Happy Isles is a group of small isles in the Merced River in Yosemite National Park, California, USA. They are located at the easternmost end of the Yosemite Valley floor; this scenic spot is the starting point for the Mist Trail, is the northern trailhead for the John Muir Trail. Happy Isles is the trailhead for popular hiking destinations along the Mist Trail and Half Dome. Happy Isles is located where the slope of the Merced River changes from the much steeper upper main stem to the flat Valley floor. At Happy Isles, the river gradient is 2%; the gradient of the Merced River at Happy Isles is steeper than in the Valley floor, the channel of the river is cut into erosion-resistant granitic boulders and talus materials, compared to channel deposits of sands and gravel present on the Valley floor. The steeper gradient and composition of streambed materials together impede meandering patterns from developing in this area; the area near Happy Isles sustained damage in 1996 during a rockslide. A number of signposts near the Isles are dedicated to the rockfall.
The islets may be named after the Fortunate or Happy Isles of Greek mythology, which were about 2000 kilometres from Europe and blessed with good climate. The Azores islands fulfil most of. USGS: Happy Isles Webcam
Yosemite Valley is a glacial valley in Yosemite National Park in the western Sierra Nevada mountains of Central California. The valley is about 7.5 miles long and 3000–3500 feet deep, surrounded by high granite summits such as Half Dome and El Capitan, densely forested with pines. The valley is drained by the Merced River, a multitude of streams and waterfalls flow into it, including Tenaya, Illilouette and Bridalveil Creeks. Yosemite Falls is the highest waterfall in North America, is a big attraction in the spring when the water flow is at its peak; the valley is renowned for its natural environment, is regarded as the centerpiece of Yosemite National Park, attracting visitors from around the world. The Valley is the main attraction in the park for the majority of visitors, a bustling hub of activity during tourist season in the summer months. Most visitors pass through the Tunnel View entrance. Visitor facilities are located in the center of the valley. There are both hiking trail loops that stay within the valley and trailheads that lead to higher elevations, all of which afford glimpses of the park's many scenic wonders.
Yosemite Valley is located on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada mountains, 150 miles due east of San Francisco. It stretches for 7.5 miles in a east–west direction, with an average width of about 1 mile. Yosemite Valley represents only one percent of the park area, but this is where most visitors arrive and stay. More than half a dozen creeks tumble from hanging valleys at the top of granite cliffs that can rise 3000–3500 feet above the valley floor, which itself is 4000 ft above sea level; these streams combine into the Merced River, which flows out from the western end of the valley, down the rest of its canyon to the San Joaquin Valley. The flat floor of Yosemite Valley holds both forest and large open meadows, which have views of the surrounding crests and waterfalls. Below is a description of these features, looking first at the walls above, moving west to east as a visitor does when entering the valley visiting the waterfalls and other water features, returning east to west with the flow of water.
The first view of Yosemite Valley many visitors see is the Tunnel View. So many paintings were made from a viewpoint nearby that the National Park Service named that viewpoint Artist Point; the view from the lower end of the Valley contains the great granite monolith El Capitan on the left, Cathedral Rocks on the right with Bridalveil Fall. Just past this spot the Valley widens with the Cathedral Spires the pointed obelisk of Sentinel Rock to the south. Across the Valley on the northern side are the Three Brothers, rising one above the other like gables built on the same angle – the highest crest is Eagle Peak, with the two below known as the Middle and Lower Brothers. To this point the Valley has been curving to the left. Now a grand curve back to the right begins, with Yosemite Falls on the north, followed by the Royal Arches, topped by North Dome. Opposite, to the south, is Glacier Point, 3,200 feet above the Valley floor. At this point the Valley splits in two, one section slanting northeast, with the other curving from south to southeast.
Between them, at the eastern end of the valley, is Half Dome, among the most prominent natural features in the Sierra Nevada. Above and to the northeast of Half Dome is Clouds Rest. Snow melting in the Sierra forms lakes. In the surrounding region, these creeks flow to the edge of the Valley to form cataracts and waterfalls. A fan of creeks and forks of the Merced River take drainage from the Sierra crest and combine at Merced Lake; the Merced flows down to the end of its canyon, where it begins what is called the Giant Staircase. The first drop is Nevada Fall. Below is one of the most picturesque waterfalls in the Valley; the Merced descends rapids to meet Illilouette Creek, which drops from the valley rim to form Illilouette Fall. They combine at the base of the gorges that contain each stream, flow around the Happy Isles to meet Tenaya Creek at the eastern end of Yosemite Valley proper. Tenaya Creek flows southwest from Tenaya Lake and down Tenaya Canyon flowing between Half Dome and North Dome before joining the Merced River.
