Hans Graf von Schwerin-Löwitz
Hans Axel Tammo Graf von Schwerin-Löwitz was a German politician and officer. Until 1881, Hans Graf von Schwerin-Löwitz was an active Flügeladjutant in Saxony, he managed his own manor, was an Okrajnega Representative beginning in 1901, President of the Prussian country's economy College and was a member of the German Agriculture Council in 1896 as Chairman of the Chamber of Agriculture for Bezirkseisenbahnrat and Pomerania. From March 1910 to February 1912, he was President of the German Reichstag, he had earlier served there as deputy starting in 1893. From 1896, he was a representative of the constituency of Stettin 1 in the Prussian House of Representatives, from 1912 to 1918 he became the President. Schwerin-Löwitz became a member of the Bimetallisten Committee of the German Bundestag. During the First World War, he represented the Confederation of Farmers on the Board of Trustees of the imperial grain body. A preserved steam locomotive on the Brecon Mountain Railway in Wales carries his name, "Graf Schwerin-Löwitz"
Ludwig Bamberger was a German economist, politician and writer. Bamberger was born into the wealthy Ashkenazi Jewish Bamberger family in Mainz. After studying at Giessen, Göttingen, he became a lawyer; when the revolution of 1848 broke out Bamberger took an active part as one of the leaders of the republican party in his native city, both as a popular orator and as editor of the Mainzer Zeitung newspaper. In 1849 he took part in the republican uprising in the Baden; the next years he spent in exile, at first in London in the Netherlands. During these years he saved a competence and gained a thorough acquaintance with the theory and practice of finance; this he put to account. He was elected a member of the Reichstag, where he joined the National Liberal Party, like many other exiles, he was willing to accept the results of Otto von Bismarck’s work. Bamberger represented the electoral district of Bingen-Alzey and married Anna Belmont, a relative of the famous banker August Belmont, who had emigrated to the United States.
In 1868 he published a short life of Bismarck in French, with the object of producing a better understanding of German affairs, in 1870, owing to their intimate acquaintance with France and with finance, he and Gerson Bleichröder were summoned by Bismarck to Versailles to help in the discussion of terms of peace. In the German Reichstag he was the leading authority on matters of finance and economics, as well as a clear and persuasive speaker, it was chiefly owing to him that a gold currency was adopted and that the Reichsbank took form, he was the leader of the free traders, after 1878 refused to follow Bismarck in his new policy of protection, state socialism and colonial development. On account of his opposition to Bismarck's economic policy, he left the National Liberal Party and joined the “Secessionists” which merged into the German Free-minded Party, he was a founder of the Verein zur Förderung der Handelsfreiheit. With private banker Adelbert Delbruck, on January 22, 1870, he founded Deutsche Bank in Berlin as a specialist bank for foreign trade.
In 1892 he retired from political life and died in 1899. Bamberger was a clear and attractive writer and was a frequent contributor on political and economic questions to the Nation and other periodicals. Among his noted publications—which include works on the currency, on the French war indemnity, his criticism of socialism and his apology for the Secession—are: Erlebnisse aus der pfälzischen Erhebung Monsieur de Bismarck "La colonie allemande" Die fünf Milliarden Deutschland und der Sozialismus Deutschtum und Judentum Die Stichworte der Silberleute besprochen Erinnerungen. Forty-Eighters Gilman, D. C.. "Bamberger, Ludwig". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Bamberger, Ludwig". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Rines, George Edwin, ed.. "Bamberger, Ludwig". Encyclopedia Americana. Benedikt Koehler: Ludwig Bamberger, DVA, 1999 Erinnerungen "Memoirs" by Ludwig Bamberger at google Books Catalogue of the papers of Ludwig Bamberger at London School of Economics Archives Guide to the Ludwig Bamberger Collection at the Leo Baeck Institute, New York
General German Workers' Association
The General German Workers' Association was a German political party founded on 23 May 1863 in Leipzig, Kingdom of Saxony by Ferdinand Lassalle. The organization existed by this name until 1875, when it combined with the Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany to form the Socialist Workers' Party of Germany; this unified organization was renamed soon thereafter the Social Democratic Party of Germany, which presently remains in existence and dates its origins to the founding of the ADAV. The ADAV was the first German Labour Party, formed in Prussia prior to the establishment of the German Empire, its members were known colloquially throughout Germany as Lassalleans. The ADAV was founded in Leipzig by Ferdinand Lassalle and twelve delegates from some of the most important cities in Germany, namely Barmen, Dresden, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Harburg, Leipzig and Solingen; the ADAV sought to advance the interests of the working class and to work for the establishment of socialism by the use of electoral politics.
