Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership of the means of production and workers' self-management, as well as the political theories and movements associated with them. Social ownership can be citizen ownership of equity. There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them, with social ownership being the common element shared by its various forms. Socialist systems are divided into market forms. Non-market socialism involves the substitution of factor markets and money with engineering and technical criteria based on calculation performed in-kind, thereby producing an economic mechanism that functions according to different economic laws from those of capitalism. Non-market socialism aims to circumvent the inefficiencies and crises traditionally associated with capital accumulation and the profit system. By contrast, market socialism retains the use of monetary prices, factor markets and in some cases the profit motive, with respect to the operation of owned enterprises and the allocation of capital goods between them.
Profits generated by these firms would be controlled directly by the workforce of each firm, or accrue to society at large in the form of a social dividend. The socialist calculation debate concerns the feasibility and methods of resource allocation for a socialist system. Socialist politics has been both nationalist in orientation. Originating within the socialist movement, social democracy has embraced a mixed economy with a market that includes substantial state intervention in the form of income redistribution, a welfare state. Economic democracy proposes a sort of market socialism where there is more decentralized control of companies, currencies and natural resources; the socialist political movement includes a set of political philosophies that originated in the revolutionary movements of the mid-to-late 18th century and out of concern for the social problems that were associated with capitalism. By the late 19th century, after the work of Karl Marx and his collaborator Friedrich Engels, socialism had come to signify opposition to capitalism and advocacy for a post-capitalist system based on some form of social ownership of the means of production.
By the 1920s, social democracy and communism had become the two dominant political tendencies within the international socialist movement. By this time, socialism emerged as "the most influential secular movement of the twentieth century, worldwide, it is a political ideology, a wide and divided political movement" and while the emergence of the Soviet Union as the world's first nominally socialist state led to socialism's widespread association with the Soviet economic model, some economists and intellectuals argued that in practice the model functioned as a form of state capitalism or a non-planned administrative or command economy. Socialist parties and ideas remain a political force with varying degrees of power and influence on all continents, heading national governments in many countries around the world. Today, some socialists have adopted the causes of other social movements, such as environmentalism and progressivism. In 21st century America, the term socialism, without clear definition, has become a pejorative used by conservatives to taint liberal and progressive policies and public figures.
For Andrew Vincent, "he word ‘socialism’ finds its root in the Latin sociare, which means to combine or to share. The related, more technical term in Roman and medieval law was societas; this latter word could mean companionship and fellowship as well as the more legalistic idea of a consensual contract between freemen". The term "socialism" was created by Henri de Saint-Simon, one of the founders of what would be labelled "utopian socialism". Simon coined the term as a contrast to the liberal doctrine of "individualism", which stressed that people act or should act as if they are in isolation from one another; the original "utopian" socialists condemned liberal individualism for failing to address social concerns during the industrial revolution, including poverty, social oppression and gross inequalities in wealth, thus viewing liberal individualism as degenerating society into supporting selfish egoism that harmed community life through promoting a society based on competition. They presented socialism as an alternative to liberal individualism based on the shared ownership of resources, although their proposals for socialism differed significantly.
