The Durotriges were one of the Celtic tribes living in Britain prior to the Roman invasion. The tribe lived in modern Dorset, south Wiltshire, south Somerset and Devon east of the River Axe and the discovery of an Iron Age hoard in 2009 at Shalfleet, Isle of Wight gives evidence that they lived in the western half of the island. After the Roman conquest, their main civitates, or settlement-centred administrative units, were Durnovaria and Lindinis, their territory was bordered to the west by the Dumnonii. Durotriges were more a tribal confederation than a tribe, they were one of the groups that issued coinage before the Roman conquest, part of the cultural "periphery", as Barry Cunliffe characterised them, round the "core group" of Britons in the south. These coins were rather simple and had no inscriptions, thus no names of coin-issuers can be known, let alone evidence about monarchs or rulers; the Durotriges presented a settled society, based in the farming of lands surrounded and controlled by strong hill forts that were still in use in 43 AD.
Maiden Castle is a preserved example of one of these hill forts. The area of the Durotriges is identified in part by coin finds: few Durotrigan coins are found in the "core" area, where they were unacceptable and were reminted. To their north and east were the Belgae, beyond the Avon and its tributary Wylye: "the ancient division is today reflected in the county division between Wiltshire and Somerset." Their main outlet for the trade across the Channel, strong in the first half of the 1st century BC, when the potter's wheel was introduced drying up in the decades before the advent of the Romans, was at Hengistbury Head. Numismatic evidence shows progressive debasing of the coinage, suggesting economic retrenchment accompanying the increased cultural isolation. Analysis of the body of Durotrigan ceramics suggests to Cunliffe that the production was centralised, at Poole Harbour. Burial of Durotriges was by inhumation, with a last ritual meal provided under exiguous circumstances, as in the eight burials at Maiden Castle, carried out after the Roman attack.
Not the Durotriges resisted Roman invasion in AD 43, the historian Suetonius records some fights between the tribe and the second legion Augusta commanded by Vespasian. By 70 AD, the tribe was Romanised and securely included in the Roman province of Britannia. In the tribe's area, the Romans explored some supported a local pottery industry; the Durotriges, their relationship with the Roman Empire, form the basis for an ongoing archaeological research project directed by Paul Cheetham, Ellen Hambleton and Miles Russell of Bournemouth University. The Durotriges Project has, since 2009, been reconsidering the Iron Age to Roman transition through a detailed programme of field survey, geophysical investigation and targeted excavation. To date the programme of work has concentrated upon an enclosed late Iron Age banjo enclosure containing round houses, work surfaces and storage pits, a Late Iron Age cemetery and two Roman villas. Abbotsbury Castle Castle Rings, Wiltshire List of Celtic tribes Martin Papworth, The Search for the Durotriges: Dorset and the West Country in the Late Iron Age.
The History Press. ISBN 0752457373 Paul Cheetham Ellen Hambleton, Miles Russell and Martin Smith, Digging the Durotriges: Life and Death in Late Iron Age Dorset. Current Archaeology 281, 36-41. Durotriges Big Dig Durotriges at Roman-Britain.org Durotriges at Romans in Britain Durotriges Project
The Cornovii were a Celtic people of Iron Age and Roman Britain, who lived principally in the modern English counties of Cheshire, north Staffordshire, north Herefordshire and eastern parts of the Welsh counties of Flintshire and Wrexham. Their capital in pre-Roman times was a hillfort on the Wrekin. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography names two of their towns: Deva Victrix and Viroconium Cornoviorum, which became their capital under Roman rule, their territory was bordered by the Brigantes to the North, the Corieltauvi to the East, the Dobunni to the South, the Deceangli, Ordovices to the West. The people who inhabited the north of the British mainland, Cornwall were known by the same name, but according to mainstream or academic opinion were quite separate and unrelated peoples.. The first mention of the tribe occurs in the works of Ptolemy in the 2nd century A. D.: "From these¹ toward the east are the Cornavi, among whom are the towns: Deva,² Legio XX Victrix 17*30 56°45, Viroconium³ 16*45 55°45."
