with the exception of the land to the north of Hadrian's Wall – though the Roman-occupied area varied in extent, for a time extended to the Antonine/Severan Wall.
At that time, most of the native inhabitants of Roman Britain spoke Brythonic languages, were all regarded as Britons, divided into numerous tribes. After the conquest, the Romans administered this region as the province of Britain. Long after the departure of the Romans, the Britons in what became Wales developed their own system of law, first codified by Hywel Dda when he was king of most of present-day Wales. However, after the Norman invasion of Wales in the 11th century, English law came to apply in the parts of Wales conquered by the Normans. In 1283, the English, led by Edward I, with the biggest army brought together in England since the 11th century, conquered the remainder of Wales organised as the Principality of Wales; this was united with the English crown by the Statute of Rhuddlan of 1284. This aimed to replace Welsh criminal law with English law. Welsh law continued to be used for civil cases until the annexation of Wales to England in the 16th century; the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 consolidated the administration of all the Welsh territories and incorporated them into the legal system of the Kingdom of England.
Prior to 1746 it was not clear whether a reference to "England" in legislation included Wales, so in 1746 Parliament passed the Wales and Berwick Act. This specified that in all prior and future laws, references to "England" would by default include Wales; the Wales and Berwick Act was repealed in 1967, although the statutory definition of "England" created by that Act still applies for laws passed before 1967. In new legislation since 1967, what was referred to as "England" is now "England and Wales", while references to "England" and "Wales" refer to those political divisions. England and Wales are treated as a single unit for some purposes, because the two form the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England; the continuance of Scots law was guaranteed under the 1706 Treaty of Union that led to the Acts of Union 1707, as a consequence English law—and after 1801, Irish law—continued to be separate. Following the two Acts of Union, Parliament can restrict the effect of its laws to part of the realm, the effect of laws, where restricted, was applied to one or more of the former kingdoms.
Thus, most laws applicable to England applied to Wales. However, Parliament now passes laws applicable to Wales and not to England, a practice, rare before the middle of the 20th century. Examples are the Welsh Language Acts 1967 and 1993 and the Government of Wales Act 1998. Measures and Acts of the National Assembly for Wales passed since the Government of Wales Act 2006 apply in Wales but not in England. Following the Government of Wales Act, effective since May 2007, the National Assembly for Wales can legislate on matters devolved to it. Following a referendum on 3 March 2011, the Welsh Assembly gained direct law-making powers, without the need to consult Westminster; this was the first time in 500 years that Wales had its own powers to legislate. Each piece of Welsh legislation is known as an Act of the Assembly. For a company to be incorporated in the United Kingdom, its application for registration with Companies House must state "whether the company's registered office is to be situated in England and Wales, in Scotland or in Northern Ireland", which will determine the law applicable to that business entity.
A registered office must be specified as "in Wales" if the company wishes to use a name ending cyfyngedig or cyf, rather than Limited or Ltd. or to avail itself of certain other privileges relating to the official use of the Welsh language. Outside the legal system, the position is mixed; some organisations combine as "England and Wales", others are separate. In sports, cricket has a combined international team administered by the England and Wales Cricket Board, who govern the sport across both nations, whilst football, rugby union, rugby league, the Commonwealth Games and other sports have separate national representative teams for each country. A few Welsh association football clubs, most notably Cardiff City F. C. and Swansea City F. C. play in the English football league system, while The New Saints F. C. which represents places on both sides of the border, plays in the Welsh football league system. Some religious denominations organise on the basis of England and Wales, most notably the Roman Catholic Church, but small denominations, e.g. the Evangelical Presbyterian Church.
Prior to the disestablishment of the Church in Wales in 1920, the Anglican churc
General Register Office
General Register Office is the name given to the civil registry in England and Wales, many other Commonwealth nations and Ireland. As such, the GRO is the government agency responsible for the recording of vital records such as births and marriages; the director of a General Register Office is titled Registrar General. General Register Office for England and Wales: The post of registrar general was created by the Births and Deaths Registration Act 1836, registration began in 1837; the first holder of the post was Thomas Henry Lister. The registrar general was soon given other responsibilities, such as the conduct of every census in England and Wales since 1841, came to be head of a statistical organisation. In 1972, with the creation of the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, the General Register Office became just one division of the new office, headed by a Deputy Registrar General. In England and Wales, birth registration with the state began on 1 July 1837; the birth was registered in the birth district and at the end of each quarter, the registrar sent a copy of all entries to the Registrar General.