Saint-Simon proposed economic planning, scientific administration and the application of modern scientific advancements to the organisation of society. By contrast, Robert Owen proposed the organisation of ownership in cooperatives; the term "socialism" is attributed to Pierre Leroux and to Marie Roch Louis Reybaud in France. The modern definition and usage of "socialism" settled by the 1860s, becoming the predominant term among the group of words "co-operative", "mutualist" and "associationist", used as synonyms; the term "communism" fell out of use during this period, despite earlier distinctions between socialism and communism from the 1840s. An early distinction between socialism and communism was that the former aimed to only socialise production while the latter aimed to socialise both production and consumption. However, M
WMVP is a commercial AM radio station in Chicago, United States. It is operated by ESPN Radio, its transmitter is located in Downers Grove. The station broadcasts a sports radio format. WMVP airs both local programs and nationally syndicated sports shows. Weekdays begin with Golic and Wingo, a national program from ESPN, while Waddle and Silvy and Jurko, Kap and Company are more focused on Chicago sports. WMVP is the flagship station of the Chicago Wolves, the AHL affiliate of the St. Louis Blues of the NHL; until 2016, it was the flagship station of the Chicago Bulls of the NBA. WMVP airs Northwestern Wildcats football and basketball games whenever flagship station WGN is unable to air the games due to other broadcast agreements. From 1926 to 1987, 1000 AM was the radio voice of the Chicago Federation of Labor. WMVP is a Class A radio station, broadcasting at 50,000 watts, the maximum power for commercial AM stations, it shares a clear channel frequency, with KOMO Seattle and XEOY Mexico City. WMVP uses a directional antenna to avoid interfering with those other stations.
WMVP's powerful nighttime signal allows it to be heard by listeners around the Midwestern United States and Central Canada. The station's former call sign was WCFL, for the Chicago Federation of Labor; the station billed itself as "The Voice of Labor" from its inception until its sale to the Mutual Broadcasting System in 1978. While it was a Top 40 station, WCFL featured a Sunday evening program of progressive rock music called "The Ron Britain Subterranean Circus." The word "subterranean" was in reference to WCFL featuring "underground music,", the term used to refer to then-emerging album oriented rock sound. This genre of music was exclusively carried by FM stations, making WCFL being among the few AM stations to carry album cuts as opposed to singles. On March 15, 1976, after two years of falling ratings, WCFL abruptly dropped its Top 40 format in favor of "The World's Most Beautiful Music," leaving rival WLS as Chicago's only AM Top 40 station. Station management released all disc jockeys.
The official explanation of the format change described it as "being more in keeping with the labor movement". Larry Lujack, still under contract with the station, stayed on at WCFL playing easy listening music until moving back to WLS in September 1976; the easy listening format was heard in stereo on FM beautiful music stations WLOO and WLAK. By 1978, the easy sounds were replaced by a gold-based adult contemporary format. WCFL and the Chicago Federation of Labor enjoyed the support of Mayor Richard J. Daley throughout his 1955-1976 administration, he proclaimed January 1966 "WCFL Day in Chicago" to mark the 40th anniversary of the station. In 1976, when it became evident it was time for the Federation to sell the radio station, Federation President William A. Lee turned to his long-time friend, Mayor Daley, for advice. After deciding its profit margin was too small for the Chicago Federation of Labor to maintain, WCFL was sold on April 3, 1978 to the Mutual Broadcasting System, at the time a subsidiary of the Amway Corporation.
The history of the first and longest-lived labor radio station was over. The station began to identify itself as "Mutual/CFL." A magazine-type news/talk format was adopted, with sports talk in the evening hours and the syndicated Larry King Show overnight, but ratings remained low. In 1982, WCFL flipped to a Middle of The Road format playing adult standards and pop hits of the 1950s and'60s mixed in with some softer oldies and AC cuts, a few currents. Ratings were still low, so WCFL evolved by the end of 1983 to an adult contemporary music format. In 1983, WCFL was sold by Mutual to Statewide Broadcasting. Statewide switched WCFL to adult contemporary Christian music about 10 hours a day and teaching programs the rest of the time. WCFL sold brokered programming in 30 minute blocks of time to Christian radio organizations and preachers; the format received low ratings. At that time, WCFL advertised its call letters as standing for "Winning Chicago For The Lord". In early 1985, the station moved from Marina City into a two-story brick building which had served as the original transmitter building on its Downers Grove transmitter site.
