World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Primrose, South Africa
Primrose is a suburb of Germiston in Ekurhuleni South Africa
Tembisa is a large township situated to the north of Kempton Park on the East Rand, South Africa. It was established in 1957 when black people were resettled from Alexandra and other areas in Edenvale, Kempton Park and Germiston; the name Thembisa is a Nguni word meaning promise and hope was misspelled as Tembisa. The settlement when it was founded carried with it a lot of hope and promise for a brighter future for its inhabitants. Though its initial residents were forcefully removed from parts of Kempton Park and Edenvale, for the purpose of clearing blacks from "white areas", settling in Tembisa marked the end of years of harassment by apartheid authorities, a reprieve from a life of squalor in their previous settlements. Today Tembisa enjoys better infrastructure and its population has grown exponentially in the past 20 years, with its attraction being its location in the heart of Gauteng province's industrial zone; the township was founded in 1957. After the Afrikaner-dominated National Party gained power in 1948 and began to implement apartheid, the pace of forced removals and the creation of townships outside designated white areas increased.
The Johannesburg council established new townships for black people evicted from the city's freehold areas. In 1956, townships were laid out for particular ethnic groups as part of the state's strategy to sift black people into groupings that would form the building blocks of the so-called "independent homelands", it is the second largest township following Soweto. In 1977 the government initiated the Community Councils and in 1982 upgraded them to Town Councils, under the Black Local Authorities Act; the government vested limited powers on these councils but without financial muscle. Therefore, to raise revenue for purposes of developing the townships, the councils increased rent and service charges; this caused the residents in different townships, including Tembisa, to establish civic structures to resist the rent and service charge increases. In 2016, on July 25, residents were caught off guard; the twister moved over to Tembisa, causing the most destruction here. Around 20 people were injured and more than 400 were left homeless.
One of the most visible sights was the damage to the Phumulani Mall, where the roof collapsed after the tornado passed through. No deaths were reported; the township was not allowed to create employment centres within its area, so all of its residents commute daily to their employment destinations in places such as Kempton Park, Pretoria Johannesburg and Midrand. Metrorail operates commuter trains between central Johannesburg. Tembisa train stations are Limindlela in the center and Leralla in the west. Oakmoor station is used by trains heading to Tshwane. Taxi is used by most people to travel in Tembisa, South Africa and neighbouring countries
White South Africans
White South Africans are South Africans descended from any of the white racial or ethnic groups of Europe. In linguistic and historical terms, they are divided into the Afrikaans-speaking descendants of the Dutch East India Company's original settlers, known as Afrikaners, the Anglophone descendants of predominantly British colonists. In 2016, 57.9% were native Afrikaans speakers, 40.2% were native English speakers, 1.9% spoke another language as their mother tongue, such as Portuguese or German. White South Africans are by far the largest European-descended population group in Africa. White South Africans differ from other White African groups, because they have a sense of separate cultural identity, as in the case of the Afrikaners, who established a distinct language and faith; the history of European settlement in South Africa started in 1652 with the settlement of the Cape of Good Hope by the Dutch East India Company under Jan van Riebeeck. Despite the preponderance of officials and colonists from the Netherlands, there were a number of French Huguenots fleeing religious persecution at home and German soldiers or sailors returning from service in Asia.
The colony remained under Dutch rule for two more centuries, after which it was annexed by Great Britain around 1806. At that time, South Africa was home to about 26,000 people of European descent, a relative majority of whom were still of Dutch origin. However, beginning in 1818 thousands of British immigrants arrived in the growing Cape Colony, looking to join the local workforce or settle directly on the frontier. About a fifth of the Cape's original Dutch-speaking white population migrated eastwards during the Great Trek in the 1830s and established their own autonomous Boer republics further inland; the population of European origin continued increasing in the Cape as a result of immigration, by 1865 had reached 181,592 people. Between 1880 and 1910, there was an influx of Eastern Europeans of various nationalities a large Jewish community from the Baltic region Lithuania; the first nationwide census in South Africa was held in 1911 and indicated a white population of 1,276,242. By 1936, there were an estimated 2,003,857 white South Africans, by 1946 the number had reached 2,372,690.