However, registration did not become compulsory until 1875. Until 1875 there was no penalty for not registering a birth. Between 1837 and 1875 some births were not registered so a child could be sent out to work, or, after 1853, to avoid the compulsory vaccinations of children over three months old which began that year. With the creation of the Office for National Statistics, the post of Registrar General was merged with that of Head of the Government Statistical Service, now the National Statistician. However, following the 2008 implementation of the Statistics and Registration Service Act 2007, the General Register Office continues to be part of a ministerially-accountable department, becoming a part of the Identity & Passport Service in the Home Office and the post of Registrar-General is now held by its head. General Register Office for Scotland. Registrar General of Canada: a government minister with different and unrelated functions; each province and territory in Canada has a Registrar General responsible for collecting and storing vital statistics like births and deaths in their respective regions.
Registrar General of Sri Lanka: a civil servant who heads the Registrar General's department responsible for registration of birth and deaths of the populace Sri Lankan and legal documents pertaining to properties. The post was created in 1864; the Australian states and territories and New Zealand have similar registries for birth and marriage. These agencies are subordinate of the state attorney general department's or state department of justice; the Hong Kong Government established a registrar general after the British acquired Hong Kong in 1841. The Registrars General 249894 from the Office for National Statistics. Office of the Registrar.
Name change refers to the legal act by a person of adopting a new name different from their name at birth, marriage or adoption. The procedures and ease of a name change vary between jurisdictions. In general, common law jurisdictions have loose procedures for a name change while civil law jurisdictions are more restrictive. A pseudonym is a name that differs from the original or true name and does not require legal sanction, it is adopted to conceal a person's identity, but can be done for personal, social or ideological reasons. Marriage or civil partnership. To avoid a stalker or harassment To choose a surname associated with a hobby, interest, or accomplishment To receive an inheritance conditional on adopting the name of the deceased To replace a frivolous name given by their parents To replace a name which might be considered undesirable with a more desirable one To dissociate oneself from a former religion To dissociate themselves from a famous or infamous person To identify with a famous or infamous person To dissociate themselves from a family black sheep.
To dissociate themselves from an ethnic origin. To revert to a former name. Commercial sponsorship Protest or activism To change to a fictional character's name, To make their name more attractive or "catchy" so as to increase their chance of success To change legal name to one used in everyday life To anglicise a name or choose a different name if one’s name is too difficult to pronounce or spell for most people To better fit one's gender identity as a transgender person In the United States, state laws regulate name changes. Several federal court rulings have set precedents regarding both court decreed name changes and common law name changes, including Lindon v. First National Bank. A person can adopt any name desired for any reason; as of 2009, 46 states allow a person to change names by usage alone, with no paperwork, but a court order may be required for many institutions to accept the change. Although the states follow common law, there are differences in acceptable requirements, it is necessary to plead that the name change is not for a fraudulent or other illegal purpose, such as evading a lien or debt or for defaming someone else.
Applicants may be required to give a reasonable explanation for wanting to change their names. A fee is payable, the applicant may be required to post legal notices in newspapers to announce the name change; the judge has limited judicial discretion to grant or deny a change of name only if the name change is for fraudulent, frivolous or immoral purposes. In 2004, a Missouri man succeeded in changing his name to They; the Minnesota Supreme Court ruled that a name change to 1069 could be denied, but that Ten Sixty-Nine was acceptable. In nearly all states, a person cannot choose a name, intended to mislead, intentionally confusing, or that incites violence; some examples of allowed reasons for name changes in the U. S. include: Adopting a new surname upon marriage. This is done without court proceedings. Returning to the use of a prior surname upon divorce. Simplification or improved familiarity of spelling or pronunciation. Under the federal immigration-and-nationality law, when aliens apply for naturalization, they have the option of asking for their names to be changed upon the grants of citizenship with no additional fees.
This allows them the opportunity to adopt more Americanized names. During the naturalization interview, a petition for a name change is prepared to be forwarded to a federal court. Applicants certify that they are not seeking a change of name for any unlawful purpose such as the avoidance of debt or evasion of law enforcement; such a name change would become final if within their jurisdiction, once a federal court naturalizes an applicant. To maintain a person's identity, it is desirable to obtain a formal order so there is continuity of personal records; the "open and notorious" use of a name is sufficient to allow one to use an assumed name. In some jurisdictions, a trade name distinct from one's legal name can be registered with a county clerk, secretary of state, or other similar government authority. Perso