Norsk biografisk leksikon
Norsk biografisk leksikon is the largest Norwegian biographical encyclopedia. The first edition was issued including 19 volumes and 5,100 articles, it was published by Aschehoug with economic support from the state. Kunnskapsforlaget bought the rights to NBL1 from Aschehoug in 1995, after a pre-project in 1996-97 the work for a new edition began in 1998; the project had economic support from the Fritt Ord Foundation and the Ministry of Culture, the second edition was launched in the years 1999-2005, including 10 volumes and ca. 5,700 articles. In 2006 the work for an electronic edition of NBL2 began, with support from the same institutions. In 2009 an Internet edition, with free access, was released by Kunnskapsforlaget together with the general-purpose Store norske leksikon; the electronic edition features additional biographies, updates about dates of death of biographees. Apart from that, the vast body of text is unaltered from the printed version; this is a list of volumes in the second edition of Norsk biografisk leksikon.
Volume 1: Abel–Bruusgaard. Published 1999 Volume 2: Bry–Ernø. Published 2000 Volume 3: Escholt–Halvdan. Published 2001 Volume 4: Halvorsen–Ibsen. Published 2001 Volume 5: Ihlen–Larsson. Published 2002 Volume 6: Lassen–Nitter. Published 2003 Volume 7: Njøs–Samuelsen. Published 2003 Volume 8: Sand–Sundquist. Published 2004 Volume 9: Sundt–Wikborg. Published 2005 Volume 10: Wilberg–Aavik, plus extra material. Published 2005This is a list of volumes in the first edition of Norsk biografisk leksikon. Volume 1: Aabel–Bjørnson. Published 1923 Volume 2: Bjørnstad–Christian Frederik. Published 1925 Volume 3: Christiansen–Eyvind Urarhorn. Published 1926 Volume 4: Fabricius–Grodtschilling. Published 1929 Volume 5: Grosch–Helkand. Published 1931 Volume 6: Helland–Lars Jensen. Published 1934 Volume 7: Lars O. Jensen–Krefting. Published 1936 Volume 8: Kristensen–Løwenhielm. Published 1938 Volume 9: Madsen–Nansen. Published 1940 Volume 10: Narve–Harald C. Pedersen. Published 1949 Volume 11: Oscar Pedersen–Ross. Published 1952 Volume 12: Rosseland–Schult.
Published 1954 Volume 13: Schultz–Skramstad. Published 1958 Volume 14: Skredsvig–Stenersen. Published 1962 Volume 15: Stensaker–Sørbrøden. Published 1966 Volume 16: Sørensen–Alf Torp. Published 1969 Volume 17: Eivind Torp–Vidnes. Published 1975 Volume 18: Vig–Henrik Wergeland. Published 1977 Volume 19: N. Wergeland–Øyen. Published 1983
Norway national football team
The Norway men's national football team represents Norway in international association football and is controlled by the Football Association of Norway, the governing body for football in Norway. Norway's home ground is Ullevaal Stadion in Oslo and their head coach is Lars Lagerbäck, it is, as of February 2019. Norway has participated three times in the FIFA World Cup, once in the UEFA European Championship. Norway is notable as the only national team that has never lost any of the matches it has played against Brazil. In four matches played, Norway has a 2–2–0 record against Brazil, with one of those victories coming in a friendly in 1997 and the other in a 1998 World Cup group stage match. Norway's performances in international football have been weaker than those of their Scandinavian neighbours Sweden and Denmark, but they did have a golden age in the late 1930s. An Olympic team achieved third place in the 1936 Olympics, after beating the hosts Germany earlier in the tournament. Norway qualified for the 1938 FIFA World Cup, where they lost 2–1 after extra time against eventual champions Italy.
This turned out to be Norway's last World Cup finals appearance in 56 years. In the post-war years, up to and including the 1980s, Norway was considered as one of the weaker nations in Europe, they never qualified for a World Cup or European Championship in this period, finished near the bottom of their qualifying group. Norway had a reputation for producing the occasional shock result, such as the 3–0 win against Yugoslavia in 1965, the 1–0 away win against France in 1968, the 2–1 victory against England in 1981 that prompted radio commentator Bjørge Lillelien's famous "Your boys took a hell of a beating" rant. Norway had their most successful period from 1990 to 1998 under the legendary coach Egil "Drillo" Olsen. At its height in the mid-90s the team was ranked second on the FIFA World Rankings. Olsen started his training career with Norway with a 6–1 home victory against Cameroon on 31 October 1990 and ended it on 27 June 1998 after a 0–1 defeat against Italy in the second stage of the 1998 World Cup.