The name may mean "People of the Horn". Graham Webster in The Cornovii cites Anne Ross's hypothesis that the tribal name may be totemic cult-names referring to a "horned god" cult followed by the tribe and although there is no direct evidence of this, Webster points out that it is interesting that at Abbot's Bromley the "horn dance" which he believes survived from pagan ritual —Abbot's Bromley being only 55 km north east of the old tribal centre at Wroxeter. In addition, Webster quotes Professor Charles Thomas as having made a "good case" for such totemic ethnonyms in Scotland. Webster states. However, recent research at Poulton, has found large amounts of coarse pottery, or briquetage; such pottery is associated with the production and transport of salt. Their sites are identified by construction details of their metalwork artefacts; the Cornovii built numerous hill forts, including Titterstone Clee near Bitterley. Old Oswestry hill fort is thought to have been inhabited by the Cornovii. One of these hill forts is that referred to by the historian Tacitus as the last refuge of the resistance led by Caratacus in 50 AD.
The tombstone of a thirty-year-old woman of the Cornovii called Vedica was found at Ilkley in Yorkshire outside known Cornovii territory. DIS MANIBVS VEDIC RICONIS FILIA ANNORVM XXX C CORNOVIA H S E "To the spirits of the departed and to Vedica,¹ thirty years old, daughter of Virico² of the Cornovii. Vedica may have been the daughter of a chieftain "Viroco" of the Cornovii, killed during the western expansion of early 47 AD commanded by Publius Ostorius Scapula. Prior to the Roman invasion of Cornovian territory in 47 AD the most significant Cornovian hillforts known were those at Titterstone Clee near Bitterley, being the only one excavated to date, Chesterton Walls near Romsley and Bury Walls near Weston-under-Redcastle. Other hillforts of Iron Age Cornovii include the Wrekin hillfort near Wellington, Caynham Camp near Poughnhill and Old Oswestry. All of these camps are in the county of Shropshire but there was another significant settlement at the Breiddin hillfort in Powys; some suggest that a lack of metal and fine pottery finds may be indicative that the Cornovii were not a wealthy or sophisticated British tribe and that they depended on a pastoral economy though some cultivation of cereal crops appears to have occurred in the river valley areas.
However, archaeological evidence from the lowland site at Poulton has shown extensive evidence of metal working and ceramics. In particular, a fine example of the ritual deposition of an iron adze in the ditch of a round house, suggests a significant disposable wealth; these aforesaid lowland areas seem to have been populated by rural peasants who were obliged to pay tribute in cattle and grain to the local chieftains resident in the hillforts. The tribal civitas capital was the fourth largest town in Roman Britain, it started life as a legionary fortress in the mid-1st century garrisoned by the XIV Legion the XX Legion. The main section of Watling Street runs from Dubrium to Viroconium; the place-name itself is suggestive of the Wrekin hillfort. The Cornovii seem to have had many hillforts, the largest and most populous being that at the Wrekin near the site of the Romano-British tribal capital; the eventual size of Viroconium is inconsistent with the estimated population size, taken from the number of known pre-Roman settlements in the area.
The majority of the population lived in timber hut-dwellings without stone foundations, making it more difficult to find archaeological trace. There are, impressive standing Roman ruins from Viroconium just outside the modern day village of Wroxeter. By the time the city had become established as a civitas capital, Viroconium had seen great expansion, with all the usual trappings of a classical Roman settlement including the forum basilica, shops and, of course, the baths. Both the massive structural remains of the baths and exercise yard found during archaeological excavations and subsequent research indicate that Viroconium's most prosperous era was between the 2nd and 3rd centuries, demonstrate the success of this regional economic centre. Nevertheles
The Brigantes were a Celtic people who in pre-Roman times controlled the largest section of what would become Northern England. Their territory referred to as Brigantia, was centred in what was known as Yorkshire; the Greek geographer Ptolemy named the Brigantes as a people in Ireland where they could be found around what is now Wexford and Waterford, while another people named Brigantii is mentioned by Strabo as a sub-tribe of the Vindelici in the region of the Alps. Within Britain, the territory which the Brigantes inhabited was bordered by that of four other peoples: the Carvetii in the northwest, the Parisii to the east and, to the south, the Corieltauvi and the Cornovii. To the north was the territory of the Votadini, which straddled the present day border between England and Scotland; the name Brigantes shares the same Proto-Celtic root as the goddess Brigantia, *brigant- meaning "high, elevated", it is unclear whether settlements called Brigantium were so named as "high ones" in a metaphorical sense of nobility, or as "highlanders", referring to the Pennines, or inhabitants of physically elevated fortifications..
The word ist related to Iranian Alborz. In modern Welsh the word braint means'privilege, prestige' and comes from the same root *brigantī. Other related forms from the modern Celtic languages are: Welsh brenin'king'; the name Bridget from Old Irish Brigit comes from Brigantī, as does the English river name Brent and the connected area Brentford. There are several ancient settlements named Brigantium around Europe, such as Berganza in Álava and Bergondo in Galicia, Bragança in Portugal and Briançon, Brigetio on the border of Slovakia and Hungary, Brigobanne situated on the Breg river and near the Brigach river in south Germany and Bregenz in the Alps. From the same origin stems the name of the Italian sub-region of Brianza. In chronostratigraphy, the British sub-stage of the Carboniferous period, the'Brigantian' derives its name from the Brigantes. There are no written records of the Brigantes before the Roman conquest of Britain. Most key archaeological sites in the region seem to show continued, undisturbed occupation from an early date, so their rise to power may have been gradual rather than a sudden, dramatic conquest, or it may be linked to the burning of the large hill fort at Castle Hill, Huddersfield, c. 430 BC.
Territorially the largest tribe in Britain, the Brigantes encompassed sub-tribes or septs such as the Gabrantovices on the Yorkshire Coast, the Textoverdi in the upper valley of the River South Tyne near Hadrian's Wall. The names Portus Setantiorum and Coria Lopocarum suggest other groups, the Setantii and the Lopocares located on the Lancashire coast and the River Tyne respectively. A name Corionototae is recorded but since the name seems to derive from *Corion Toutas meaning "tribal army" or "people's army" it may have been a name for a military force or resistance against the Romans rather than any tribe or sub-tribe; the Carvetii who occupied what is now Cumbria may have been another sub-tribe, or they may have been separate from the Brigantes. This is disputed as the Carvetii made up a separate civitas under Roman rule. During the Roman invasion, in 47 AD, the governor of Britain, Publius Ostorius Scapula, was forced to abandon his campaign against the Deceangli of North Wales because of "disaffection" among the Brigantes, whose leaders had been allies of Rome.
A few of those who had taken up arms were killed and the rest were pardoned. In 51, the defeated resistance leader Caratacus sought sanctuary with the Brigantian queen, but she showed her loyalty to the Romans by handing him over in chains, she and her husband Venutius are described as loyal and "defended by Roman arms", but they divorced, Venutius taking up arms first against his ex-wife her Roman protectors. During the governorship of Aulus Didius Gallus he invaded her kingdom; the Romans sent troops to defend Cartimandua, they defeated Venutius' rebellion. After the divorce, Cartimandua married Venutius' armour-bearer and raised him to the kingship. Venutius staged another rebellion in 69, taking advantage of Roman instability in the Year of four emperors; this time the Romans were only able to send auxiliaries, who succeeded in evacuating Cartimandua but left Venutius and his anti-Roman supporters in control of the kingdom. The extensive Iron Age fortifications at Stanwick in North Yorkshire were excavated in the 1950s by Mortimer Wheeler who concluded that Venutius had this site as his capital, but Durham University's excavations from 1981 to 1986 led Colin Haselgrove and Percival Turnbull to suggest a earlier dating with Stanwick a centre of power for Cartimandua instead.
After the accession of Vespasian, Quintus Petillius Cerialis was appointed governor of Britain and the conquest of the Brigantes was begun. It seems to have taken many decades to complete. Gnaeus Julius Agricola appears to have engaged in warfare in Brigantian territory; the Roman poet Juvenal, writing in the early 2nd century, depicts a Roman father urging his son to win glory by destroying the forts of the Brigantes. There appears to have been a rebellion in the north sometime in the early reign of Hadr
Chichester is a cathedral city in West Sussex, in South-East England. It is its county town, it was important in Anglo-Saxon times. It is the seat of the Church of England Diocese of Chichester, with a 12th-century cathedral; the city is a hub of several main road routes, has a railway station, hospital and museums. The River Lavant runs through, beneath, the city; the area around Chichester is believed to have played significant part during the Roman Invasion of A. D. 43, as confirmed by evidence of military storage structures in the area of the nearby Fishbourne Roman Palace. The city centre stands on the foundations of the Romano-British city of Noviomagus Reginorum, capital of the Civitas Reginorum; the Roman road of Stane Street, connecting the city with London, started at the east gate, while the Chichester to Silchester road started from the north gate. The plan of the city is inherited from the Romans: the North, South and West shopping streets radiate from the central market cross dating from medieval times.