The following falls tumble from the Valley rim to join it at various points: Yosemite Falls 2,425 feet Upper Yosemite Fall 1,430 feet, the middle cascades 670 feet, Lower Yosemite Fall 320 feet. Snow Creek Falls 2,140 feet Sentinel Falls 1,920 feet Ribbon Fall 1,612 feet Royal Arch Cascade 1,250 feet Lehamite Falls 1,180 feet Staircase Falls 1,020 feet Bridalveil Fall 620 feet. Nevada Fall 594 feet Silver Strand Falls 574 feet Vernal Fall 318 feet The features in Yosemite Valley are made of granitic rock emplaced as plutons miles deep during the late Cretaceous. Over time the Sierra Nevada was uplifted; the oldest of these granitic rocks, at 114 million years, occur along the Merced River Gorge west of the valley. The El Capitan pluton intruded the valley, forming most of the granitic rock that makes up much of the central part of the valley, including Cathedral Rocks, Three Brothers, El Capitan; the youngest Yosemite Valley pluton is the 87-million-year-old Half Dome granodiorite, which makes up most of the rock at
Mariposa Grove is a sequoia grove located near Wawona, United States, in the southernmost part of Yosemite National Park. It is the largest grove of Giant Sequoias in the park, with several hundred mature examples of the tree. Two of its trees are among the 30 largest Giant Sequoias in the world; the grove closed on July 6, 2015 for a restoration project and reopened on June 15, 2018. The Mariposa Grove was first visited by non-natives in 1857 when Galen Clark and Milton Mann found it, they named the grove after Mariposa County, where the grove is located. The Giant Sequoia named Grizzly Giant is between 1900–2400 years old: the oldest tree in the grove, it has a volume of 34,010 cubic feet, is counted as the 25th largest tree in the world. It is 210 feet tall, has a buttressed base with a basal circumference of 28 m or a diameter of 30 feet. Grizzly Giant's first branch from the base is 2 m in diameter. Another tree, the Wawona Tree, had a tunnel cut through it in the nineteenth century, wide enough for horse-drawn carriages and early automobiles to drive through.
Weakened by the large opening at its base, the tree fell down in a storm in 1969. Abraham Lincoln signed an Act of Congress on June 30, 1864 ceding Mariposa Grove and Yosemite Valley to the state of California. Criticism of stewardship over the land led to the state's returning the grove to federal control with the establishment of Yosemite National Park; the Mariposa Grove Museum is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Some of the trees found in the grove that are worthy of special note are: The Fallen Monarch: A tree that fell more than three hundred years ago. Giant sequoias are resistant to decay, so their remains can linger for a long period of time if undisturbed; the Bachelor and Three Graces: A group of four trees, three of them growing close together, with a fourth a little more distant. Their roots are so intertwined that if one of them were to fall, it would bring the others along with it; the Grizzly Giant: The oldest tree and second largest tree in the grove, with a volume of 34,010 cubic feet The Washington tree: The largest tree in the grove, with a volume of 35,950 cubic feet The California Tunnel Tree: Cut in 1895 to allow coaches to pass through it, this is the only living Giant sequoia tree with a tunnel in it since the fall of the Wawona Tunnel Tree in 1969 and the fall of the Pioneer Cabin Tree in 2017.
The Faithful Couple: A rare case in which two trees grew so close together that their trunks have fused together at the base. The Clothespin tree: Countless fires throughout the decades nearly severed this tree's trunk, creating a space in it large enough for a pick-up truck to drive through; the Telescope tree: A tree that has become hollow from repeated fires through the decades. Despite that, the tree is still living, it is possible to walk inside the tree and, from there, see the sky. This condition leaves the tree weakened and makes it more difficult for it to withstand strong winds; this tree could topple at any time. The Columbia tree: The tallest tree in the grove and in Yosemite National Park at 285 feet; the Galen Clark tree: Of historical importance, as it is said to be the first tree seen by Galen Clark when he entered the grove, inspired his love for the Giant Sequoias and struggle for setting aside the land for preservation, a new concept in the mid-19th century. The Wawona Tunnel Tree: Renamed the "Fallen Tunnel Tree" after it toppled over during a snow storm in 1969.
In 1881, this was the first tree to have a tunnel carved through its trunk. Its collapse is seen as a turning point in the preservation program in National Parks in the United States. So grave was the shock of the tree's collapse that the result was a greater awareness of the sensitivity of ecosystems for a living thing as massive as the Giant Sequoias; the Fallen Giant: It was one of the largest trees in the grove, until it fell in 1873. The Massachusetts tree: It was one of the most famous trees in the grove, it fell in 1927. The Mariposa Grove Museum was built in 1930, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978. List of largest giant sequoias List of trees Geology of U. S. Parklands: Fifth Edition, Eugene P. Kiver and David V. Harris ISBN 0-471-33218-6 Yosemite National Park travel guide from Wikivoyage Mariposa Grove of Giant Sequoias - Yosemite National Park Yosemite and the Mariposa Grove: A Preliminary Report, 1865, California State "Mariposa Grove", National Geographic Society Record from the 38th Congress, 1864 Act granting the grove to California Record from the 59th Congress, Act returning the grove to federal control Short radio episode Samoset about John Muir showing Ralph Waldo Emerson the Mariposa Grove, from The Life and Letters of John Muir, 1923.
California Legacy Project
Vernal Fall is a 317-foot waterfall on the Merced River just downstream of Nevada Fall in Yosemite National Park, California. Like its upstream neighbor, Vernal Fall is visible at a distance, from Glacier Point, as well as close up, along the Mist Trail; the waterfall flows all year long, although by the end of summer it is reduced in volume and can split into multiple strands, rather than a single curtain of water. Yan-o-pah was the local name of the fall before it was named "Vernal"- meaning relating to Spring - by Lafayette Bunnell, a member of the Mariposa Battalion in 1851; the trail begins at the Happy Isles trail head in Yosemite Valley and travels east-southeast. This is one of the shortest and most popular trails in Yosemite; the trail is shaded and is progressive in incline until it reaches the base of the waterfall where mist sprays onto the hikers. At times of high flow in the spring, hikers may be drenched by the time they pass the mist from the waterfall; the final 15 minutes of the trail is a steep climb up rocks to the top of the waterfall.
Once atop the falls there is a pool of water called the Emerald Pool around which hikers lounge and rest. There is a 20 degree slope of rock with water flowing into the pool called the Silver Apron. Swimming above Vernal Fall carries a great deal of risk: the rocks are slippery, the river has strong undercurrents that may not be visible from the surface, tourists have been swept over the fall to their deaths. Though swimming there is illegal and warnings to stay out of the water are posted, several deaths have occurred when visitors entered the water above the fall in the vicinity of the Silver Apron and Emerald Pool. Three people died in a single day, on July 19, 2011, after being swept over Vernal Fall in this manner; the fall is shown in error on a 1932 Philippines stamp. Although the stamp indicates that it depicts Pagsanjan Falls in the Philippines, it in fact shows Vernal Fall. Media related to Vernal Fall at Wikimedia Commons Place Names of the High Sierra, "V", Francis Farquhar United States Geological Survey.
"Topographical Map for 37.7274262, -119.5437725". Retrieved 2008-07-05. View a short video embedded in Google Maps
Free climbing is a form of rock climbing in which the climber may use climbing equipment such as ropes and other means of climbing protection, but only to protect against injury during falls and not to assist progress. The climber makes progress by using physical ability to move over the rock via handholds and footholds. Free climbing more may include solo climbing, traditional climbing, sport climbing and bouldering; the term free climbing is used in contrast to aid climbing, in which specific aid climbing equipment is used to assist the climber in ascending the climb. The term free climbing meant "free from direct aid". In lead climbing, a climber climbs a route from the ground up. For protection against a fall, the lead climber trails a rope, managed by a belayer who remains on the ground or at an established anchor; as the leader climbs, they either place traditional protection such as cams and stoppers, or clip their rope through pre-placed bolted hangers or fixed anchors. The belayer feeds rope to the lead climber through a belay device, keeping a minimum amount of slack in the system, keeping themself ready to catch the leader in case of a fall.
The leader climbs until the top is reached, they can belay the following climber from above. Both climber and belayer attach the rope to their climbing harnesses; the rope is tied into the climber's harness with double bowline knot. The leader either places their own protection or clips into permanent protection attached to the rock. In traditional climbing, the protection is removable. However, many significant first ascents in the U. S. done with a combination of crack gear and bolts placed on lead were termed "traditional" at the time. Nuts or spring-loaded camming devices are set in cracks in the rock. In sport climbing the protection is metal loops called hangers. Hangers are secured to the rock with either expanding masonry bolts taken from the construction industry, or by placing glue-in bolt systems. In ice climbing the protection is made-up of ice screws or similar devices hammered or screwed into the ice by the leader, removed by the second climber; the lead climber connects the rope to the protection with carabiners or quickdraws.
If the lead climber falls, they will fall twice the length of the rope from the last protection point, plus rope stretch, plus slack. If any of the gear breaks or pulls out of the rock or if the belayer fails to lock off the belay device the fall will be longer, thus if a climber is 2 meters above the last protection they will fall 2 meters to the protection, 2 meters below the protection, plus rope stretch and slack, for a total fall of over 4 meters. If the leader falls, the belayer must arrest the rope to stop the fall. To achieve this the rope is run through a belay device attached to the belayer's harness; the belay device runs the rope through a series of sharp curves that, when operated properly increases friction and stops the rope from running. Some of the more popular types of belay devices are the ATC Belay Device, the Figure 8 and various assisted-braking belay devices such as the Petzl Gri-Gri. If the route being climbed is a multi-pitch route the leader sets up a secure anchor system at the top of the pitch called a belay, from where they can belay as their partner climbs.