Statewide Broadcasting specialized in religious formats but merged with a secular company called Heftel Broadcasting. WCFL remained religious while its co-owned longtime rock station 97.9 FM WLUP maintained its AOR format. Heftel ended WCFL's religious format just after the stroke of midnight on April 29, 1987; the call letters of the station were changed to WLUP, its FM sister station became WLUP-FM. WLUP-FM remained an AOR station, while 1000 WLUP switched to a full service rock format focusing on personality and talk programs with a few rock cuts an hour. After 7 p.m. WLUP and WLUP-FM simulcast the AOR format till dawn. Heftel had bought a few Spanish-language stations in the late 1980s and bought a Spanish station in Chicago in 1992; as it concentrated on Spanish radio, Heftel sold its English-language stations, including WLUP-AM-FM. Evergreen Media bought WLUP-AM-FM in late 1992. From October 1992 until August 1993, WLUP was the first Chicago affiliate for The Howard Stern Show; the AM and FM stations remained the same under Evergreen.
But on September 27, 1993, WLUP-FM switched to a full-service talk/comedy format, while AM 1000 became all-sports. 97.9 became WLUP and AM 1000 changed its call sign to WMVP, for "Most Valuable Player," to reflect the station's all-sports programming. WMVP's schedule included some nationally syndicat
Ezra Weston Loomis Pound was an expatriate American poet and critic, a major figure in the early modernist poetry movement. His contribution to poetry began with his development of Imagism, a movement derived from classical Chinese and Japanese poetry, stressing clarity and economy of language, his works include Hugh Selwyn Mauberley and the unfinished 120-section epic, The Cantos. Pound worked in London during the early 20th century as foreign editor of several American literary magazines, helped discover and shape the work of contemporaries such as T. S. Eliot, James Joyce, Robert Frost and Ernest Hemingway. Angered by the carnage of World War I, Pound lost faith in Great Britain and blamed the war on usury and international capitalism, he moved to Italy in 1924 and throughout the 1930s and 1940s embraced Benito Mussolini's fascism, expressed support for Adolf Hitler, wrote for publications owned by the British fascist Sir Oswald Mosley. During World War II, he was paid by the Italian government to make hundreds of radio broadcasts criticizing the United States, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Jews, as a result of which he was arrested in 1945 by American forces in Italy on charges of treason.
He spent months in detention in a U. S. military camp in Pisa, including three weeks in a 6-by-6-foot outdoor steel cage, which he said triggered a mental breakdown: "when the raft broke and the waters went over me". The following year he was deemed unfit to stand trial, incarcerated in St. Elizabeths psychiatric hospital in Washington, D. C. for over 12 years. Pound began work on sections of The Cantos while in custody in Italy; these parts were published as The Pisan Cantos, for which he was awarded the Bollingen Prize in 1949 by the Library of Congress, leading to enormous controversy. Due to a campaign by his fellow writers, he was released from St. Elizabeths in 1958 and returned to live in Italy until his death, his political views ensure. Hemingway wrote: "The best of Pound's writing—and it is in the Cantos—will last as long as there is any literature." Pound was born in a small, two-story house in Hailey, Idaho Territory, the only child of Homer Loomis Pound and Isabel Weston. His father had worked in Hailey since 1883 as registrar of the General Land Office.
Both parents' ancestors had emigrated from England in the 17th century. On his mother's side, Pound was descended from William Wadsworth, a Puritan who emigrated to Boston on the Lion in 1632; the Wadsworths married into the Westons of New York. Harding Weston and Mary Parker were the parents of Ezra's mother. Harding spent most of his life without work, with his brother, Ezra Weston, his brother's wife, looking after Mary and Isabel's needs. On his father's side, the immigrant ancestor was John Pound, a Quaker, who arrived from England around 1650. Ezra's grandfather, Thaddeus Coleman Pound, was a Republican Congressman from northwest Wisconsin who had made and lost a fortune in the lumber business. Thaddeus's son Homer, Pound's father, worked for Thaddeus in the lumber business until Thaddeus secured him the appointment as registrar of the Hailey land office. Homer and Isabel married Homer built a house in Hailey. Isabel took Ezra with her to New York in 1887, when he was 18 months old. Homer followed them, in 1889 he found a job as an assayer at the Philadelphia Mint.
