Code of Federal Regulations
The Code of Federal Regulations is the codification of the general and permanent rules and regulations published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government of the United States. The CFR is divided into 50 titles; the CFR annual edition is the codification of the general and permanent rules published by the Office of the Federal Register and the Government Publishing Office. In addition to this annual edition, the CFR is published in an unofficial format online on the Electronic CFR website, updated daily. Under the nondelegation doctrine, federal agencies are authorized by "enabling legislation" to promulgate regulations; the process of rulemaking is governed by the Administrative Procedure Act: the APA requires a process that includes publication of the proposed rules in a notice of proposed rulemaking, a period for comments and participation in the decisionmaking, adoption and publication of the final rule, via the Federal Register. The rules and regulations are first published in the Federal Register.
The CFR is structured into 50 subject matter titles. Agencies are assigned chapters within these titles; the titles are broken down into chapters, parts and paragraphs. For example, 42 CFR 260.11 would be read as "title 42, part 260, section 11, paragraph." While new regulations are continually becoming effective, the printed volumes of the CFR are issued once each calendar year, on this schedule: Titles 1–16 are updated as of January 1 Titles 17–27 are updated as of April 1 Titles 28–41 are updated as of July 1 Titles 42–50 are updated as of October 1The Office of the Federal Register keeps an unofficial, online version of the CFR, the e-CFR, updated within two days after changes that have been published in the Federal Register become effective. The Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules lists rulemaking authority for regulations codified in the CFR; the CFR is divided into 50 titles that represent broad subject areas: Title 1: General Provisions Title 2: Grants and Agreements Title 3: The President Title 4: Accounts Title 5: Administrative Personnel Title 6: Domestic Security Title 7: Agriculture Title 8: Aliens and Nationality Title 9: Animals and Animal Products Title 10: Energy Title 11: Federal Elections Title 12: Banks and Banking Title 13: Business Credit and Assistance Title 14: Aeronautics and Space Title 15: Commerce and Foreign Trade Title 16: Commercial Practices Title 17: Commodity and Securities Exchanges Title 18: Conservation of Power and Water Resources Title 19: Customs Duties Title 20: Employees' Benefits Title 21: Food and Drugs Title 22: Foreign Relations Title 23: Highways Title 24: Housing and Urban Development Title 25: Indians Title 26: Internal Revenue Title 27: Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms Title 28: Judicial Administration Title 29: Labor Title 30: Mineral Resources Title 31: Money and Finance: Treasury Title 32: National Defense Title 33: Navigation and Navigable Waters Title 34: Education Title 35: Reserved Title 36: Parks and Public Property Title 37: Patents and Copyrights Title 38: Pensions and Veterans' Relief Title 39: Postal Service Title 40: Protection of Environment Title 41: Public Contracts and Property Management Title 42: Public Health Title 43: Public Lands: Interior Title 44: Emergency Management and Assistance Title 45: Public Welfare Title 46: Shipping Title 47: Telecommunication Title 48: Federal Acquisition Regulations System Title 49: Transportation Title 50: Wildlife and Fisheries The Federal Register Act provided for a complete compilation of all existing regulations promulgated prior to the first publication of the Federal Register, but was amended in 1937 to provide a codification of all regulations every five years.
The first edition of the CFR was published in 1938. Beginning in 1963 for some titles and for all titles in 1967, the Office of the Federal Register began publishing yearly revisions, beginning in 1972 published revisions in staggered quarters. On March 11, 2014, Rep. Darrell Issa introduced the Federal Register Modernization Act, a bill that would revise requirements for the filing of documents with the Office of the Federal Register for inclusion in the Federal Register and for the publication of the Code of Federal Regulations to reflect the changed publication requirement in which they would be available online but would not be required to be printed; the American Association of Law Libraries opposed the bill, arguing that the bill undermines citizens' right to be informed by making it more difficult for citizens to find their government's regulations. According to AALL, a survey they conducted "revealed that members of the public, researchers, students and small business owners continue to rely on the print" version of the Federal Register.