The original Roman city wall was over 6½ feet thick with a steep ditch. It survived for over one and a half thousand years but was replaced by a thinner Georgian wall; the city was home to some Roman baths, found down Tower Street when preparation for a new car park was under way. A museum, The Novium, preserving the baths was opened on 8 July 2012. An amphitheatre was built outside the city walls, close to the East Gate, in around 80 AD; the area is now a park, but the site of the amphitheatre is discernible as a gentle bank oval in shape. In January 2017, archaeologists using underground radar reported the discovery of the untouched ground floor of a Roman townhouse and outbuilding; the exceptional preservation is due to the fact the site, Priory Park, belonged to a monastery and has never been built upon since Roman times. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle it was captured towards the close of the fifth century, by Ælle, renamed after his son, Cissa, it was the chief city of the Kingdom of Sussex.
The cathedral for the South Saxons was founded in 681 at Selsey. Chichester was one of the burhs established by Alfred the Great in 878-9, making use of the remaining Roman walls. According to the Burghal Hidage, a list written in the early 10th century, it was one of the biggest of Alfred's burhs, supported by 1500 hides, units of land required to supply one soldier each for the garrison in time of emergency; the system was supported by a communication network based on hilltop beacons to provide early warning. It has been suggested; when the Domesday Book was compiled, Cicestre consisted of 300 dwellings which held a population of 1,500 people. There was a mill named Kings Mill that would have been rented to local villeins. After the Battle of Hastings the township of Chichester was handed to Roger de Mongomerie, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, for courageous efforts in the battle, but it was forfeited in 1104 by the 3rd Earl. Shortly after 1066 Chichester Castle was built by Roger de Mongomerie to consolidate Norman power.
In around 1143 the title Earl of Arundel became the dominant local landowner. In 1216, Chichester Castle, along with Reigate Castle, was captured by the French, but regained the following year, when the castle was ordered to be destroyed by the king. Between 1250 and 1262, the Rape of Chichester was created from the western half of Arundel rape, with the castle as its administrative centre. At Christmas 1642 during the First English Civil War the city was besieged and St Pancras church destroyed by gunfire. A military presence was established in the city in 1795 with the construction of a depot on land where the Hawkhurst Gang had been hanged, it was named the Roussillon Barracks in 1958. The military presence had ceased by 2014 and the site was being developed for housing. Chichester was a city and liberty, thereby self-governing. Although it has retained its city status, in 1888 it became a municipal borough, transferring some powers to West Sussex administrative county. In 1974 the municipal borough became part of the much larger Chichester District.
There is a city council but it only has the powers of a parish council. The City Council consists of twenty elected members serving four wards of the city – North, South and West. Chichester Council House on North Street dates from 1731. In addition to its own council offices, those of the Chichester District and the West Sussex County Council are located in the City; the current MP for the Chichester Constituency is Gillian Keegan. Chichester has an unusual franchise in its history. Chichester's residents had enjoyed political enfranchisement for 300 years before the 19th century Reform Bills expanded the right to vote for members of Parliament to include most ordinary citizens. However, when the mayor restricted the vote to Freemen in the election of 1660 for the Convention Parliament that organised the restoration of the monarchy, the House of Commons noted that "for One-and-twenty Parliaments, the Commonalty, as well as the Citizens, had had Voice in the electing of Members to serve in Parliament.
The Corieltauvi were a tribe of people living in Britain prior to the Roman conquest, thereafter a civitas of Roman Britain. Their territory was in, they were bordered by the Brigantes to the north, the Cornovii to the west, the Dobunni and Catuvellauni to the south, the Iceni to the east. Their capital was called Ratae Corieltauvorum, known today as Leicester; the Corieltauvi were a agricultural people who had few defended sites or signs of centralised government. They appear to have been a federation of self-governing tribal groups. From the beginning of the 1st century, they began to produce inscribed coins: all featured two names, one series had three, suggesting they had multiple rulers; the names on the earliest coins are so abbreviated. Coins feature the name of Volisios the paramount king of the region, together with names of three presumed sub-kings, Dumnocoveros and Cartivelios, in three series minted ca. 45 AD. The Corieltauvi had an important mint, a tribal centre, at Sleaford; the discovery in 2000 of the Hallaton Treasure more than doubled the total number of Corieltauvian coins recorded.
In 2014 26 gold and silver ancient Corieltauvi coins were found in Reynard's Kitchen Cave in the UK. They seem to have offered little or no resistance to Roman rule: Ratae was captured c. AD 44, it may have had a Roman garrison; the Fosse Way, a Roman road, passed through their territory. Their name appears as Coritavi in Ptolemy's 2nd century Geography. However, the Ravenna Cosmography gives the name of their capital, in corrupt form, as Rate Corion Eltavori, an inscribed tile found in Churchover calls the administrative district Civitas Corieltauvorum, indicating that the true form should be Corieltauvi. Manley Pope, author of an early English translation of the Welsh chronicle Brut y Brenhinedd, associated the Coritani of the Roman writers with the magical race called the Coraniaid in the medieval Welsh tale Lludd and Llevelys; the name has been adopted by the athletics club, Leicester Coritanian A. C
The Belgae were a large Gallic-Germanic confederation of tribes living in northern Gaul, between the English Channel, the west bank of the Rhine, northern bank of the river Seine, from at least the third century BC. They were discussed in depth by Julius Caesar in his account of his wars in Gaul; some peoples in Britain were called Belgae and O'Rahilly equated them with the Fir Bolg in Ireland. The Belgae gave their name to the Roman province of Gallia Belgica and, much to the modern country of Belgium; the consensus among linguists is that the ethnic name Belgae comes from the Proto-Celtic root *belg- or *bolg- meaning "to swell", cognate with the Dutch adjective gebelgd, "to be angry" and verbolgen, "being angry", the Old English verb belgan, "to be angry", derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *bhelgh-. Thus, a Proto-Celtic ethnic name *Bolgoi could be interpreted as "The People who Swell". Julius Caesar describes Gaul at the time of his conquests as divided into three parts, inhabited by the Aquitani in the southwest, the Gauls of the biggest central part, who in their own language were called Celtae, the Belgae in the north.
Each of these three parts was different in terms of customs and language. He noted that the Belgae, were "the bravest, because they are furthest from the civilization and refinement of Province, merchants least resort to them, import those things which tend to effeminate the mind. Ancient sources such as Caesar are not always clear about the things used to define ethnicity today. While Caesar or his sources described the Belgae as distinctly different from the Gauls, Strabo stated that the differences between the Celts and Belgae, in countenance, language and way of life was a small one, unlike the difference between the Aquitanians and Celts; the fact that the Belgae were living in Gaul means. This may be Caesar's meaning when he says "The Belgae have the same method of attacking a fortress as the rest of the Gauls". Caesar in Bello Gallico, II.4 wrote: "When Caesar inquired of them what states were in arms, how powerful they were, what they could do, in war, he received the following information: that the greater part of the Belgae were sprung, from the Germans, that having crossed the Rhine at an early period, they had settled there, on account of the fertility of the country, had driven out the Gauls who inhabited those regions.
So Caesar's used the word "Germani" in two ways. He described a grouping of tribes within the Belgic alliance as the "Germani", distinguishing them from their neighbours; the most important in his battles were the Eburones. The other way he uses the term is to refer to those related tribes east of the Rhine, who were not Celtic. So the Germani among the Belgae are called, based on Caesar's account, the Germani cisrhenani, to distinguish them from other Germani living east of the Rhine in what he understood to be their homeland. However, the historian Tacitus was informed that the name Germania was known to have changed in meaning: "The first people to cross the Rhine and oust the Gauls, those now called Tungri, were called Germani, it was the name of this nation, not a race, that came into general use. And so, to begin with, they were all called Germani after the conquerors because of the terror these inspired, once the name had been devised, they adopted it themselves."In other words, Tacitus understood that the collective name Germani had first been used in Gaul, for a specific people there with connections beyond the Rhine, the Tungri being the name of the people living where the Eburones had lived in imperial times, was adopted as a collective name for the non-Celtic peoples beyond the Rhine, the other, better-known way that Caesar used the term.
Caesar's book The Gallic Wars begins: "All Gaul is divided into three parts, one of which the Belgae inhabit, the Aquitani another, those who in their own language are called Celts, in ours Gauls, the third. All these differ from each other in language and laws." However, many modern scholars believe. On the other hand, at least part of the Belgae may have had significant genetic and historical connections to peoples east of the Rhine, including Germanic peoples, judging from archaeological and textual evidence, it has been argued based on placename studies that the older language of the area, though Indo-European, was not Celtic and that Celtic, though influential amongst the elite, might never have been the main language of the part of the Belgic area north of the Ardennes. For example, Maurits Gysseling, suggest that prior to Celtic and Germanic influences the Belgae may have comprised a distinct Indo-European branch, termed Belgian. However, most of the Belgic tribal and personal names recorded are identifiably Gaulish, including those of the Germani cisrhenani, this is indeed true of the tribes over the Rhine at this time, such as the Tencteri and Usipetes.