The family moved to Jenkintown, in 1893 bought a six-bedroom house in Wyncote. Pound's education began in a series of dame schools, some of them run by Quakers: Miss Elliott's school in Jenkintown in 1892, the Heathcock family's Chelten Hills School in Wyncote in 1893, the Florence Ridpath school from 1894 in Wyncote, his first publication was on 7 November 1896 in the Jenkintown Times-Chronicle, a limerick about William Jennings Bryan, who had just lost the 1896 presidential election: "There was a young man from the West, / He did what he could for what he thought best. The boys wore Civil War-style uniforms and besides Latin were taught English, arithmetic, military drilling and the importance of submitting to authority. Pound made his first trip overseas in mid-1898 when he was 13, a three-month tour of Europe with his mother and Frances Weston, who took him to England, Germany and Italy. After the academy he may have attended Cheltenham Township High School for one year, in 1901, aged 15, he was admitted to the University of Pennsylvania's College of Liberal Arts.
Pound met Hilda Doolittle at Pennsylvania in 1901, she became his first serious romance. In 1911 she became involved in developing the Imagism movement. Between 1905 and 1907 Pound wrote a number of poems for her, 25 of which he hand-bound and called Hilda's Book, in 1908 he asked her father, the astronomy professor Charles Doolittle, for permission to marry her, but Doolittle dismissed Pound as a nomad. Pound was seeing two other women at the same time—Viola Baxter and Mary Moore—later dedicating a book of poetry, Personae, to the latter, he asked Moore to marry him too. His parents and Frances Weston took Pound on an
Winifred Utley known as Freda Utley, was an English scholar, political activist and best-selling author. After visiting the Soviet Union in 1927 as a trade union activist, she joined the Communist Party of Great Britain in 1928. Married and living in Moscow, she became disillusioned with communism; when her Russian husband, Arcadi Berdichevsky, was arrested in 1936, she escaped to England with her young son. In 1939, the rest of her family moved to the United States, where she became a leading anticommunist author and activist, she became an American citizen in 1950. Utley's father was involved with George Bernard Shaw, the Fabians, labour struggles before becoming an attorney and businessman He was introduced to her mother by Edward Aveling, Karl Marx's translator and longtime partner of his daughter, Eleanor. In her memoirs, Utley describes her early influences as "liberal and free-thinking colored by the poetry of revolt and liberty and legends and romances of heroism and adventure."Utley was educated at a boarding school in Switzerland, after which she returned to her native England to earn a B.
A. degree followed by an M. A. degree in history at King's College London. The UK General Strike of 1926 and what she calls the "betrayal" of the workers by the British Trade Union Council and the Labour Party made her more favourable to communism. After visiting Russia as the vice-president of the University Labour Federation in 1927, she joined the British Communist Party in 1928. Utley writes about her conversion: "It was a passion for the emancipation of mankind, not the blueprint of a planned society nor any mystical yearning to merge myself in a fellowship absolving me of personal responsibility, which both led me into the Communist fold, caused me to leave it as soon as I learned that it meant submission to the most total tyranny which mankind has experienced."From 1926 to 1928, she was a research fellow at the London School of Economics. During this period she focused on labour and production issues in manufacturing, in her case, the textile industries of Lancashire beginning to face competition from operators in India and Japan.
In 1928, she married Russian economist Arcadi Berdichevsky, working in England for Arcos, the Soviet trade mission. After a visit to the Soviet Union in 1928, the Communist International sent Berdichevsky and Freda Utley on missions to Siberia and Japan, where she lived for nine months. In 1931, she published her first book and the Far East which established her as an authority on the subject of international competition in the cotton trades. Upon her return to Moscow with her husband, she became disillusioned with the system's inability to provide decent medical care or housing as well as the corrupt, hierarchical Communist Party system. Living in Moscow from 1930 to 1936, she worked as a translator, editor and a senior scientific worker at the Academy of Sciences' Institute of World Economy and Politics. During this time she wrote, from a Marxist perspective, Japan's Feet of Clay, an exposé of the Japanese textile industries that attacked western support for Japanese imperialism; the book was an international bestseller, translated into five languages, solidified her credentials in communist circles.
On April 14, 1936, Soviet police arrested her husband the head of an import/export government group. Unable to aid him, she left soon after for England with her young son Jon, using British names and passports. There, she mobilized important leftist friends like Shaw and Harold Laski to try to find Arcadi and sent a letter directly to Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, she received two postcards from Arcadi reporting his five years' sentence to an Arctic Circle concentration camp for alleged association with Trotskyists. In 1956, she learned he had died on March 30, 1938, it would not be until 2004 that her son Jon Basil Utley would learn from the Russian government the details of his death by firing squad for leading a hunger strike at the Vorkuta prison labour camp. He was "rehabilitated" posthumously in 1961 under post-Stalin rehabilitation laws. In 1938, Utley published two books on Japan's military attacks on China at the beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War. Japan's Gamble in China, with an introduction by Laski, described Japan as "a police state, governed by a bureaucracy wedded to a plutocracy."
The News Chronicle made her a war correspondent and she spent three months in China in 1938, making two trips to the front line. Her 1939 book China at War idealized the Chinese communists; the work aroused considerable popular sympathy for China and helped foment poor relations with Japan prior to World War II. Her goal was to make for herself an international reputation and prove her communist credentials to free her husband. Author Francis Beckett includes a chapter on Utley's ordeals in his 2004 book Stalin's British Victims. Utley and her son and mother moved to the United States in 1939. Believing Arcadi to be dead, she expressed, in the 1940s, her disgust with communism and the Soviet Union in her book The Dream We Lost published as Lost Illusions. Bertrand Russell wrote the introduction: "I knew Freda Utley first when she was in the process of becoming a Communist. Utley described her work as emanating from "the only Western writer who had known Russia both from inside and from below, sharing some of the hardships and all the fears of the forcibly silenced Russian peop
Percy Wyndham Lewis was an English writer and critic. He was a co-founder of the Vorticist movement in art, edited the literary magazine of the Vorticists, BLAST, his novels include his pre-World War I-era novel Tarr, The Human Age, a trilogy comprising The Childermass, Monstre Gai and Malign Fiesta, set in the afterworld. A fourth volume of The Human Age, The Trial of Man, was begun by Lewis but left in a fragmentary state at the time of his death, he wrote two autobiographical volumes and Bombardiering and Rude Assignment: A Narrative of my Career Up-to-Date. Lewis was reputedly born on his father's yacht off the Canadian province of Nova Scotia, his British mother and American father separated about 1893. His mother subsequently returned to England, where Lewis was educated, first at Rugby School, at the Slade School of Fine Art, University College, before spending most of the 1900s travelling around Europe and studying art in Paris. Residing in London from 1908, Lewis published his first work in Ford Madox Ford's The English Review in 1909.
He was a founder-member of the Camden Town Group in 1911. In 1912 he exhibited his Cubo-Futurist illustrations to Timon of Athens and three major oil paintings at the second Post-Impressionist exhibition; this brought him into close contact with the Bloomsbury Group Roger Fry and Clive Bell, with whom he soon fell out. In 1912 he was commissioned to produce a decorative mural, a drop curtain, more designs for The Cave of the Golden Calf, an avant-garde cabaret and nightclub on London's Heddon Street, it was in the years 1913–15 that he developed the style of geometric abstraction for which he is best known today, a style which his friend Ezra Pound dubbed "Vorticism." Lewis found the strong structure of Cubist painting appealing, but said it did not seem "alive" compared to Futurist art, conversely, lacked structure. Vorticism combined the two movements in a strikingly dramatic critique of modernity. In his early visual works versions of village life in Brittany showing dancers, Lewis may have been influenced by the process philosophy of Henri Bergson, whose lectures he attended in Paris.