As the second climber climbs, they remove the gear from the rock in case of traditional climbing or remove the quickdraws from the bolts in the case of sport climbing. Both climbers are now at the top of the pitch with all their equipment. Note that the second climber is protected from above while climbing, but the lead climber is not, so being the lead climber is more challenging and dangerous. After completing the climb, with both climbers at the top of the pitch, both climbers must rappel or descend the climb in order to return to their starting point, or top out and walk off. All climbs do not require the lead climber to belay the second climber from the top; the belayer could lower the lead climber down. There are no rules per se to free climbing, beyond showing respect for the rock and for other climbers. Over the years, as climbing has become more popular and climbers more skilled, an entire generation of aficionados has been spawned from and with the ethics of climbing gyms and sport climbing.
These climbers now share the rocks in some places with traditionally-trained adherents. In the newer generation as in previous ones, certain new conventions have emerged as the state of the art changes. Conventions are not universal: in fact, many older and/or more traditionally oriented climbers may ignore or disdain certain newer conventions, the reverse is true as well: The more traditional values may be regarded as irrelevant, antique or "un-fun" by those who have different experience and cultural identity. While sport climbers are more than traditional climbers to attempt routes that are too hard to ascend on the first try, repeat until successful, both cultures value positively: Climbing a given route on the first try without any advance firsthand knowledge of it. Making a flawless ascent repeating a route, climbed in "poor style" Advancing the state of the art by developing a new route, or by climbing an established route in a creative, novel wayAs matters of style, any of the following are to be regarded by most free climbers across the various cultures.
The following diminish the perception of "g
In mountaineering, a first ascent is the first successful, documented attainment of the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. First mountain ascents are notable because they entail genuine exploration, with greater risks and recognition than climbing a route pioneered by others; the person who performs the first ascent is called the first ascensionist. In free climbing, a first ascent of a climbing route is the first successful, documented climb of a route without using equipment such as anchors or ropes for aiding progression or resting; the details of the first ascents of many prominent mountains are scanty or unknown. Today, first ascents are carefully recorded and mentioned in guidebooks. Overwhelmingly, the idea of a "first ascent" is a modern one in places such as Africa and the Americas with a history of colonialism. There may be little or no physical evidence or documentation about the climbing activities of indigenous peoples living near the mountain.
For example, the volcano Llullaillaco on the border of Argentina and Chile is known to have been climbed in the prehistoric period due to the presence of Incan artifacts at the summit, yet credit for the first recorded ascent is given to Chilean climbers Bión González and Juan Harseim, who summited in 1952. The term is used when referring to ascents made using a specific technique or taking a specific route, such as via the North Face, without ropes or without oxygen. In rock climbing, some of the earlier first ascents for difficult routes, involved a mix of free and aid climbing; as a result, purist free climbers have developed the designation first free ascent to acknowledge ascents intentionally made more challenging by using equipment for protection only. Second ascents are noteworthy in climbing circles involving improving on a pioneering route through lessons learned from it, experience which may span from technical improvements to having a better understanding of how much gear and provisions to take.
Some other "first ascents" could be recorded for particular routes. One is the First Winter Ascent, which is, as the name suggests, the first ascent made during winter season; this is most important where the climate of winter is a factor in increasing the difficulty grade of the route. In the Northern Hemisphere conventional winter ascents are made between December 21 and March 21 and are not related to the conditions. In the Himalayan area, although Nepal and China's winter season permits start on December 1, the conventional winter ascents begin on December 21. Another is the First Solo Ascent, the first ascent made by a single climber; this is most important on high-level rock climbing, when the climber has to provide his own security or when climbing without any protection at all. Another type of ascent known as FFA is the first female ascent. While not considered as important, this designation remains significant on some difficult, limit-pushing climbs, where the first female ascent may not happen until well after the FA, due to possible difficulties encountered by female physicality.
The term last ascent has been used to refer to an ascent of a mountain or face that has subsequently changed to such an extent – because of rockfall – that the route no longer exists. It can be used facetiously to refer to a climb, so unpleasant or unaesthetic that no one would willingly repeat the first ascent party's ordeal. List of first ascents Notable first free ascents List of first ascents in the Alps List of first ascents in the Himalaya Glossary of climbing terms Alpinist Magazine – Peter Mortimer's First Ascent, Issue 17