In the 1994 World Cup in the United States, Norway was knocked out at the group stage after a win against Mexico, a defeat against Italy and a draw against the Republic of Ireland. The Norwegians lost out on second round qualification on goal difference as all 4 teams finished with 4 points in the group. In the 1998 World Cup in France, Norway was once again eliminated by Italy in the first round of the knock out stage after finishing second in their group, having drawn against Morocco and Scotland and won 2–1 against Brazil. Former under-21 coach Nils Johan Semb replaced Olsen after the planned retirement of the latter. Under Semb's guidance, Norway qualified for Euro 2000, which remains their last finals appearance to date. Semb resigned at the end of an unsuccessful qualifying campaign in 2003, was replaced by Åge Hareide. Under Hareide, Norway came close to reaching both the 2006 World Cup and Euro 2008, but fell short on both occasions. In 2008, it all fell apart as Norway failed to win a single game the entire calendar year.
Hareide resigned at the end of 2008. His replacement on a temporary basis, was the returning Egil Olsen, who began his second spell in charge with an away win against Germany, subsequently signed a three-year contract. Olsen resigned in September 2013 after Norway lost at home to Switzerland and had limited chances to qualify for the 2014 World Cup with one game to spare, he was replaced with Per-Mathias Høgmo. Olsen claimed he was sacked. Norway used the national flag on a white circle as their badge from the 1920s onwards. In May 2008 the NFF unveiled a new crest, a Viking-style Dragon wrapped around the NFF logo. After massive public pressure the crest was dropped. Between the 1980s and the 1990s, Norway used the NFF logo in the opposite breast of the shirt together with the national flag on a white circle. On 12 December 2014, a new crest was presented; the crest features the national flag, in addition, there are two lions taken from the Coat of arms of Norway on the top. The lions are facing each other while holding a blue miniature of the NFF logo, between the lions and above the NFF logo, it says "NORGE" in blue letters.
The following 23 players were called up for the two UEFA Euro 2020 qualifying matches: Match date: 23 and 26 March 2019 Opposition: Spain and Sweden Caps and goals correct as of: 26 March 2019, after the match against Sweden. The following players have been called up for the Norway squad within the last 12 months. NotesWIT Withdrew from squad. INJ Injured, ill or recovering from surgery. RET Retired from international football. Last updated: 9 September 2014Source: RSSSF.no Last updated: 9 September 2014Source: RSSSF.no The following is a list of all managers of the national team. Prior to 1953, the team was selected by a selection committee, which continued to select the team until 1969; the table lists the manager, his nationality, the period he was manager, games played, games won, games drawn, games lost, goals for and goals against. It lists any finals reached and how far the team progressed; the list is up to date as of 26 March 2019. The following table shows Norway's all-time international record, correct as of 19 November 2018.
Between 1996 and 2014, Norway's kits were supplied by Umbro. They took over from Adidas who supplied Norway's kit between 1992 and 1996. On 10 September 2014, the NFF and Nike announced a new partnership that made the sportswear provider the official Norwegian team k
1938 FIFA World Cup
The 1938 FIFA World Cup was the third staging of the World Cup, was held in France from 4 to 19 June 1938. Italy retained the championship by beating Hungary 4–2 in the final. Italy's 1934 and 1938 teams became the only ones to have won two World Cups under the same coach, Vittorio Pozzo. France was chosen as host nation by FIFA in Berlin on 13 August 1936. France was chosen over Germany in the first round of voting; the decision to hold a second consecutive tournament in Europe caused outrage in South America, where it was believed that the venue should alternate between the two continents. This was the last World Cup to be staged before the outbreak of the Second World War; because of anger over the decision to hold a second successive World Cup in Europe, neither Uruguay nor Argentina entered the competition. Spain meanwhile could not participate due to the ongoing Spanish Civil War, it was the first time that the hosts and the title holders, qualified automatically. Title holders were given an automatic entry into the World Cup from 1938 until 2002, after which it was abolished.
Of the 14 remaining places, eleven were allocated to Europe, two to the Americas, one to Asia. As a result, only three non-European nations took part: Brazil and the Dutch East Indies; this is the smallest number of teams from outside the host continent to compete at a FIFA World Cup. Austria qualified for the World Cup, but after qualification was complete, the Anschluss united Austria with Germany. Austria subsequently withdrew from the tournament, with some Austrian players joining the German squad, although not including Austrian star player Matthias Sindelar, who refused to play for the unified team. Latvia was not invited to participate; this tournament saw the first, as of 2018 the only, participation in a World Cup tournament from Cuba and the Dutch East Indies. It saw the World Cup debuts of Poland and Norway. Romania would not qualify for another World Cup until 1970, Poland and the Netherlands would not reappear at a finals tournament until 1974, Norway would not qualify for another World Cup finals until 1994.
A unified Germany team would not appear again until 1994, although Austria returned in 1954 and won third place. The following 16 teams qualified for the final tournament. However, 15 teams participated after Austria's withdrawal due to the Anschluss; the knockout format from 1934 was retained. If a match was tied after 90 minutes 30 minutes of extra time were played. If the score was still tied after extra time, the match would be replayed; this was the last World Cup tournament. Germany, Italy, Hungary and Brazil were seeded for draw taking place in Paris, on 5 March 1938. Sweden was given a bye due to Austria's withdrawal. Five of the seven first round matches required extra time to break the deadlock. In one replay, Cuba advanced to the next round at the expense of Romania. In the other replay, which had led 1–0 in the first game against Switzerland, led 2–0 but was beaten 2–4; this loss, which took place in front of a hostile, bottle-throwing crowd in Paris, was blamed by German coach Sepp Herberger on a defeatist attitude from the five Austrian players he had been forced to include.
Until they were knocked out in the first round in 2018, this was the only time Germany had failed to advance past the first round for 80 years. Sweden advanced directly to the quarter-finals as a result of Austria's withdrawal, they proceeded to beat Cuba 8–0; the hosts, were beaten by the holders and Switzerland were seen off by Hungary. Czechoslovakia took Brazil to extra time in a notoriously feisty match in Bordeaux before succumbing in a replay; this was the last match to be replayed in a World Cup. Hungary destroyed Sweden in one of the semi-finals 5–1, while Italy and Brazil had the first of their many important World Cup clashes in the other; the Brazilians rested their star player Leônidas confident that they would qualify for the final, but the Italians won 2–1. Brazil topped Sweden 4–2 for third place. Rumour has it, before the finals Benito Mussolini was to have sent a telegram to the team, saying "Vincere o morire!". This should not have been meant as a literal threat, but instead just an encouragement to win.
However, no record remains of such a telegram, World Cup player Pietro Rava said, when interviewed, "No, no, no, that's not true. He sent a telegram wishing us well, but no never'win or die'."The final itself took place at the Stade Olympique de Colombes in Paris. Vittorio Pozzo's Italian side took the lead early; the Italians took the lead again shortly after, by the end of the first half were leading the Hungarians 3–1. Hungary never got back into the game. With the final score favouring the Italians 4–2, Italy became the first team to defend the title and were once more crowned World Cup winners; because of World War II, the World Cup would not be held for another 12 years, until 1950. As a result, Italy were the reigning World Cup holders for a record 16 years, from 1934 to 1950; the Italian Vice-
Captain (association football)
The team captain of an association football team, sometimes known as the skipper, is a team member chosen to be the on-pitch leader of the team: it is one of the older/or more experienced members of the squad, or a player that can influence a game or have good leadership qualities. The team captain is identified by the wearing of an armband; the only official responsibility of a captain specified by the Laws of the Game is to participate in the coin toss prior to kick-off and prior to a penalty shootout. Contrary to what is sometimes said, captains have no special authority under the Laws to challenge a decision by the referee. However, referees may talk to the captain of a side about the side's general behaviour when necessary. At an award-giving ceremony after a fixture like a cup competition final, the captain leads the team up to collect their medals. Any trophy won by a team will be received by the captain who will be the first one to hoist it; the captain generally leads the teams out of the dressing room at the start of the match.
A captain is tasked with running the dressing room. The captain provides a rallying point for the team: if morale is low, it is the captain who will be looked upon to boost their team's spirits. Captains may join the manager in deciding the starting eleven for a certain game. In youth or recreational football, the captain takes on duties, that would, at a higher level, be delegated to the manager. A club captain is appointed for a season. If he is unavailable or not selected for a particular game, or must leave the pitch the club vice-captain will assume similar duties; the match captain is the first player to lift a trophy should the team win one if he was not the club captain. A good example of this was in the 1999 UEFA Champions League Final when match captain Peter Schmeichel lifted the trophy for Manchester United as club captain Roy Keane was suspended. In the 2012 UEFA Champions League Final, match captain Frank Lampard jointly lifted the trophy for Chelsea with club captain John Terry.
A club may appoint two distinct roles: a club captain to represent the players in a public relations role, correspondent on the pitch. Manchester United has had both of these types of captains. After Neville retired in 2011, regular starter Nemanja Vidić was named as club captain. São Paulo's Rogério Ceni is the player. A vice-captain is a player, expected to captain the side when the club's captain is not included in the starting eleven, or if, during a game, the captain is substituted or sent off. Examples include Thomas Müller at Bayern Munich, Marcelo at Real Madrid, César Azpilicueta at Chelsea, Sergio Busquets at Barcelona, Harry Kane at Tottenham Hotspur, James Milner at Liverpool and Ashley Young at Manchester United; some clubs name a 3rd captain or a 4th captain to take the role of captain when both the captain and vice-captain are unavailable. In the 1986 FIFA World Cup, when Bryan Robson was injured and vice-captain Ray Wilkins received a two-game suspension for a red card, Peter Shilton became England's captain for the rest of the tournament.
During the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa, Germany had three captains. Michael Ballack had captained the national team since 2004, including the successful qualifiers for the 2010 World Cup, but he did not play in the latter tournament due to a last minute injury. Philipp Lahm was appointed captain in South Africa, but due to an illness that ruled him out of Germany's final fixture, Bastian Schweinsteiger captained the team for that game, the third-place match. Lahm stated in an interview that he would not relinquish the captaincy when Ballack returned, causing some controversy, so team manager Oliver Bierhoff clarified the situation saying "Philipp Lahm is the World Cup captain and Michael Ballack is still the captain". Lahm ended up becoming the permanent captain of Germany until his retirement, as Ballack was never called up to the national team again. Captain
Bryne Fotballklubb is a Norwegian football club from the town of Bryne, founded in 1926. In 2016, the team was relegated from 1. Divisjon, Norwegian football's second highest division, to 2. Divisjon. Bryne spent the majority of their early years playing on a small, rented field next to Bryne Mill, before acquiring the site of their current home ground, Bryne Stadion, at the end of the 1930s. At the time of its inauguration in September 1946, the stadium's grass pitch was one of the largest in the country and a far cry from the 85x55 m dimensions of the Bryne Mill field. Bryne Stadion is used both for football and athletics and has a capacity of 10,000, of which 2,507 are seated; the record attendance is 13,621 paying spectators, achieved when Bryne defeated Viking on 26 May 1980, although as many as 14,500 were estimated to have attended an earlier game between the two rivals, on 9 October 1977. The club considers 13,621 to be the official record since there were only 12,236 paying spectators at this other game.
Bryne have in recent years been working towards a possible redevelopment of their home ground, alternatively the construction of a new stadium elsewhere, in order to increase turnover and conform with the Norwegian Football Association's requirements for hosting top tier football matches. On 14 February 2006, the club presented plans for the Jæren Arena, an 8,688-capacity stadium designed by the architects responsible for Viking Stadion, on 12 December 2006, the club announced that it had obtained finance for the project, slated to cost 150 million NOK; the intended location was on the border between the municipalities of Time, of which Bryne is the administrative centre, Klepp. However, due to difficulties in obtaining a construction permit for the site, regulated for agricultural purposes, the club has opted for a new location about 900 m south of the old ground. Bryne aimed to have the stadium completed in time for the 2008 season; as of 2017, Bryne still plays their matches at Bryne Stadion Bryne placed sixth in 1.
Divisjon in 2007. It was a disappointing season for the club, aiming for Tippeligaen, it was a turbulent season, players left and players were brought in. The players that came in before the season did not manage to set their mark on the club, was loaned out or sold; the season reached its bottom when head coach Magnus Johansson resigned after yet another disappointing appearance, this time against Tromsdalen. Hans Olav Frette, Johansson's predecessor, led the team the rest of the season. Norwegian top flight: Runners-up: 1980, 1982 Norwegian Cup: Winners: 1987 Runners-up: 2001 Greatest home victory: 7–0 vs. Bodø/Glimt, 5 October 1980 Greatest away victory: 5–2 vs. Fredrikstad, 22 August 1976 Heaviest home loss: 0–5 vs. Lillestrøm, 8 July 2001 Heaviest away loss: 0–9 vs. Rosenborg, 15 October 2000 Highest attendance, Bryne Stadion: 13,621 vs. Viking, 26 May 1980 Highest average attendance, season: 6,283, 1977 Most appearances, total: 596, Gabriel Høyland 1970–1986 Most appearances, league: 227, Gabriel Høyland 1970–1986 Most goals scored, total: 274, Johannes Vold 1961–1970 Most goals scored, league: 59, Arne Larsen Økland 1980–1987 As of 29 January 2019Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules.
Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. For season transfers, see transfers winter 2017–18. See also: Category:Bryne FK managers Official homepage
German occupation of Norway
The German occupation of Norway during World War II began on 9 April 1940 after German forces invaded the neutral Scandinavian country of Norway. Conventional armed resistance to the German invasion ended on 10 June 1940 and the Germans controlled Norway until the capitulation of German forces in Europe on 8/9 May 1945. Throughout this period, Norway was continuously occupied by the Wehrmacht. Civil rule was assumed by the Reichskommissariat Norwegen, which acted in collaboration with a pro-German puppet government, the Quisling regime, while the Norwegian King Haakon VII and the prewar government escaped to London, where they acted as a government in exile; this period of military occupation is in Norway referred to as the "war years" or "occupation period". Having maintained its neutrality during World War I, Norwegian foreign and military policy since 1933 was influenced by three factors: Fiscal austerity promoted by the conservative parties; these three factors met resistance as tensions grew in Europe in the 1930s from Norwegian military staff and right-wing political groups, but also from individuals within the mainstream political establishment and, it has since come to light, by the monarch, King Haakon VII, behind the scenes.
By the late 1930s, the Norwegian parliament Storting had accepted the need for a strengthened military and expanded the budget accordingly by assuming national debt. As it turned out, most of the plans enabled by the budgetary expansion were not completed in time. Although neutrality remained the highest priority, until the invasion was a fait accompli, it was known throughout the government that Norway, above all, did not want to be at war with Britain. On 28 April 1939, Nazi Germany offered Norway and several other Scandinavian countries non-aggression pacts; however to maintain neutrality, it was turned down along with Finland. By the autumn of 1939 there was an increasing sense of urgency because of its long western coastline facing access routes into the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean that Norway had to prepare, not only to protect its neutrality, but indeed to fight for its freedom and independence. Efforts to improve military readiness and capability, to sustain an extended blockade, were intensified between September 1939 and April 1940.
Several incidents in Norwegian maritime waters, notably the Altmark incident in Jøssingfjord, put great strains on Norway's ability to assert its neutrality. Norway managed to negotiate favourable trade treaties both with the United Kingdom and Germany under these conditions, but it became clear that both countries had a strategic interest in denying the other warring power access to Norway and its coastline; the government was increasingly pressured by Britain to direct larger parts of its massive merchant fleet to transport British goods at low rates, as well as to join the trade blockade against Germany. In March and April 1940, British plans for an invasion of Norway were prepared in order to reach and destroy the Swedish iron ore mines in Gällivare, it was hoped that this would divert German forces away from France, open a war front in south Sweden. It was agreed that mines would be laid in Norwegian waters and that the mining should be followed by the landing of troops at four Norwegian ports: Narvik, Trondheim and Stavanger.
Because of Anglo-French arguments, the date of the mining was postponed from 5 April to 8 April. The postponement was catastrophic. On 1 April, German Fuhrer Adolf Hitler had ordered the German invasion of Norway to begin on 9 April. On the pretext that Norway needed protection from British and French interference, Germany invaded Norway for several reasons: strategically, to secure ice-free harbors from which its naval forces could seek to control the North Atlantic. Through neglect both on the part of the Norwegian foreign minister Halvdan Koht and minister of defence Birger Ljungberg, Norway was unprepared for the German military invasion when it came on the night of 8–9 April 1940. A major storm on 7 April resulted in the British Navy failing to make material contact with the German shipping. Consistent with Blitzkrieg warfare, German forces attacked Norway by sea and air as Operation Weserübung was put into action; the first wave of German attackers counted only about 10,000 men. German ships came into the Oslofjord, but were stopped when the Krupp-built artillery and torpedoes of Oscarsborg Fortress sank the German flagship Blücher and sank or damaged the other ships in the German task force.
Blücher transported the forces that would ensure control of the political apparatus in Norway, the sinking and death of over 1,000 soldiers and crew delayed the Germans, so that the King and government had the chance to escape from Oslo. In the other cities that were attacked, the Germans faced no resistance; the surprise, the lack of preparedness of Norway for a large-scale invasion of this kind, gave the German forces their initial success. The major Norwegian ports from Oslo northward to Narvik were occupied by advance detachments of German troops, trans