Lassalle acted as president from 23 May 1863 until his death in a duel on 31 August 1864. The unofficial organ of the ADAV was the newspaper Der Sozial-Demokrat, launching publication in Berlin on 15 December 1864; the publication won promises of editorial contributions from the radical exiles Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, but the pair soon disfavored the notion owing to the allegiance of the Sozial-Demokrat and the ADAV to the memory and ideas of their nemesis Lassalle. Lassalle had been expecting many thousands to become members of the association, but by 1864 there were only 4,600 and merging with the SDAP was the best option to gain influence; the ADAV was in part financially assisted by funds obtained by Lassalle through his personal relations. The ADAV had its first congress, called a General Assembly, in Düsseldorf on 27 December 1864. Marx and his associates had hoped that this gathering would cause the organization to join the newly established International Workingmen's Association, which they helped manage, but the gathering did not discuss affiliation, further disaffecting Marx from the group.
Wilhelm Liebknecht was a member until 1865, but as the ADAV tried to cooperate with Otto von Bismarck's government, for example on the question of women's suffrage, Liebknecht became disillusioned with the association. He had been writing for Der Sozial-Demokrat, but as a result of disagreement with the newspaper's Prussia-friendly rhetoric he quit the organization to establish the Saxon People's Party along with August Bebel. In 1869, Liebknecht became a co-founder of the SDAP in Eisenach as a branch of the International Workingmen's Association. Liebknecht was to meet again with his old ADAV colleagues as the lack of support for the ADAV caused them to join forces with Liebknecht's SDAP in 1875. Together with the SDAP, the ADAV formed the Socialist Workers' Party of Germany at the Socialist Unity Conference in Gotha; the manifesto of the new organization was the Gotha Program, which urged "universal, direct suffrage". In 1890, the party was renamed the Social Democratic Party of Germany and it still exists under this name.
The SDP now dates its origins to the founding of the ADAV and celebrated its 150th anniversary in the spring of 2013. Ferdinand Lassalle Otto Dammer Bernhard Becker Friedrich Wilhelm Fritzsche Hugo Hillmann Carl Wilhelm Tölcke (1 January – 18 June 1866 August Perl Johann Baptist von Schweitzer Fritz Mende Wilhelm Hasenclever
The Reichstag is a historic edifice in Berlin, constructed to house the Imperial Diet of the German Empire. It was opened in 1894 and housed the Diet until 1933, when it was damaged after being set on fire. After World War II, the building fell into disuse; the ruined building was made safe against the elements and refurbished in the 1960s, but no attempt at full restoration was made until after German reunification on 3 October 1990, when it underwent a reconstruction led by architect Norman Foster. After its completion in 1999, it once again became the meeting place of the German parliament: the modern Bundestag; the term Reichstag, when used to connote a diet, dates back to the Holy Roman Empire. The building was built for the Diet of the German Empire, succeeded by the Reichstag of the Weimar Republic; the latter would become the Reichstag of Nazi Germany, which left the building after the 1933 fire and never returned, using the Kroll Opera House instead. In today's usage, the word Reichstag refers to the building, while Bundestag refers to the institution.