AALL argued that the lack of print versions of the Federal Register and CFR would mean the 15 percent of Americans who don't use the internet would lose their access to that material. The House voted on July 14, 2014 to pass the bill 386–0. Regulations.gov United States Reports California Code of Regulations Florida Administrative Code Illinois Administrative Code Code of Massachusetts Regulations New Hampshire Code of Administrative Rules New Jersey Administrative Code New York Codes and Regulations Oregon Administrative Rules Pennsylvania Code "About Code of Federal Regulations". Government Publishing Office. "A Res
A natural monopoly is a monopoly in an industry in which high infrastructural costs and other barriers to entry relative to the size of the market give the largest supplier in an industry the first supplier in a market, an overwhelming advantage over potential competitors. This occurs in industries where capital costs predominate, creating economies of scale that are large in relation to the size of the market. Natural monopolies were discussed as a potential source of market failure by John Stuart Mill, who advocated government regulation to make them serve the public good. Two different types of cost are important in microeconomics: marginal cost, fixed cost; the marginal cost is the cost to the company of serving one more customer. In an industry where a natural monopoly does not exist, the vast majority of industries, the marginal cost decreases with economies of scale increases as the company has growing pains. Along with this, the average cost of its products increases. A natural monopoly has a different cost structure.
A natural monopoly has a high fixed cost for a product that does not depend on output, but its marginal cost of producing one more good is constant, small. All industries have costs associated with entering them. A large portion of these costs is required for investment. Larger industries, like utilities, require enormous initial investment; this barrier to entry reduces the number of possible entrants into the industry regardless of the earning of the corporations within. Natural monopolies arise where the largest supplier in an industry the first supplier in a market, has an overwhelming cost advantage over other actual or potential competitors; the fixed cost of constructing a competing transmission network is so high, the marginal cost of transmission for the incumbent so low, that it bars potential competitors from the monopolist's market, acting as a nearly insurmountable barrier to entry into the market place. A firm with high fixed costs requires a large number of customers in order to have a meaningful return on investment.
This is. Since each firm has large initial costs, as the firm gains market share and increases its output the fixed cost is divided among a larger number of customers. Therefore, in industries with large initial investment requirements, average total cost declines as output increases over a much larger range of output levels. Companies that take advantage of economies of scale run into problems of bureaucracy. If that ideal size is large enough to supply the whole market that market is a natural monopoly. Once a natural monopoly has been established because of the large initial cost and that, according to the rule of economies of scale, the larger corporation has lower average cost and therefore a huge advantage. With this knowledge, no firms attempt to enter the industry and an oligopoly or monopoly develops. William Baumol provided the current formal definition of a natural monopoly where "n industry in which multi-firm production is more costly than production by a monopoly", he linked the definition to the mathematical concept of subadditivity.
Baumol noted that for a firm producing a single product, scale economies were a sufficient but not a necessary condition to prove subadditivity. The original concept of natural monopoly is attributed to John Stuart Mill, who believed that prices would reflect the costs of production in absence of an artificial or natural monopoly. In Principles of Political Economy Mill criticised Smith's neglect of an area that could explain wage disparity. Taking up the examples of professionals such as jewellers and lawyers, he said, The superiority of reward is not here the consequence of competition, but of its absence: not a compensation for disadvantages inherent in the employment, but an extra advantage. If unskilled labourers had it in their power to compete with skilled, by taking the trouble of learning the trade, the difference of wages might not exceed what would compensate them for that trouble, at the ordinary rate at which labour is remunerated, but the fact that a course of instruction is required, of a low degree of costliness, or that the labourer must be maintained for a considerable time from other sources, suffices everywhere to exclude the great body of the labouring people from the possibility of any such competition.
So Mill's initial use of the term concerned natural abilities, in contrast to the common contemporary usage, which refers to market failure in a particular type of industry, such as rail, post or electricity. Mill's development of the idea is. All the natural monopolies which produce o
Advocacy groups use various forms of advocacy in order to influence public opinion and/or policy. They have played and continue to play an important part in the development of political and social systems. Motives for action may be based on a shared political, moral, health or commercial position. Groups use varied methods to try to achieve their aims including lobbying, media campaigns, publicity stunts, polls and policy briefings; some groups are supported or backed by powerful business or political interests and exert considerable influence on the political process, while others have few or no such resources. Some have developed into important social, political institutions or social movements; some powerful advocacy groups have been accused of manipulating the democratic system for narrow commercial gain and in some instances have been found guilty of corruption, fraud and other serious crimes. Some groups ones with less financial resources, may use direct action and civil disobedience and in some cases are accused of being a threat to the social order or'domestic extremists'.
Research is beginning to explore how advocacy groups use social media to facilitate civic engagement and collective action. An advocacy group is a group or an organization which tries to influence the government but does not hold power in the government; the early growth of pressure groups was connected to broad economic and political changes in England in the mid-18th century, including political representation, market capitalization, proletarianization. The first mass social movement catalyzed around John Wilkes; as editor of the paper The North Briton, Wilkes vigorously attacked the new administration of Lord Bute and the peace terms that the new government accepted at the 1763 Treaty of Paris at the end of the Seven Years' War. Charged with seditious libel, Wilkes was arrested after the issue of a general warrant, a move that Wilkes denounced as unlawful – the Lord Chief Justice ruled in Wilkes favour; as a result of this episode, Wilkes became a figurehead to the growing movement for popular sovereignty among the middle classes – people began chanting, "Wilkes and Liberty" in the streets.
After a period of exile, brought about by further charges of libel and obscenity, Wilkes stood for the Parliamentary seat at Middlesex, where most of his support was located. When Wilkes was imprisoned in the King's Bench Prison on 10 May 1768, a mass movement of support emerged, with large demonstrations in the streets under the slogan "No liberty, no King." Stripped of the right to sit in Parliament, Wilkes became an Alderman of London in 1769, an activist group called the Society for the Supporters of the Bill of Rights began aggressively promoting his policies. This was the first sustained social advocacy group. However, the movement was careful not to cross the line into open rebellion; the force and influence of this social advocacy movement on the streets of London compelled the authorities to concede to the movement's demands. Wilkes was returned to Parliament, general warrants were declared as unconstitutional and press freedom was extended to the coverage of Parliamentary debates. Another important advocacy group that emerged in the late 18th century was the British abolitionist movement against slavery.
Starting with an organised sugar boycott in 1791, it led the second great petition drive of 1806, which brought about the banning of the slave trade in 1807. In the opinion of Eugene Black, "...association made possible the extension of the politically effective public. Modern extra parliamentary political organization is a product of the late eighteenth century the history of the age of reform cannot be written without it. From 1815, Britain after victory in the Napoleonic Wars entered a period of social upheaval characterised by the growing maturity of the use of social movements and special-interest associations. Chartism was the first mass movement of the growing working-class in the world, it campaigned for political reform between 1838 and 1848 with the People's Charter of 1838 as its manifesto – this called for universal suffrage and the implementation of the secret ballot, amongst other things. The term "social movements" was introduced in 1848 by the German Sociologist Lorenz von Stein in his book Socialist and Communist Movements since the Third French Revolution in which he introduced the term "social movement" into scholarly discussions – depicting in this way political movements fighting for the social rights understood as welfare rights.