The country began receiving tens of thousands of European immigrants, namely from Germany, the Netherlands and the territories of the Portuguese Empire during the mid to late twentieth century. South Africa's white population increased to over 3,408,000 by 1965, reached 4,050,000 in 1973, peaked at 5,044,000 in 1990; the number of white South Africans resident in their home country began declining between 1990 and the mid-2000s as a result of increased emigration. Today, white South Africans are considered to be the last major white population group of European ancestry on the African continent, due in part to the mass exodus of colonialists from most other African states during regional decolonisation. Whites continue to play a role across the political spectrum; the current number of white South Africans is not known, as no recent census has been measured, although the overall percentage of up to 9% of the population represents a decline, both numerically and proportionately, since the country's first multiracial elections in 1994.
Just under a million white South Africans are living as expatriate workers abroad, which forms the majority of South Africa's brain drain. Under the Population Registration Act of 1950, each inhabitant of South Africa was classified into one of several different race groups, of which White was one; the Office for Race Classification defined a white person as one who "in appearance is a white person, not accepted as a coloured person. Many criteria, both physical and social were used when the board decided to classify someone as white or coloured; this was extended to all those considered the children of two White persons, regardless of appearance. The Act was repealed on 17 June 1991. In Employment Equity Act of 1994, legislation propagates employment of black South Africans. Black Economic Empowerment legislation further empowerers blacks as the government considers ownership, employment and social responsibility initiatives, which empower black South Africans, as important criteria when awarding tenders.
However, private enterprises adheres to this legislation voluntarily. Some reports indicate a growing number of whites suffering from poverty compared to the pre-apartheid years and attribute this to such laws — over 350,000 Afrikaners may be classified as poor, with some research claiming that up to 150,000 are struggling for survival. This, combined with a wave of violent crime, has led to vast numbers of Afrikaners and English-speaking South Africans leaving the country. Genocide Watch has theorised that farm attacks constitute early warning signs of genocide against White South African and has criticised the South African government for its inaction on the issue, pointing out that the murder rate for "ethno-European farmers," as stated in their report is four times that of the general South African population. There are 40,000 white farmers in South Africa. Since 1994, close to three thousand farmers have been murdered in thousands of farm attacks, with many being brutally tortured and/or rape
Kempton Park, Gauteng
Kempton Park is a main place of Ekurhuleni in the Gauteng province, South Africa. Kempton Park has been part of the City of Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality since 2000. Kempton Park is located on the western city limits of Ekurhuleni and shares its administrative boundaries with Johannesburg, South Africa's largest city, it is situated south of Tembisa, one of the largest townships in South Africa, integrated into Ekurhuleni. The name of the city is sometimes written as "Kemptonpark" in Afrikaans. Kempton Park lies on; the first farm was Zuurfontein No 369 with the title deed issued to Johannes Stephanus Marais on 25 October 1859 and surveyed to be 3000 morgen on 12 December 1859. The second farm northwest of the first was registered to Cornelius Johannes Beukes in March 1865 and was called Rietfontein 32 IR. After the discovery of gold in Johannesburg, 22 km southeast of the farms in 1886, a railway connecting Pretoria to Vereeniging and to the Cape line was constructed in the early 1890s.
The railway line did not go through Johannesburg, but passed to the east through the two farms with a station called Zuurfontein. That station would be linked by a side-rail to the Zuid-Afrikaansche Fabrieken voor Ontplofbare Stoffen, a dynamite factory a few kilometres north west; the city was established on 24 August 1903 when Karl Friedrich Wolff sub-divided a portion of his Zuurfontein farm into 216 residential stands and named the new town Kempten after the German town in Bavaria of his birth. The name was anglicised into Kempton Park. O. R. Tambo International Airport is located in Kempton Park. In 1952 the airport known as Jan Smuts International Airport, was built on land next to the community, opened in 1953; the airport's name was changed to Johannesburg International Airport in the late 1990s and to OR Tambo International Airport in 2006. The storming of Kempton Park World Trade Centre took place on 25 June 1993 when three thousand members of the Afrikaner Volksfront, Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging and other paramilitary White Nationalist Afrikaner groups stormed the World Trade Centre in Kempton Park.