Construction of the building began well after the unification of Germany in 1871. The parliament had assembled in several other buildings in Leipziger Straße in Berlin but these were considered too small, so in 1872 an architectural contest with 103 participating architects was carried out to erect a new building. After a short survey of possible sites, a parliamentary committee recommended the east side of the Königsplatz, which however was occupied by the palace of a Polish-Prussian aristocrat, Athanasius Raczyński. Work did not start until ten years though, owing to various problems with purchasing the property and arguments between Wilhelm I, Otto von Bismarck, the members of the Reichstag about how the construction should be performed. After lengthy negotiations, the Raczyński Palace was purchased and demolished, making way for the new building. In 1882, another architectural contest was held, with 200 architects participating; this time the winner, the Frankfurt architect Paul Wallot, would see his Neo-Baroque project executed.
The direct model for Wallot's design was Philadelphia's Memorial Hall, the main building of the 1876 Centennial Exhibition. Some of the Reichstag's decorative sculptures and inscriptions were by sculptor Otto Lessing. On 29 June 1884, the foundation stone was laid by Wilhelm I, at the east side of the Königsplatz. Before construction was completed by Philipp Holzmann A. G. in 1894, Wilhelm I died. His eventual successor, Wilhelm II, took a more jaundiced view of parliamentary democracy than his grandfather; the original building was acclaimed for the construction of an original cupola of steel and glass, considered an engineering feat at the time. But its mixture of architectural styles drew widespread criticism. In 1916 the iconic words Dem Deutschen Volke were placed above the main façade of the building, much to the displeasure of Wilhelm II, who had tried to block the adding of the inscription for its democratic significance. After World War I had ended and Wilhelm had abdicated, during the revolutionary days of 1918, Philipp Scheidemann proclaimed the institution of a republic from one of the balconies of the Reichstag building on 9 November.
The building continued to be the seat of the parliament of the Weimar Republic, still called the Reichstag. The building caught fire on 27 February 1933, under circumstances still not known; this gave a pretext for the Nazis to suspend most rights provided for by the 1919 Weimar Constitution in the Reichstag Fire Decree, allowing them to arrest Communists and increase police action throughout Germany. The burning of Reichstag had created fear in the capitalists of rise of communism in Germany; this furthered their policy of appeasement towards Hitler. During the 12 years of Nazi rule, the Reichstag building was not used for parliamentary sessions. Instead, the few times that the Reichstag convened at all, it did so in the Kroll Opera House, opposite the Reichstag building; this applied to the session of 23 March 1933, in which the Reichstag surrendered its powers to Adolf Hitler in the Enabling Act, another step in the so-called Gleichschaltung. The main meeting hall of the building was instead used for propaganda presentations and, during World War II, for military purposes.
It was considered for conversion to a flak tower but was found to be structurally unsuitable. The building, never repaired after the fire, was further damaged by air raids. During the Battle of Berlin in 1945, it became one of the central targets for the Red Army to capture, due to its perceived symbolic significance. Today, visitors to the building can still see Soviet graffiti on smoky walls inside as well as on part of the roof, preserved during the reconstructions after reunification. On 2 May 1945, Yevgeny Khaldei took the photo Raising a flag over the Reichstag, which symbolized the victory of the USSR over German
Max von Forckenbeck
Maximilian Franz August von Forckenbeck was a German lawyer and liberal politician who served as Mayor of Berlin from 1878 until his death. His is considered one of the most important mayors of the city because of his prudent governing style during Berlin's rise as the capital of a unified Germany. Max Forckenbeck was born in Münster in the Prussian province of Westphalia. From 1838 he studied law at the University of Giessen in Hesse, where he joined the Corps Teutonia fraternity, he completed his studies at the Frederick William University in Berlin. As a law graduate, he serveded first as a Referendar from 1842, from 1847 as an Assessor at the municipal court in Glogau, Silesia. Upon the March Revolution of 1848, he acted as president of the Glogauer Konstitutioneller Verein. In 1849, he received his admission as attorney-at-law in East Prussia. In 1858, Forckenbeck joined the newly established Congress of German Economists, an association promoting free trade and economic freedom. From 1859, he held a seat in the Mohrungen municipal assembly and was elected a member of the liberal faction in the Prussian House of Representatives.