Though he was savagely critical of Bergson, he admitted in a letter to Theodore Weiss that he "began by embracing his evolutionary system." Nietzsche was an important influence. After a brief tenure at the Omega Workshops, Lewis quarrelled with the founder, Roger Fry, over a commission to provide wall decorations for the Daily Mail Ideal Home Exhibition, which Lewis believed Fry had misappropriated, he walked out with several Omega artists to start a competing workshop called the Rebel Art Centre. The Centre operated for only four months, but it gave birth to the Vorticist group and the publication, BLAST. In BLAST Lewis wrote the group's manifesto, several essays expounding his Vorticist aesthetic, a modernist drama, "Enemy of the Stars"; the magazine included reproductions of now lost Vorticist works by Lewis and others. After the Vorticists' only U. K. exhibition in 1915, the movement broke up as a result of World War I, though Lewis's patron, John Quinn, organised a Vorticist exhibition at the Penguin Club in New York in 1917.
Lewis was posted to the western front, served as a second lieutenant in the Royal Artillery. Much of his time was spent in Forward Observation Posts looking down at deserted German lines, registering targets and calling down fire from batteries massed around the rim of the Ypres Salient, it was dangerous work and he made vivid accounts of narrow misses and deadly artillery duels. After the Third Battle of Ypres in 1917, he was appointed as an official war artist for both the Canadian and British governments, beginning work in December 1917. For the Canadians he painted A Canadian Gun-Pit from sketches made on Vimy Ridge. For the British he painted one of his best known works, A Battery Shelled, drawing on his own experience in charge of a 6-inch howitzer at Ypres. Lewis exhibited his war drawings and some other paintings of the war in an exhibition, "Guns," in 1918, his first novel Tarr was published in book-form in 1918, having been serialised in The Egoist during 1916–17. It is regarded as one of the key modernist texts.
Lewis documented his experiences and opinions of this period of his life in the autobiographical Blasting and Bombardiering, which covered his life up to 1926. After the war, Lewis resumed his career as a painter, with a major exhibition and Portraits, at the Leicester Galleries in 1921. "Tyros" were satirical caricatural figures intended by Lewis to comment on the culture of the "new epoch" that succeeded the First World War. A Reading of Ovid and Mr Wyndham Lewis as a Tyro are the only surviving oil paintings from this series; as part of the same project, Lewis launched his second magazine, The Tyro, of which there were only two issues. The second contained an important statement of Lewis's visual aesthetic: "Essay on the Objective of Plastic Art in our Time", it was during the early 1920s. By the late 1920s, he was not painting so much, but instead concentrating on writing, he launched yet another magazine, The Enemy written by himself and declaring its belligerent critical stance in its title.
The magazine, the theoretical and critical work
Michelle Malkin is an American conservative blogger, political commentator and businesswoman. Her weekly syndicated column appears in a number of websites, she is a Fox News contributor and has been a guest on MSNBC, C-SPAN, national radio programs. Malkin has written four books published by Regnery Publishing, she founded Hot Air. Michelle Malkin was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to Philippine citizens Rafaela – a homemaker and teacher – and Apolo DeCastro Maglalang, a physician-in-training. Several months prior to Malkin's birth, her parents had immigrated to the United States on an employer-sponsored visa. After her father finished his medical training, the family moved to New Jersey. Malkin has a younger brother, she has described her parents as Ronald Reagan Republicans who were "not politically active". Malkin, a Roman Catholic, attended Holy Spirit Roman Catholic High School, where she edited the school newspaper and aspired to become a concert pianist. Following her graduation in 1988, she enrolled at Oberlin College.
Malkin changed her major to English. During her college years, she worked as a press inserter, tax preparation aide, network news librarian, her first article for the paper criticized Oberlin's affirmative action program and received a "hugely negative response" from other students on campus. She graduated in 1992 and described her alma mater as "radically left-wing". Malkin began her journalism career at the Los Angeles Daily News, working as a columnist from 1992 to 1994. In 1995, she worked in Washington, D. C. as a journalism fellow at the Competitive Enterprise Institute, a free-market, anti-government regulation, libertarian think tank. In 1996, she moved to Seattle, where she wrote columns for The Seattle Times. Malkin became a nationally syndicated columnist with Creators Syndicate in 1999. For years, Malkin was a frequent commentator for Fox News and a regular guest host of The O'Reilly Factor. In 2007, she announced that she would not return to The O'Reilly Factor, claiming that Fox News had mishandled a dispute over derogatory statements made about her by Geraldo Rivera in a Boston Globe interview.
Since 2007, she has concentrated on her writing and public speaking, although she still appears on television especially with Sean Hannity and with Greta Van Susteren on Fox News and Fox & Friends once a week. Malkin founded the websites Hot Air, a conservative internet broadcast network, Twitchy, a Twitter content curation site. Malkin has written six books, her first book, Invasion: How America Still Welcomes Terrorists and Other Foreign Menaces was a New York Times bestseller. In 2004, she wrote In Defense of Internment: The Case for'Racial Profiling' in World War II and the War on Terror, defending the U. S. government's internment of 112,000 Japanese Americans in prison camps during World War II, arguing that the same procedures could be used on Arab- and Muslim-Americans today. The book engendered harsh criticism from several Asian American civil rights organizations; the Historians' Committee for Fairness, an organization of scholars and professional researchers, condemned the book for not having undergone peer review and argued that its central thesis is false.
As a result of the controversy, the Hawaii-based newspaper MidWeek dropped her column in August 2004. Malkin responded: "I'm not Asian, I'm American", described the comparison to Coulter as "a compliment". Malkin's third book, Unhinged: Exposing Liberals Gone Wild, was released in October 2005. Culture of Corruption: Obama and His Team of Tax Cheats and Cronies, Malkin's fourth book, was released in July 2009 and was a The New York Times Non-Fiction, Hardcover Best Seller for six weeks. Malkin said she hoped the book would "shatter the myths of hope and change in the new politics in Washington", described the Obama administration as run by "influence peddlers, power brokers and wealthy people", called it "one of the most corrupt administrations in recent memory", she discussed chapter two of the book, "Bitter Half: First Crony Michelle Obama", on NBC's Today show. She described Michelle Obama as "steeped in the politics of the Daley machine", as having based her professional career on nepotism and "old white boy" network connections.
Who Built That: Awe-Inspiring Stories of American Tinkerpreneurs, released May 2015, presents stories of American inventors and business people, directly challenging the "you didn't build that" statement made by President Barack Obama on July 13, 2012. Sold Out: How High-Tech Billionaires & Bipartisan Beltway Crapweasels Are Screwing America's Best & Brightest Workers, M. Malkin and J. Miano, Simon & Schuster Audio/Mercury Ink In June 2004, Malkin launched a political blog, MichelleMalkin.com. A 2007 memo from the National Republican Senatorial Committee described Malkin as one of the five "best-read national conservative bloggers", Technorati ranks MichelleMalkin.com in its "Top 100 blogs of all types". In 2011, the people search company PeekYou claimed that Malkin had the largest digital footprint of any political blogger. After she criticized hip hop artist Akon for "degrading women" in a Vent episode, Akon's record label, Universal Music Group, forced YouTube to remove the video by issuing a DMCA takedown notice, but decided to retract this notice after the Electronic Frontier Foundation joined Malkin and Hot Air in contesting the removal as a misuse of copyright law.
She continued to contribute fr
Speaker of the United States House of Representatives
The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the United States House of Representatives. The office was established in 1789 by Article I, Section 2 of the U. S. Constitution; the Speaker is the political and parliamentary leader of the House of Representatives, is the House's presiding officer, de facto leader of the body's majority party, the institution's administrative head. Speakers perform various other administrative and procedural functions. Given these several roles and responsibilities, the Speaker does not preside over debates; that duty is instead delegated to members of the House from the majority party. Neither does the Speaker participate in floor debates; the Constitution does not require the Speaker to be an incumbent member of the House of Representatives, although every Speaker thus far has been. The Speaker is second in the United States presidential line of succession, after the Vice President and ahead of the President pro tempore of the Senate.
The current House Speaker, Democrat Nancy Pelosi of California, was elected to the office on January 3, 2019. Pelosi served as speaker from January 4, 2007 to January 3, 2011, she has the distinction of being the first woman to serve as Speaker, is the first former Speaker to be returned to office since Sam Rayburn in 1955. The House elects its speaker at the beginning of a new Congress or when a speaker dies, resigns or is removed from the position intra-term. Since 1839, the House has elected speakers by roll call vote. Traditionally, each party's caucus or conference selects a candidate for the speakership from among its senior leaders prior to the roll call. Representatives are not restricted to voting for the candidate nominated by their party, but do, as the outcome of the election determines which party has the majority and will organize the House. Moreover, as the Constitution does not explicitly state that the speaker must be an incumbent member of the House, it is permissible for representatives to vote for someone, not a member of the House at the time, non-members have received a few votes in various speaker elections over the past several years.
Every person elected speaker has been a member. Representatives that choose to vote for someone other than their party's nominated candidate vote for someone else in their party or vote "present". Anyone who votes for the other party's candidate would face serious consequences, as was the case when Democrat Jim Traficant voted for Republican Dennis Hastert in 2001. In response, the Democrats stripped him of his seniority and he lost all of his committee posts. To be elected speaker a candidate must receive an absolute majority of the votes cast, as opposed to an absolute majority of the full membership of the House – presently 218 votes, in a House of 435. There have only been a few instances during the past century where a person received a majority of the votes cast, thus won the election, while failing to obtain a majority of the full membership, it happened most in 2015, when John Boehner was elected with 216 votes. Such a variation in the number of votes necessary to win a given election might arise due to vacancies, absentees, or members being present but not voting.
If no candidate wins a majority of the "votes cast for a person by name" the roll call is repeated until a speaker is elected. Multiple roll calls have been necessary only 14 times since 1789. Upon winning election the new Speaker is sworn in by the Dean of the United States House of Representatives, the chamber's longest-serving member; the first Speaker of the House, Frederick Muhlenberg of Pennsylvania, was elected to office on April 1, 1789, the day the House organized itself at the start of the 1st Congress. He served two non-consecutive terms in the Speaker's chair, 1789–1791 and 1793–1795; as the Constitution does not state the duties of the Speaker, the speaker’s role has been shaped by traditions and customs that evolved over time. A partisan position from early in its existence, the speakership began to gain power in legislative development under Henry Clay. In contrast to many of his predecessors, Clay participated in several debates, used his influence to procure the passage of measures he supported—for instance, the declaration of the War of 1812, various laws relating to Clay's "American System" economic plan.
Furthermore, when no candidate received an Electoral College majority in the 1824 presidential election causing the President to be elected by the House, Speaker Clay threw his support to John Quincy Adams instead of Andrew Jackson, thereby ensuring Adams' victory. Following Clay's retirement in 1825, the power of the speakership once again began to decline, despite speakership elections becoming bitter; as the Civil War approached, several sectional factions nominated their own candidates making it difficult for any candidate to attain a majority. In 1855 and again in 1859, for example, the contest for Speaker lasted for two months before the House achieved a result. During this time, Speakers tended to have short tenures. For example, from 1839 to 1863 there were eleven Speakers, only one of whom served for more than one term. To date, James K. Polk is the only Speaker of the House elected President of the United States. Towards the end of the 19th century, the office of Speaker began to develop into a po