The labor movement and socialist movement of the late 19th century are seen as the prototypical social movements, leading to the formation of communist and social democratic parties and organisations. These tendencies were seen in poorer countries as pressure for reform continued, for example in Russia with the Russian Revolution of 1905 and of 1917, resulting in the collapse of the Czarist regime around the end of the First World War. In the post-war period, women's rights, gay rights, civil rights, anti-nuclear and environmental movements emerged dubbed the New Social Movements, some of which may be considered "general interest groups" as opposed to special interest groups
In human social behavior, discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction towards, a person based on the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong. These include age, criminal record, disability, family status, gender identity, genetic characteristics, marital status, race, religion and sexual orientation. Discrimination consists of treatment of an individual or group, based on their actual or perceived membership in a certain group or social category, "in a way, worse than the way people are treated", it involves the group's initial reaction or interaction going on to influence the individual's actual behavior towards the group leader or the group, restricting members of one group from opportunities or privileges that are available to another group, leading to the exclusion of the individual or entities based on illogical or irrational decision making. Discriminatory traditions, ideas and laws exist in many countries and institutions in every part of the world, including in territories where discrimination is looked down upon.
In some places, controversial attempts such as quotas have been used to benefit those who are believed to be current or past victims of discrimination—but they have sometimes been called reverse discrimination. The term discriminate appeared in the early 17th century in the English language, it is from the Latin discriminat-'distinguished between', from the verb discriminare, from discrimen'distinction', from the verb discernere. Since the American Civil War the term "discrimination" evolved in American English usage as an understanding of prejudicial treatment of an individual based on their race generalized as membership in a certain undesirable group or social category; the word "discrimination" derives from Latin, where the verb discrimire means "to separate, to distinguish, to make a distinction". Moral philosophers have defined discrimination as disadvantageous consideration; this is a comparative definition. An individual need not be harmed in order to be discriminated against, they just need to be treated worse than others for some arbitrary reason.
If someone decides to donate to help orphan children, but decides to donate less, say, to black children out of a racist attitude they would be acting in a discriminatory way despite the fact that the people they discriminate against benefit by receiving a donation. In addition to this discrimination develops into a source of oppression, it is similar to the action of recognizing someone as'different' so much that they are treated inhumanly and degraded. Based on realistic-conflict theory and social-identity theory and Hewstone have highlighted a distinction among three types of discrimination: Realistic competition is driven by self-interest and is aimed at obtaining material resources for the in-group. Social competition is driven by the need for self-esteem and is aimed at achieving a positive social status for the in-group relative to comparable out-groups. Consensual discrimination is driven by the need for accuracy and reflects stable and legitimate intergroup status hierarchies; the United Nations stance on discrimination includes the statement: "Discriminatory behaviors take many forms, but they all involve some form of exclusion or rejection."
International bodies United Nations Human Rights Council work towards helping ending discrimination around the world. Ageism or age discrimination is discrimination and stereotyping based on the grounds of someone's age, it is a set of beliefs and values which used to justify discrimination or subordination based on a person's age. Ageism is most directed towards old people, or adolescents and children. Age discrimination in hiring has been shown to exist in the United States. Joanna Lahey, professor at The Bush School of Government and Public Service at Texas A&M, found that firms are more than 40% more to interview a young adult job applicant than an older job applicant. In Europe, Stijn Baert, Jennifer Norga, Yannick Thuy and Marieke Van Hecke, researchers at Ghent University, measured comparable ratios in Belgium, they found that age discrimination is heterogeneous by the activity older candidates undertook during their additional post-educational years. In Belgium, they are only discriminated if they have more years of inactivity or irrelevant employment.
In a survey for the University of Kent, England, 29% of respondents stated that they had suffered from age discrimination. This is a higher proportion than for racial discrimination. Dominic Abrams, social psychology professor at the university, concluded that ageism is the most pervasive form of prejudice experienced in the UK population. According to UNICEF and Human Rights Watch, caste discrimination affects an estimated 250 million people worldwide. Discrimination based on caste, as perceived by UNICEF, is prevalent in parts of Asia and others; as of 2011, there were Scheduled Castes in India. Discrimination against people with disabilities in favor of people who are not is called ableism or disablism. Disability discrimination, which treats non-disabled individuals as the standard of'normal living', results in public and private places and services and social work that are built to serve'standard' people, thereby excluding