At the time of the attack the World Trade Centre was the venue for multi-party CODESA negotiations to end the apartheid system through the country's first multi-racial elections. These negotiations were opposed by some White groups in South Africa; the invasion came after other clashes between police and right-wingers, such as the Battle of Ventersdorp, much belligerent rhetoric from supremacists such as Eugène Terre'Blanche of the AWB. Kempton Park was declared a City in 1992 and has the following suburbs: Tembisa is a large township situated to the north of Kempton Park in Ekurhuleni, South Africa, it was established in 1957 when Africans were resettled from Alexandra and other areas in Edenvale, Kempton Park and Germiston. In the census of 2011, the population of Kempton Park consisted of 171,575 people living in 53,777 households. 47% of the people described themselves as "White", 47% as "Black African" and 2% as "Coloured". 35 % spoke Afrikaans as 26 % spoke English. Spartan is a large industrial zone which houses many chemical manufacturing and other industrial sites.
North of Kempton Park lies the heavy industry suburb of Modderfontein with one of the main companies there, the AECI Dynamite factory. Kempton Park has a large coal power station named Kelvin power station which supplied power to the City of Johannesburg; the Emperor's Palace Casino is located in Kempton Park. The international airport plays a dominant role in the local economy. Several airline and other aviation related. South African Airways, the flag carrier of South Africa, subsidiary South African Express Airways have their head offices in Kempton Park. Airlink, a regional South African airline, has its headquarters on the grounds of OR Tambo Airport. Mango, a low cost airline, is headquartered on the grounds of OR Tambo; the headquarters of Comair and Kulula.com are at an intersection within Ekurhuleni in close proximity to OR Tambo. Federal Air has its headquarters on the OR Tambo grounds. 1Time has its head office in the Isando Industrial Park. Safair's head office is in Kempton Park; the city has seven major high schools: Hoërskool Jeugland, Hoërskool Kempton Park, Rhodesfield High School, Hoërskool Birchleigh, Norkem Park High, Sir Pierre van Ryneveld, Shangri-La Academy, Sonrise Christian School, Maranatha Christian School.
The Kempton Park Golf Course, first designed in 1965, in Spartan, is known as the club where Ernie Els learnt how to play golf. Google Map
Boksburg is a city on the East Rand of Gauteng province of South Africa. Gold was discovered in Boksburg in 1887, it was named after the State Secretary of W. Eduard Bok; the Main Reef Road linked Boksburg to all the other major mining towns on the Witwatersrand and the Angelo Hotel was used as a staging post. Boksburg is part of the City of Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality, that forms the local government of most of the East Rand; the Mining Commissioner Montague White built a large dam which, empty for years, was dubbed White's Folly until a flash flood in 1889 silenced detractors. The 150,000 square metre dam is now the Boksburg Lake, is surrounded by lawns and terraces. Prior to 1860, the present municipal area of Boksburg and its immediate environs comprised the highveld farms called Leeuwpoort, Klippoortje and Driefontein. Carl Ziervogel bought the farm Leeuwpoort in 1875 and for 300 morgen of barren, rocky veld he paid £75. In September 1886 Pieter Killian, a young Afrikaans prospector, discovered quartz reefs on Leeuwpoort.
He discovered quartz reefs on the farm Vogelfontein, named after Adolf Vogel. Samples of the quartz were sent to Pretoria for assaying. Killian advised Dr W. E. Bok, Secretary of State for the Transvaal Republic, of the results of the assay; the result was the proclamation, on 10 March 1887, of the two farms as public diggings. Carl Ziervogel, trying to sell Leeuwpoort, now opened the first gold mine on the East Rand, the Ziervogel Gold Mining Company. Cornish miners were brought out to work the diggings, it soon transpired that heavy expenditure was necessary for development, as the Directors were unable to finance this, the mine closed down. Mr Abe Bailey of the Barnato Group, which owned the Johannesburg Consolidated Investment Company, bought the farm Leeuwpoort in 1894 for £100,000; the mynpacht was controlled by JCI, who established E. R. P. M. Ltd, still carrying on mining operations after 120 years. JCI developed many residential suburbs over the years. Gold was found at Elsburg, 8 km to the southwest.
Elsburg was a recognized stopping point for coaches and wagon traffic. The first Government offices were at Elsburg and what was to become Boksburg was but a suburb of Elsburg. With the real centre of mining being centred on Boksburg, soon President Paul Kruger ordered that a new town be laid out to accommodate the miners. Land for the new town was released by having the boundaries of the farms Leeuwpoort and Klipfontein moved back from where they met; the newly created farm was called Vogelfontein, on which 1000 stands of 50x50 feet each were created. The new town of Boksburg was named after Dr Bok. In 1887 the first auction sale of stands took place. In 1887 the Republican Government built the Post Office and the Mining Commissioner's office. Business and residential properties began to be built in the fledgling town in its first year of existence. In 1888 coal deposits were discovered right on the boundary of the new town, here coal was first mined in the Transvaal; this started an era of syndicate formation, with ground fetching high prices.
Enterprises of all kinds were set up and Boksburg began to emerge from a mining camp atmosphere to a fully-fledged town. Coal ensured. Boksburg was laid out in 1887 to serve the surrounding gold mines, named after the State Secretary of the South African Republic, Eduard Bok; the Main Reef Road linked Boksburg to all the other major mining towns on the Witwatersrand and the Angelo Hotel was used as a production post. A railway was built by the Netherlands-South African Railway Company to link Boksburg to Johannesburg in 1890; the first coal mine was called Gauf's Mine after the Manager Mr J. L. Gauf. Others were the Good Hope and many more. There now arose a pressing need for a more sophisticated coal distribution system than using teams of ox wagons; the mine owners advocated a railway line between Johannesburg and Boksburg, but this was opposed by the waggoneers. President Kruger managed to persuade the Volksraad to approve the building of a "tram" line, ostensibly to transport passengers only!
The Rand Tram opened between Johannesburg's Park station and Boksburg station. The line was subsequently extended to Brakpan and Springs, where large deposits of superior quality coal had been discovered. Deposits of high grade fireclay were discovered in Boksburg, which gave impetus to development of a fireclay manufacturing industry. All this helped the importance of the gold mining industry. Coal mining came to an end in 1895 after underground fires broke out, rendering the entire mining area unsafe. To the north of Boksburg Township was a large muddy vlei fed by a small stream from the North-East; this vlei was the only watering place for stock between Middelburg and Johannesburg and the government received strong representations from transport riders and others for improved watering facilities near the public outspan west of the town. It was accordingly decided to build a small dam at the outlet of the vlei. Work on the dam was not proceeding satisfactorily, so Montague White, appointed Mining Commissioner of the Boksburg Goldfields in 1888, was asked by President Kruger to look into the matter.
White said soon after arriving in Boksburg that the place was one of the "most uninviting spots" he had seen. Two things dear to him were needed: a stream or well-ordered sheet of water and trees, instead of the barren area of muddy pools which he found. White was able to persuade a rel
Germiston is a small city in the East Rand region of Gauteng, South Africa, administratively forming part of the City of Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality since the latter's establishment in 2000. It functions as the municipal seat of Ekurhuleni, hosting the municipal administration, it was established in the early days of the gold rush when two prospectors, John Jack from the farm of Germiston near Glasgow and August Simmer from Vacha in Germany, struck paydirt on the farm of Elandsfontein. In August 1887, the pair were on their way to the Eastern Transvaal when they outspanned on the farm Elandsfontein and decided to stay and buy the land. Both men made fortunes and the town sprang up 2 km from the Simmer and Jack mine named after Jack's fathers farm. In 1921 the world's largest gold refinery, the Rand Refinery, was established at Germiston. Seventy percent of the western world's gold passes through this refinery. Although gold mining wound down in Germiston, to the point that by the end of the 20th century it was no longer a mining centre, the Rand Refinery remains as busy as ever.
The city has a number of historic buildings. Among these are the St Andrew's Presbyterian Church, built in 1905, St Boniface Church designed by Sir Herbert Baker, built in 1910; the church houses the historic 1910 English Romantic Norman and Beard Organ. The Alexander Hotel was partly designed by Baker, using his traditional stone appearance; this building has been renovated and now houses a well-known law firm. The builder of the hotel, Alexander Stuart, some of whose descendants still live in Germiston, died when the RMS Lusitania was torpedoed in the First World War on 7 May 1915; the hotel thus remains a memorial to his pioneer work in the city over a hundred years ago. According to the 2001 census, the population of Germiston consisted of 139,719 people living in 49,062 households, its land area was 129 square kilometres. Of this population, 49.8% described themselves as "White", 46.8% as "Black African", 1.9% as "Coloured", 1.5% as "Indian or Asian". No language was predominant, with the breakdown of first languages being as follows: South African Airways moved its head office from Durban to Rand Airport in Germiston on 1 July 1935.
It moved the offices first to Johannesburg to Kempton Park. The city is an industrial centre with steel manufacture and distribution being the largest industries, it has large railway workshops, a large glassworks, engineering companies, gas distribution firms, many other heavy and light industries. Victoria Lake is better known today as Germiston Lake, the famous Sailing and Rowing Club retains the name of the Victoria Lake Club; the club is home to some of the best canoeists and rowing crews in the country, including the twenty-time South African School Champions, St Benedict's College. The lake is popular at weekends for water-skiing and regattas; the lake grounds have been re-landscaped and the braai areas and shelters rebuilt. The WesBank Raceway motorsports facility was located in the city, but it was sold to industrial estate developers in November 2007; the Raceway was the Gosforth Park Race Club, one of the major horse racing facilities in Gauteng. Germiston Stadium, home stadium of Moroka Swallows FC is located in the city.
This is the home ground for the Germiston Simmer Rugby Club and has a tartan track for athletics. Municipal By 1931, the Germiston municipality had assumed a pseudo-heraldic coat of arms, depicting buck in the veld, a scene showing mineshafts, a railway train in a landscape, a half-tented ox-wagon in a landscape, the quarters separated by a red cross; the motto was Salus populi suprema lex. Municipal A proper coat of arms was granted by the College of Arms in August 1935, it was registered with the Transvaal Provincial Administration in August 1963 and at the Bureau of Heraldry in February 1968. The arms were three bezants; the crest was a rising falcon. Germiston is well connected to five mayor freeways or motorways that service the Greater Johannesburg region; these include to the west of Germiston, the M2 motorway that connects the southern Johannesburg CBD, the N3 Eastern Bypass, the N12 South. On the southern side, the N17 and N3 and in the north, the N12 East and the R24 service the city.
Being a mining and industrial city, Germiston is serviced by passenger rail and the CBD has several stations, the main one being Germiston Station. The industrial areas are service by rail spurs and stations and the Transnet has a large depot north of the CBD in Keswick Road. Germiston is the location of Rand Airport, at one time one of the busiest in Africa and the southern hemisphere. Today it caters for light aircraft and flying schools, but is home to the South African Airways Museum; as a result of this, two of the earlier Boeing 747 Jumbo aircraft used by SAA now reside there on permanent display. Germiston is served by a public state hospital. Other private hospitals include Life Roseacres Hospital in Primrose. There are a number of schools in the city; the oldest high school in