He set to launch a liberal party. After a controversy with traditional liberal deputies around Georg von Vincke, Forckenbeck on 6 June 1861 founded the German Progress Party. In 1861, he managed the Committee of the German National Association, which he had joined in 1859; when the Prussian Constitutional Conflict between the Prussian House of Representatives and King William I broke out in 1862, Forckenbeck as leader of the Progressive Party avoided an open debate with the new Prussian minister president Otto von Bismarck. Due to his prudent efforts toward an understanding he was made President of the House of Representatives from 1866 to 1873. After the Prussian-led unification of Germany in 1871, he was President of the Reichstag parliament from the federal election of 1874 until 1879. During that time, in 1866–67, along with others, founded the National Liberal Party, a right-wing offshoot of the Progressives. On 8 July 1872 he was elected Mayor of Breslau in Silesia. Beginning in 1873, Forckenbeck was an appointed member of the Prussian House of Lords.
On 26 September 1878 he was elected Mayor of Berlin by an overwhelming majority. From 1879, he dedicated his time to his new position, stepping down as President of the Reichstag. During his time in office, Forckenbeck devoted his time to reforming the education system and developing the city's infrastructure. In his first term he expanded the city's water supply. Furthermore, he improved the city's hygiene by offering recreational opportunities like those at Viktoriapark in Kreuzberg. Frockenbeck was in favor of the privatization of the urban sector, pushing through laws allowing private companies to manage the city's street lights. On 1 April 1881, the city became Stadtkreis Berlin, a city district separate from the surrounding Province of Brandenburg. Buoyed by high popularity, Forckenbeck was re-elected in 1890. During his second term he tried to improve the relationship between city governments. In 1892, at the age of 70, Max Forckenbeck died from pneumonia, his grave is found at the Protestant Nicolaikirchhof.
Erich Angermann, "Forckenbeck, Max von", Neue Deutsche Biographie, 5, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 296–298 Biography of Max Forckenbeck Another biography
Otto von Bismarck
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg, known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890. In 1862, King Wilhelm I appointed Bismarck as Minister President of Prussia, a position he would hold until 1890, with the exception of a short break in 1873, he provoked three short, decisive wars against Denmark and France. Following the victory against Austria, he abolished the supranational German Confederation and instead formed the North German Confederation as the first German national state in 1867, leading it as Federal Chancellor; this aligned the smaller North German states behind Prussia. Receiving the support of the independent South German states in the Confederation's defeat of France, he formed the German Empire in 1871, unifying Germany with himself as Imperial Chancellor, while retaining control of Prussia at the same time.
The new German nation excluded Austria, Prussia's main opponent for predominance among the German states. With that accomplished by 1871, he skillfully used balance of power diplomacy to maintain Germany's position in a Europe which, despite many disputes and war scares, remained at peace. For historian Eric Hobsbawm, it was Bismarck who "remained undisputed world champion at the game of multilateral diplomatic chess for twenty years after 1871, devoted himself and to maintaining peace between the powers". However, his annexation of Alsace-Lorraine gave new fuel to French nationalism and promoted Germanophobia in France; this helped set the stage for the First World War. Bismarck's diplomacy of realpolitik and powerful rule at home gained him the nickname the "Iron Chancellor". German unification and its rapid economic growth was the foundation to his foreign policy, he disliked colonialism but reluctantly built an overseas empire when it was demanded by both elite and mass opinion. Juggling a complex interlocking series of conferences and alliances, he used his diplomatic skills to maintain Germany's position and used the balance of power to keep Europe at peace in the 1870s and 1880s.