Surviving inscriptions indicate that Gaulish wa
Publius Cornelius Tacitus was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire. The surviving portions of his two major works—the Annals and the Histories—examine the reigns of the emperors Tiberius, Claudius and those who reigned in the Year of the Four Emperors; these two works span the history of the Roman Empire from the death of Augustus, in 14 AD, to the years of the First Jewish–Roman War, in 70 AD. There are substantial lacunae in the surviving texts, including a gap in the Annals, four books long. Tacitus' other writings discuss oratory and the life of his father-in-law, the general responsible for much of the Roman conquest of Britain focusing on his campaign in Britannia. Tacitus is considered to be one of the greatest Roman historians, he lived in what has been called the Silver Age of Latin literature, is known for the brevity and compactness of his Latin prose, as well as for his penetrating insights into the psychology of power politics. Details about his personal life are scarce.
What little is known comes from scattered hints throughout his work, the letters of his friend and admirer Pliny the Younger, an inscription found at Mylasa in Caria. Tacitus was born in 57 to an equestrian family. One scholar's suggestion of Sextus has gained no approval. Most of the older aristocratic families failed to survive the proscriptions which took place at the end of the Republic, Tacitus makes it clear that he owed his rank to the Flavian emperors; the claim that he was descended from a freedman is derived from a speech in his writings which asserts that many senators and knights were descended from freedmen, but this is disputed. His father may have been the Cornelius Tacitus who served as procurator of Germania. There is no mention of Tacitus suffering such a condition, but it is possible that this refers to a brother—if Cornelius was indeed his father; the friendship between the younger Pliny and Tacitus leads some scholars to conclude that they were both the offspring of wealthy provincial families.
The province of his birth remains unknown, though various conjectures suggest Gallia Belgica, Gallia Narbonensis or Northern Italy. His marriage to the daughter of Narbonensian senator Gnaeus Julius Agricola implies that he came from Gallia Narbonensis. Tacitus' dedication to Lucius Fabius Justus in the Dialogus may indicate a connection with Spain, his friendship with Pliny suggests origins in northern Italy. No evidence exists, that Pliny's friends from northern Italy knew Tacitus, nor do Pliny's letters hint that the two men had a common background. Pliny Book 9, Letter 23 reports that, when he was asked if he was Italian or provincial, he gave an unclear answer, so was asked if he was Tacitus or Pliny. Since Pliny was from Italy, some infer that Tacitus was from the provinces Gallia Narbonensis, his ancestry, his skill in oratory, his sympathetic depiction of barbarians who resisted Roman rule have led some to suggest that he was a Celt. This belief stems from the fact that the Celts who had occupied Gaul prior to the Roman invasion were famous for their skill in oratory, had been subjugated by Rome.
As a young man, Tacitus studied rhetoric in Rome to prepare for a career in law and politics. In 77 or 78, he married daughter of the famous general Agricola. Little is known of their domestic life, save that Tacitus loved the outdoors, he started his career under Vespasian, but entered political life as a quaestor in 81 or 82 under Titus. He advanced through the cursus honorum, becoming praetor in 88 and a quindecimvir, a member of the priestly college in charge of the Sibylline Books and the Secular games, he gained acclaim as an orator. He served in the provinces from c. 89 to c. 93, either in command of a legion or in a civilian post. He and his property survived Domitian's reign of terror, but the experience left him jaded and ashamed at his own complicity, giving him the hatred of tyranny evident in his works; the Agricola, chs. 44–45, is illustrative: Agricola was spared those years during which Domitian, leaving now no interval or breathing space of time, but, as it were, with one continuous blow, drained the life-blood of the Commonwealth...
It was not long before our hands dragged Helvidius to prison, before we gazed on the dying looks of Mauricus and Rusticus, before we were steeped in Senecio's innocent blood. Nero turned his eyes away, did not gaze upon the atrocities which he ordered. From his seat in the Senate, he became suffect consul in 97 during the reign of Nerva, being the first of his family to do so. During his tenure, he reached the height of his fame as an orator when he delivered the funeral oration for the famous veteran soldier Lucius Verginius Rufus. In the following year, he wrote and published the Agricola and Germania, foreshadowing the literary endeav