A Regius Professor is a university professor with royal patronage or appointment. They are a unique feature of academia in the British Isles; the first Regius Professorship was in the field of medicine, founded by the Scottish King James IV at the University of Aberdeen in 1497. Regius chairs have since been instituted in various universities, in disciplines judged to be fundamental and for which there is a continuing and significant need; each was established by an English, Scottish, or British monarch, following proper advertisement and interview through the offices of the university and the national government, the current monarch still appoints the professor. This royal imprimatur, the relative rarity of these professorships, means a Regius chair is prestigious and sought-after. Regius Professors are traditionally addressed as "Regius" and not "Professor"; the University of Glasgow has the highest number of extant Regius chairs, at thirteen. Traditionally, Regius Chairs only existed in the ancient universities of the British Isles.
In October 2012 it was announced that Queen Elizabeth II would create up to six new Regius Professorships, to be announced in early 2013, to mark her Diamond Jubilee. In January 2013 the full list was announced, comprising twelve new chairs the largest number created in one year, more than created in most centuries. In July 2015 it was announced that further Regius Professorships would be created to mark the Queen's 90th birthday. Regius Professor of Anatomy Regius Professor of Botany Regius Professor of English Literature Regius Professor of Greek Regius Professor of Humanity Regius Professor of Classics Regius Professor of Logic Regius Professor of Mathematics Regius Professor of Medicine Regius Professor of Materia Medica Regius Professor of Moral Philosophy Regius Professor of Natural History Regius Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Regius Professor of Midwifery Regius Professor of Physiology Regius Professor of Surgery Regius Professor of Pharmacy Regius Professor of Chemistry Regius Professor of Botany Regius Professor of Civil Law Regius Professor of Divinity Regius Professor of Engineering Regius Professor of Greek Regius Professor of Hebrew Regius Professor of History Regius Professor of Physic Regius Professor of Physic Regius Professor of Laws Regius Professor of Greek Regius Professor of Surgery Regius Professor of Life Sciences Regius Professor of Public Law and the Law of Nature and Nations Regius Professor of Rhetoric and English Literature Regius Professor of Astronomy Regius Professor of Clinical Surgery Regius Professor of Medical Science Regius Professor of Forensic Medicine Regius Professor of Sanskrit Regius Professor of Engineering Regius Professor of Geology Regius Professor of Political Science Regius Professor of Medicine and Therapeutics Regius Professor of Materia Medica Regius Professor of Law Regius Professor of Anatomy Regius Professor of Astronomy Regius Professor of Zoology Regius Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Regius Professor of Surgery Regius Professor of Chemistry Regius Professor of Botany Regius Professor of Forensic Medicine Regius Professor of Physiology Regius Professor of Civil Engineering and Mechanics Regius Professor of English Language and Literature Regius Professor of Ecclesiastical History Regius Professor of Precision Medicine Regius Professor of Chemistry Regius Professor of Cancer Research Regius Professor of Psychiatry Regius Professor of Economics Regius Professor of Music Regius Professor of Engineering Regius Professor of Infectious Disease Regius Professor of Physics Regius Professor of Materials Regius Professor of Ageing Regius Professor of Open Education Regius Professor of Civil Law Regius Professor of Divinity Regius Professor of Moral and Pastoral Theology Regius Professor of Ecclesiastical History Regius Professor of Hebrew Regius Professor of Medicine Regius Professor of Greek Regius Professor of Modern History Regius Professor of Mathematics Regius Professor of Electronics & Computer Engineering Regius Professor of Meteorology and Climate Science Regius Professor of Mathematics Regius Professor of Computer Science Regius Professorship in Ocean Sciences Regius Professor of Electronic Engineering Regius Professor of Mathematics Regius Professor of Manufacturing
George Gilbert Aimé Murray, was an Australian-born British classical scholar and public intellectual, with connections in many spheres. He was an outstanding scholar of the language and culture of Ancient Greece the leading authority in the first half of the twentieth century, he is the basis for the character of Adolphus Cusins in his friend George Bernard Shaw's play Major Barbara, appears as the chorus figure in Tony Harrison's play Fram. Murray was born in Australia, his father, Sir Terence Aubrey Murray, who died in 1873, had been a Member of the New South Wales Parliament. In 1877, Agnes emigrated with Gilbert to the UK, where she died in 1891. Murray was educated at St John's College, Oxford. From 1889–1899, Murray was Professor of Greek at the University of Glasgow. There was a break in his academic career from 1899 to 1905. After 1908 he was Regius Professor of Greek at the University of Oxford. From 1925–1926 Murray was the Charles Elliot Norton Lecturer at Harvard University. Murray is now best known for his verse translations of Greek drama, which were popular and prominent in their time.
As a poet he was taken to be a follower of Swinburne and had little sympathy from the modernist poets of the rising generation. The staging of Athenian drama in English did have its own cultural impact, he had earlier experimented without much success. Over time he worked through the entire canon of Athenian dramas. From Euripides, the Hippolytus and The Bacchae. In the United States Granville Barker and his wife Lillah McCarthy gave outdoor performances of The Trojan Women and Iphigenia in Tauris at various colleges; the translation of Œdipus Rex was a commission from W. B. Yeats; until 1912 this could not have been staged for a British audience. Murray was drawn into the public debate on censorship that came to a head in 1907 and was pushed by William Archer, whom he knew well from Glasgow, George Bernard Shaw, others such as John Galsworthy, J. M. Barrie and Edward Garnett. A petition was taken to Herbert Gladstone Home Secretary, early in 1908, he was one of the scholars associated with Jane Harrison in the myth-ritual school of mythography.
They met first in 1900. He wrote an appendix on the Orphic tablets for her 1903 book Prolegomena. Francis Fergusson wrote In general the ritual had its agon, or sacred combat, between the old King, or god or hero, the new, corresponding to the agons in the tragedies, the clear "purpose" moment of the tragic rhythm, it had its Sparagmos, in which the royal victim was or symbolically torn asunder, followed by the lamentation and/or rejoicing of the chorus: elements which correspond to the moments of "passion". The ritual had its recognition scene and its epiphany. Professor Murray, in a word, studies the art of tragedy in the light of ritual forms, thus, throws a new light onto Aristotle's Poetics, he was a lifelong supporter of the Liberal Party, lining up on the Irish Home Rule and non-imperialist sides of the splits in the party of the late nineteenth century. He supported temperance, married into a prominent Liberal and temperance family, the Carlisles, he made a number of moves that might have taken him into parliamentary politics by tentative thoughts about standing in elections during the 1890s.
In 1901-2 he was in close contact with the Independent Labour Party. But the overall effect of the Second Boer War was to drive him back into the academic career he had put on hold in 1898, resigning his Glasgow chair, he stood five times unsuccessfully for the University of Oxford constituency between 1919 and 1929. He continued support for the Asquith faction of Liberals, after the party was split again by Lloyd George. During the 1930s the Liberals as a party were crushed electorally, but Liberal thinkers continued to write; as Regius Professor and literary figure, he had a platform to promote his views, which were many-sided but Whig-liberal. In 1912 he wrote an introduction to The Great Analysis: A Plea for a Rational World-Order, by his friend William Archer. During World War I he became a pamphleteer, he defended C. K. Ogden against criticism, took a public interest in conscientious objection. Murray never took a pacifist line himself, broke an old friendship with Bertrand Russell early in the war, supported British intervention in the Suez Crisis.
He was involved as an internationalist in the League of Nations. He was a Vice-President of the League of Nations Society from 1916, in 1917 wrote influential articles in the Daily News. At the invitation of Jan Smuts he acted in 1921/2 as a League delegate for South Africa, he was an influent member of the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation of the League from 1922 to 1939, being its president from 1928 to 1939. He was a major influence in the setting-up of Oxfam and of the Students' International Union. For a brief period Murray became involved with the novelist H
Raymond Wilson Chambers
Raymond Wilson Chambers was a British literary scholar and academic. Chambers was educated at University College, studying under such eminent scholars as W. P. Ker and A. E. Housman, he served in World War I, with the Red Cross in France, in Belgium with the YMCA/B. E. F. Chambers became Quain Professor of English at UCL in 1922. Chambers wrote on a wide variety of subjects relating to English literature and culture, his acclaimed 1935 biography, Thomas More, was awarded the James Tait Black Memorial Prize. Chambers was a friend of J. R. R. Tolkien and their careers parallel each other at many points: both were Catholics, scholars of Old English literature, both experienced the horrors of trench warfare in World War I, both wrote influentially on Beowulf. Thomas Shippey described Chambers as "a patron and supporter of Tolkien in his early years."John Garth writes that the title of The Book of Lost Tales "recalls R. W. Chambers’ reference'to the lost Tale of Wade,'" in a chapter of his study of the Old English poem Widsith that focuses on the old sea-legends of the ancient Germanic tribes of the north-western European coastlands.
Chambers criticized the Romans for disdaining the Germanic peoples and failing to record their songs and tales, laments the fact that, despite King Alfred’s love for the old lays, the Anglo Saxons wrote too few of them down: "‘So this world of high-spirited, chivalrous song has passed away,’ says Chambers. ‘It is our duty to gather up reverently such fragments of the old Teutonic epic as fortune has preserved in our English tongue and to learn from them all we can of that collection of stories of which these fragments are the earliest vernacular record.’" This passage suggests that Chambers' work had inspired the broad outlines of Tolkien’s original project—the piecing together of a mythology for England. Widsith: A Study in Old English Heroic Legend, Cambridge University Press, 1912. Recent Research Upon the Ancren Riwle, Sidgwick & Jackson, 1925. Ruskin on Byron, Oxford University Press, 1925. On the Continuity of English Prose from Alfred to More and His School, Early English Text Society/Oxford University Press, 1932.
Chapters on the Exeter Book, Percy Lund, Humphries & Co. Ltd. 1933 Thomas More, Cape, 1935. The Place of St. Thomas More in English Literature and History, Longman, 1937. Man's Unconquerable Mind, Cape, 1939. Chambers, R. W. and Janet Percival. The Papers of Raymond Wilson Chambers: a Handlist. London, The Library, 1978. Chambers, R. W. Widsith: A Study in Old English Heroic Legend, Cambridge University Press, 1912 Garth, John. Tolkien and the Great War: The Threshold of Middle Earth. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 2003. Shippey, Thomas. J. R. R. Tolkien, Author of the Century. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 2002. Sissons, Charles Jasper, Hilda Winifred Husbands. Raymond Wilson Chambers, 1874-1942. London, Cumberlege, 1945. Works by Raymond Wilson Chambers at Project Gutenberg Works by Raymond Wilson Chambers at Faded Page Works by or about Raymond Wilson Chambers at Internet Archive
John Randolph (bishop of London)
John Randolph was a British scholar and cleric who rose to become Bishop of London. He was born in Much Hadham, the son of Thomas Randolph, President of Corpus Christi College and educated at Westminster School and Christ Church, Oxford, he was awarded BA in 1771, MA in 1774 and BD in 1782. He was associated with Oxford University as a resident and instructor from 1779 to 1783. In 1776 he was made Professor of Poetry, in 1782 Regius Professor of Greek and in 1783 Regius Professor of Divinity. In 1799, Randolph was named the Bishop of Oxford, in 1807 was translated to the see of the Bishop of Bangor, he retained the post of Regius professor until his move to Bangor. Randolph was not liberal. In debating the expansion of free schools, he noted that educating the poor would "...puff up their tender minds or entice them into a way of life of no benefit to the publick and ensnaring to themselves." On 12 June 1809, he was made the Bishop of London, ex officio a member of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom.
In December 1811, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. He was buried in Fulham churchyard, he had married Jane, daughter of Thomas Lambard of Sevenoaks, Kent in 1785. Papers of Bishop Randolph at Lambeth Palace Library "Randolph, John". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900
Regius Professor of Hebrew (Oxford)
The Regius Professorship of Hebrew in the University of Oxford is a professorship at the University of Oxford, founded by Henry VIII in 1546. In 1630, through the influence of William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, a canonry of Christ Church was perpetually annexed to the professorship. Incomplete list: Godfrey Rolles Driver twice served as acting professor during vacancies, in 1934–1935 and 1959–1960. However, he was not eligible to hold the chair outright, as he was a layman and the chair was attached to an Anglican canonry of Christ Church, requiring the holder to be in holy orders; the university statutes were changed in 1960 to allow William McHardy, a Church of Scotland layman, to be appointed
University of Oxford
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation, it grew from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge; the two'ancient universities' are jointly called'Oxbridge'. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world; the university is made up of 38 constituent colleges, a range of academic departments, which are organised into four divisions. All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities, it does not have a main campus, its buildings and facilities are scattered throughout the city centre.
Undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organised around weekly tutorials at the colleges and halls, supported by classes, lectures and laboratory work provided by university faculties and departments. It operates the world's oldest university museum, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system nationwide. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £2.237 billion, of which £579.1 million was from research grants and contracts. The university is ranked first globally by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings as of 2019 and is ranked as among the world's top ten universities, it is ranked second in all major national league tables, behind Cambridge. Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 27 prime ministers of the United Kingdom and many heads of state and government around the world; as of 2019, 69 Nobel Prize winners, 3 Fields Medalists, 6 Turing Award winners have studied, worked, or held visiting fellowships at the University of Oxford, while its alumni have won 160 Olympic medals.
Oxford is the home of numerous scholarships, including the Rhodes Scholarship, one of the oldest international graduate scholarship programmes. The University of Oxford has no known foundation date. Teaching at Oxford existed in some form as early as 1096, but it is unclear when a university came into being, it grew from 1167 when English students returned from the University of Paris. The historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190; the head of the university had the title of chancellor from at least 1201, the masters were recognised as a universitas or corporation in 1231. The university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King Henry III. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to Cambridge forming the University of Cambridge; the students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two'nations', representing the North and the South.
In centuries, geographical origins continued to influence many students' affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. In addition, members of many religious orders, including Dominicans, Franciscans and Augustinians, settled in Oxford in the mid-13th century, gained influence and maintained houses or halls for students. At about the same time, private benefactors established colleges as self-contained scholarly communities. Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, John Balliol, father of a future King of Scots. Another founder, Walter de Merton, a Lord Chancellor of England and afterwards Bishop of Rochester, devised a series of regulations for college life. Thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. In 1333–34, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward III.
Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England in London. The new learning of the Renaissance influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the Roman Catholic Church, recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, settling at the University of Douai; the method of teaching at Oxford was transformed from the medieval scholastic method to Renaissance education, although institutions associated with the university suffered losses of land and revenues. As a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxford's reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment. In 1636 William Laud, the chancellor and Archbishop of Canterbury, codified the university's statutes. These, to a large extent, remained its gove