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Registered nurse

A registered nurse is a nurse who has graduated from a nursing program and met the requirements outlined by a country, province or similar licensing body to obtain a nursing license. An RN's scope of practice is determined by legislation, is regulated by a professional body or council. Registered nurses are employed in a wide variety of professional settings, specialize in a field of practice, they may be responsible for supervising care delivered by other healthcare workers, including student nurses, licensed practical nurses, unlicensed assistive personnel, less-experienced RNs. Registered nurses must meet a minimum practice hours requirement and undertake continuing education to maintain their license. Furthermore, there is a requirement that an RN remain free from serious criminal convictions; the registration of nurses by nursing councils or boards began in the early twentieth century. New Zealand registered the first nurse in 1901 with the establishment of the Nurses Registration Act. Nurses were required to pass a state-administered examination.

Registration ensured a degree of consistency in the education of new nurses, the title was protected by law. After 1905 in California, for example, it became a misdemeanour to claim to be an RN without a certificate of registration. Registration acts allowed authorities a degree of control over, admitted to the profession. Requirements varied by location, but included a stipulation that the applicant must be "of good moral character" and must not have mental or physical conditions that rendered them unable to practice; as nursing became more of an international profession, with RNs travelling to find work or improved working conditions and wages, some countries began implementing standardized language tests. When obtaining a nursing degree there are two major benefits that come with it, which are the personal benefits and the patient’s benefits; some personal benefits are that nursing is a respected position. They are respected due to the amount of knowledge that they hold. In order for a nurse to be successful, they must use their knowledge as a resource to keep the departments functioning.

Another advantage of becoming a nurse is. One reason for this has to do with the generation of baby boomers beginning to retire therefore, more spots will be available. Other careers have all their positions filled, but when it comes to nursing there are never enough nurses to fill all the positions, it is comfortable for a person to know that when it comes time to graduate there is a spot that will still need to be filled. Nursing provides many different possibilities of employment. With a nursing degree, there are many positions. Being able to explore other options gives someone the chance to find the most suitable job for themselves. Not only do nurses receive the perks variety, but with signing bonuses and shift preferences. Now to begin with how patients will benefit from having a fuller nursing staff; when the preferred number of nurses is not met this could put someone’s life at risk. When a patient is provided with a equipped staff there is much less room for error as there are enough nurses to properly rotate through the patient’s rooms.

As the number of nurses increases, the quality of life for the patients increases as well. Having a full staff can help give the patient confidence that they are being properly cared for, it allows them to feel safe. This is one less stressor. Nursing registration in Australia has been at a national level since 2010, since the inception of the Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia, which forms part of the Australian Health Practitioners Regulation Agency. Prior to 2010, Nursing registration in Australia was administered individually by each state and territory; the title'Registered Nurse' is granted to a nurse who has completed a board-approved course in the field of nursing, as outlined by education and registration standards defined by the NMBA. Registered Nurses are required to meet certain other standards to fulfil registration standards as outlined by the NMBA, these can include continuing professional development, recency of practice, criminal history checks and competency in the English language.

Educational requirements for an entry-level Registered Nurse are at the level of bachelor's degree in Australia, can range in two to four years in length with three years being the national average. Some universities offer a two-year'fast track' bachelor's degree, whereby a students study three years worth of coursework compressed in a two-year period; this is made possible by reducing summer and winter semester breaks and utilising three semesters per year compared to two. Some universities offer combined degrees which allow the graduate to exit the program with a Masters in Nursing, e.g.: Bachelor of Science/Master of Nursing, these are offered over a four-year period. Postgraduate nursing education is widespread in Australia and is encouraged by employing bodies such as state health services. There are many varying courses and scholarships available which provide a bachelor-level Registered Nurse the opportunity to'up-skill' and assume an extended scope of practice; such courses are offered at all levels of the post graduate spectrum and range from graduate certificate to master's degree and provide a theoretical framework for a bachelor level Registered nurse to take up an adv

Boris Dumenko

Boris Mokeevich Dumenko was one of Red Army commanders. Dumenko was born in the Don region and took an active part in the organization of the first Soviet cavalry units. A sergeant at the end of World War I, he returned to the Don and took command of a small unit of Red Cossacks, with Semyon Budyonny as his assistant. In September 1918, he became commander of the 1st Cavalry Brigade and in December 1918 of the 1st Cavalry Division within the 10th Army. In January 1919, he became commander of the 4th Cavalry Division of Petrograd. In April 1919, he was appointed assistant Chieff of Staff of the 10th Army for the Cavalry. On 25 May 1919, he was wounded by a bullet in a lung and he was evacuated to Saratov. On 14 September 1919, he became commander of the newly created Cavalry Corps. Between September and December 1919, the Cavalry Corps won a serie of battles and advanced over the Don Region towards the Caucasus. On 7 January 1920, it took the capital of the Don Army. Despite the fact that Dumenko had joined the Bolshevik Party in January 1920, the Political Department of the corps and higher political authorities accused him of encouraging anti-Bolshevik and anti-Semitic sentiments among the rank-and-file troopers, hampering the work of the military commissars, insufficiently combating the robbery and drunkenness of the Red Army soldiers.

In order to resolve the growing serious conflict between Dumenko and the political Departement, a new military commissar, VN Mikeladze, was sent to the Cavalry Corps in December 1919, but was killed in February 1920 under unclear circumstances. The identity of the murderer was not established by the investigation. Despite this, Dumenko was arrested along with six of his closest assistants on charges of killing the military commissar and preparing a mutiny; the accusations came from Dmitry Zhloba, the commander of one of the brigades, military adviser G. Peskarev, commissar Kravtsov. Dumenko and three others were shot on 11 or 13 May 1920; the background of this execution is the conflict between Stalin. Dumenko was a supporter of his successor Mikhail Tukhachevsky a nominee of Trotsky. Dumenko had been critical on the policy of Lev Trotsky of having political commissaries control the Army commanders from the rearguard and not in combat. Dumenko was rehabilitated in August 1964


The Eigerjoch is a high Alpine pass lying between the Mönch and the Eiger. The lowest point on the ridge is named Nördliches Eigerjoch while another pass located closer to the Mönch is named Südliches Eigerjoch; the Eiger does not lie in the ridge of the Bernese Alps which divides the basins of the Rhone and the Aar, but forms a promontory extending north-east from the Mönch, is connected with it by a long and high arête, in which jagged teeth of rock project through a coating of ice. At the southern end, where this arete abuts against the shoulder of the Mönch, it overlooks the gently-sloping plateau which forms the summit of the Mönchsjoch, the descent on the side of the Aletsch Glacier presents no serious difficulty; the first crossing was made by Leslie Stephen and W. and G. S. Mathews, with Ulrich Lauener of Lauterbrunnen and J. B. Croz and M. Charlet of Chamonix. In August 1859, the three enterprising mountaineers above named, failing to perceive any route by which the Jungfraujoch could be attacked with a fair prospect of success, resolved to attempt to pass from the Wengern Alp by the north and east sides of the peak of the Mönch.

Starting at 4 a.m. they soon reached the Eiger Glacier, ascended for some distance along the side nearest to the Eiger. On reaching the much crevassed middle region of the glacier, some time was lost in the endeavour to force a direct way; the correct course was to cross to the southern bank below the rocks of the Mönch. After a short ascent the form of the crevasses made it expedient to cross back to the opposite side, nearly to the edge of the glacier, here held up by the great rocky buttress of the Eiger, so remarkable from the Wengern Alp. Further progress seemed to be barred by the menacing condition of the seracs. By this circuitous but not difficult route the party reached the uppermost plateau of the glacier, lying below the ridge connecting the two peaks. On the side nearest the Monch the ridge was accessible only by long and steep slopes of hard snow. At the end approaching the Eiger the ridge is far easier of access, this therefore was the first object of attack. On gaining the summit the travellers found themselves at the top of a tremendous precipice overlooking one arm of the Lower Grindelwald Glacier, while the arête to the right connecting them with the Mönch was broken through by so many jagged teeth of rock, at the same time so narrow and difficult, that many hours would have been consumed in passing along it.

It was therefore thought expedient to return, to attempt the ascent by the ice-slope, as it should be called since the névé is so hard and slippery as to make stepcutting laborious. Ulrich Lauener on that occasion displayed extraordinary strength and endurance, having in 5 hours of uninterrupted work cut 580 steps on an ice slope of from 50 to 52° inclination; that effort sufficed only to enable the party to gain a patch of rock some way below the summit of the ridge, more than an hour more was expended in reaching the desired goal. Turning to the right along the arête, they reached at 6 p.m. the point on the shoulder of the Mönch which forms the summit level of this pass, the Südliches Eigerjoch. In descending to the Aletsch Glacier the discoverers of this pass were benighted before they could reach the comparative shelter of the Kaulberg cave, were forced to pass the night on some exposed rocks at the southern base of the Trugberg, where their position in case of bad weather would have been critical.

The Eggishorn was reached on the following morning about 9 a.m. in about 29 hours trom the Wengern Alp. List of mountain passes in Switzerland Swisstopo map

Arthur Crawford

Arthur Travers Crawford was the first Municipal Commissioner and collector of Bombay, India. Crawford was famous as an able administrator as well as for his underhand financial dealings. Crawford acquired the Agri-Horticulture Society's gardens at Sewri in order to build the European cemetery in 1865. Crawford Market in South Mumbai was named after him; when he took over as Commissioner, water supply was scanty, garbage was piling up and the mortality rate was a high 40 per 1,000. Crawford cleaned the streets, fixed the drains and lowered the mortality rate by half from 35,000 to 18,000 over the next two years; however his plans overshot the civic budget and he was accused of financial mismanagement after he refused to heed to warnings that the deficit was widening. While criticised by many, he was defended by lawyer Pherozeshah Mehta during the Municipal controversy circa 1870. In his career it was alleged that Crawford had accepted bribes from mamlatdars; this prompted a fierce public debate led by Gopal Krishna Gokhale.

The subsequent inquiry, chaired by Judge Arthur Wilson of the Calcutta High Court, found Crawford, not guilty of accepting bribes but only of borrowing money from official subordinates. Crawford was subsequently asked to return to London. According to Govid Talwalkar's author of Gopal Krishna Gokhale: His Life and Times, a June 1890 Westminster Review article alleged that Crawford's illegal funds were transferred to Europe through a French bank; as a decoy, he wrote two letters to his brother based in Bombay that he would commit suicide at Holkar Bridge in Poona. Dressed as a tramp, he boarded the third-class compartment of a Bombay-bound train. While in a hotel near the docks, the police arrested him. Crawford had tried to buy a ticket to Colombo. Back in London, he penned his memoirs on his life in India, titled Our Troubles in Poona and the Deccan, published in 1897, he described many communities in the Bombay region along with their sketches. He meted out special harsh criticism on Brahmins.

His fluency in Marathi however led contemporary writer N. C. Kelkar to comment that Crawford could have passed off as a Chitpawan Brahmin had he donned a dhoti. Other books published by Crawford include Reminiscence of an Indian Police Officer, The Unrest in India and Legends of Konkan. Our Troubles in Poona and the Deccan, Arthur Crawford, Archibald Constable & Co. London, UK, 1897. Arthur Crawford – TIFR Mumbai pages Arthur Crawford who?.

Sacerdos of Lyon

Saint Sacerdos of Lyon is a French saint whose Feast Day is 12 September. He was Archbishop of Lyon, France from 544 to 552. Sacerdos was the son of St. Rusticus, Archbishop of Lyon, his wife. Sacerdos was a distinguished Bishop of Lyons who He presided at the Fifth Council of Orléans in 549 He is thought to have built the Église Saint-Paul, the Church of Saint-Eulalia, which became the Église Saint-Georges, his son Saint Aurelianus was an Archbishop of Arles. His nephew Nicetius of Lyon succeeded him as Archbishop of Lyon, he died at King Childebert, whose adviser he had been, assisting at his deathbed. His remains were transported to Lyons, where he was buried in the church of the Apostles known as the Church of Saint Nicholas. Saints of September 12: Sacerdos of Lyon

Bradfordville School

The Bradfordville School is an American white, one-story wood framed vernacular structure and represents a typical one-room schoolhouse. It is located 600 feet from Thomasville Road on a section of land on the northwest part of Bannerman Road in Bradfordville, northern Leon County, behind Bannerman Crossings shopping center; the school was constructed between the years 1884 and 1892 on a small piece of land owned by the Lester family of the old Oaklawn Plantation. It qualifies for the National Register of Historic Places under criteria A; the school used to be located near the intersection of Bradfordville Road. The school served only 15 students at the most during its use from 1884 until 1930 when it was taken out of service