A master of complex politics at home, Bismarck created the first welfare state in the modern world, with the goal of gaining working class support that might otherwise go to his Socialist enemies. In the 1870s, he allied himself with the Liberals and fought the Catholic Church in what was called the Kulturkampf, he lost that battle as the Catholics responded by forming a powerful Centre party and using universal male suffrage to gain a bloc of seats. Bismarck reversed himself, ended the Kulturkampf, broke with the Liberals, imposed protective tariffs, formed a political alliance with the Centre Party to fight the Socialists. A devout Lutheran, he was loyal to his king, who argued with Bismarck but in the end supported him against the advice of his wife and his heir. While the Reichstag, Germany's parliament, was elected by universal male suffrage, it did not have much control of government policy. Bismarck distrusted democracy and ruled through a strong, well-trained bureaucracy with power in the hands of a traditional Junker elite that consisted of the landed nobility in eastern Prussia.
Under Wilhelm I, Bismarck controlled domestic and foreign affairs, until he was removed by the young Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1890, at the age of seventy-five. Bismarck – a Junker himself – was strong-willed and overbearing, but he could be polite and witty, he displayed a violent temper, he kept his power by melodramatically threatening resignation time and again, which cowed Wilhelm I. He possessed not only a long-term national and international vision but the short-term ability to juggle complex developments; as the leader of what historians call "revolutionary conservatism", Bismarck became a hero to German nationalists. Many historians praise him as a visionary, instrumental in uniting Germany and, once, accomplished, kept the peace in Europe through adroit diplomacy. Bismarck was born in Schönhausen, a wealthy family estate situated west of Berlin in the Prussian province of Saxony, his father, Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand von Bismarck, was a Junker estate owner and a former Prussian military officer.
He had two siblings: his younger sister Malwine. The world saw Bismarck as a typical Prussian Junker, an image that he encouraged by wearing military uniforms. Bismarck was well cosmopolitan with a gift for conversation. In addition to his native German, he was fluent in English, Italian and Russian. Bismarck was educated at Johann Ernst Plamann's elementary school, the Friedrich-Wilhelm and Graues Kloster secondary schools. From 1832 to 1833, he studied law at the University of Göttingen, where he was a member of the Corps Hannovera, enrolled at the University of Berlin. In 1838, while stationed as an army reservist in Greifswald, he studied agriculture at the University of Greifswald. At Göttingen, Bismarck befriended the American student John Lothrop Motley. Motley, who became an eminent historian and diplomat while remaining close to Bismarck, wrote a novel in 1839, Morton's Hope, or the Memoirs of a Provincial, about l
Albert Hänel was a German jurist, legal historian and liberal politician. He was one of the leaders of the German Progress Party, served as Rector of the University of Kiel, he served as a member of the Prussian Chamber of Deputies, the Reichstag of the North German Confederation and the Imperial Reichstag, was Vice President of both the Prussian Chamber of Deputies and the Imperial Reichstag. Hänel was born in Leipzig, he studied at Vienna and Heidelberg. In 1860 he became Professor of Jurisprudence at the University of Königsberg and in 1863 at the University of Kiel, he served as Rector of the University of Kiel during 1892–1893. One of the founders of the Liberal Party in Schleswig-Holstein after the annexation of the duchies to Prussia in 1866, he was elected to the Prussian Chamber of Deputies and the Reichstag of the North German Confederation, subsequently to the Imperial Reichstag, he became known as a leader of Progressists. After the fusion with the Secessionists in 1884, “Fortschrittspartei” was styled as the “Deutschfreisinnige Partei.”
Upon the breakup of the party in 1893, he represented the ‘Freisinnige Vereinigung’, but in the elections of the same year to the Reichstag he was defeated by the Social-Democratic candidate. In 1898 he was reelected, he was married to Bertha von Hosstrup, a daughter of Gerhard von Hosstrup and granddaughter of Ludwig Erdwin Seyler. His writings include: Studien zum deutschen Staatsrecht Die Gesetzgebung des deutschen Reichs über Konsularwesen und Seeschiffahrt Gilman, D. C.. "Hänel, Albert". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead