A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman
The Nahe is a river in Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland, Germany, a left tributary to the Rhine. It has given name to the wine region Nahe situated around it; the name Nahe is derived from the Latin word Nava, supposed to be based upon the Celtic origin for the wild river. The Nahe separates the northern part of the Palatinate from the Hunsrück, it rises in the area of Nohfelden, flowing through Rhineland-Palatinate and joining the Rhine in Bingen. Its length is 125 kilometres. Towns along the Nahe include Idar-Oberstein, Bad Kreuznach and Bingen; the drainage basin of the river covers an area of 4,067 square kilometres. Due to this large area compared to the river's length high floods can occur along its middle and lower course within only a few hours, however flowing off quickly. In 1993 and 1995 in Bad Kreuznach a flow of more than 1,000 cubic metres per second was measured and more than 1,300 cubic metres per second at its mouth into the Rhine; the dimensions of the drainage basin are shown in the map.
Its boundaries clock-wise, beginning in the East: the highlands of the Rheinhessische Schweiz as drainage divide to the Rhine the Donnersberg massif as drainage divide to the rivers Selz and Rhine the North Palatine Uplands as drainage divide to the rivers Pfrimm and Rhine eastwards as well as to the rivers Wallhalb and Schwarzbach southwards the Hunsrück as drainage divide to the rivers Prims and Saar in the South to the Moselle in the North the mountains of the Binger Wald as drainage divide to the Rhine towards North The rocks in the Nahe region are predominantly of Cisuralian age and part of the Rotliegendes. At that time, an impetuous volcanism appeared in the region. Huge deposits of the reddish volcanic rock Rhyolite and of the more alkaline volcanic rock Andesite were left; the valleys of the Nahe and its tributaries have been being formed since 2.6 million years ago during the Quaternary, the geologically latest period, as a result of ground heaving of the surrounding mountains of Hunsrück and North Palatine Uplands.
This led hence to strong erosion activities. Strong erosion occurred in warmer melting periods during the ice ages, when tundra climate reigned and the soil was not protected by a dense cover of vegetation. Depending on the underground, narrow gorges with cliffy precipices arose in areas with hard volcanic rocks or wide gentle valleys with flood plains in areas with soft sedimentary deposits; the frequent change between both forms is charming along the Nahe. In the Nahe valley a huge number of thermophile species appear which can only be found in the mediterranean region or Eurasian steppe habitats. Characteristical species of plants are e. g. Alyssum montanum, Aster linosyris, Dictamnus albus, Dianthus grationopolitanus, Gagea bohemica subsp. Saxatilis, Galium glaucum, Oxytropis pilosa or Stipa tirsa; these plants immigrated in a postglacial warm period to Europe but became extinct in most regions when the climate changed again to cooler and more humid conditions. They only survived in still warm and dry places due to special geographic situations.
In the Nahe valley and its tributaries these are rocky precipices towards South or South-East, furthermore sunny slopes with shrubs and dry broad-leaved forests. On hot summer days the soil temperatures in these places can reach 60 °C/140 °F and above with steppe-like circumstances. A characteristical thermophile animal species is the insulated population of the dice snake that exists along the Nahe; the snake is addicted to water and captures small fishes. Places of botanical and/or zoological significance are classified as nature protection areas and accompany the course of the Nahe. For instance can be mentioned the "Hellberg" near Kirn, the "Flachsberg" near Martinstein, the "Heimberg" near Waldböckelheim, the "Gangelsberg" near Duchroth and the "Rotenfels" as well as the "Rheingrafenstein" near Bad Münster am Stein; the Nahe region offers various tourist attractions: Nahe cycling route – The route leads along the river from its spring to its entry. Nahe wine region – The wine-producing area surrounding the middle and lower river is famous for its white wines, dominated by the Riesling grape variety.
Castles and monasteries – On the heights on both shores numerous medieval castles and abbeys can be visited, most of them fallen into ruin. Most noted are the Kyrburg Castle in Kirn, the castles Ebernburg and Rheingrafenstein in Bad Münster am Stein-Ebernburg and the Klopp Castle in Bingen; the monastery ruin of Disibodenberg, located on top of a hill between the junction of the Nahe and the Glan, was founded at the beginning of the 8th century by Saint Disibod, an Irish missionary. Saint Hildegard of Bingen, a famous Christian mystic lived here for a while. Gemstone town Idar-Oberstein - The town is famous for its historic gemstone mines and related trades; some of them are open to visitors. The German Gemstone Museum boasts many gemstone exhibits. Bad Kreuznach - The baths which give the town its name contain the noble gas radon, with curative properties; the town's most famous site is the Alte Nahebrücke, one of the few remaining bridges in the world with buildings on it. Saline valley - Between Bad Münster am Stein and Bad Kreuznach the scenic valley of the Nahe has some bathing sites with hydrothermal and saline springs.
Graduation towers used for salt production, are regarded as having beneficial health effects. The so-called "Rotenfels", a steep cliff nearby with a he
The Eckbach is a small river in the northeastern Palatinate and the southeastern Rhenish Hesse. It is over 39 kilometres long. Linguistic Research into the old name of die Eck shows that it is related to the Upper German word Ache, which means "river" or "creek" and is derived from the Old High German aha. In the Middle Ages, the river was known as Leinbach; this name refers to the Leinbaum. In those days, both the Norway Maple and the Large-leaved Linden were called Leinbaum in German. Both species were common on the banks of the Eckbach. One difference between the species is the shape of the leaves: maple leaves are five lobed, lime leaves are undivided; the coat of arms of the House of Leiningen shows a stylized tree with five-lobed leaves and five-pointed flowers point to a maple. The House of Leiningen originated in the area around the upper Eckbach, it is possible that they named their ancestral castle after the river. The family was named after their castle and the area around the upper Eckbach is now called Leininger Land.
In the early 19th century, the local name of the river was Eck. The Kingdom of Bavaria acquired the Palatinate in 1816; when Bavarian cartographers mapped the area, they were unaware of the meaning of the word Eck and wanted to make it clear that the "Eck" is a brook, so they recorded the name as Eckbach. Linguistically speaking, this name means "brook brook"; the Eckbach rises near Carlsberg in northern Palatinate forest. The spring is framed in sandstone and is southeast of A6 at an elevation of 313 metres above sea level in the Kleinfrankreich section of the Hertlingshausen district of Carlsberg; the spring is marked by a so-called Ritterstein. The area surrounding the upper Eckbach is known as the Leininger Land or Leiningerland, after the aristocratic Leiningen family who ruled the area in the High Middle Ages; the Eckbach is the central watercourse in this area. This part of the river is managed by the Gewässer-Zweckverband Isenach-Eckbach, a division of the county of Bad Dürkheim; the river flows in an easterly direction through Hertlingshausen northeast through Altleiningen, where it receives water from the artificial 20-Pipe Well.
In the northeastern outskirts of Altleiningen, the Eckbach takes up the 4-kilometre long Rothbach from the left the 5-kilometre long Höninger Bach from the right. After flowing through the Eckbachweiher reservoir at Neuleiningen-Tal, the Eckbach breaks through the eastern edge of the Palatinate Forest, the Haardt, between the village of Battenberg on the south bank and Neuleiningen on the north bank, it reaches the vineyard-covered hills around the German Wine Route at Kleinkarlbach. In Kirchheim an der Weinstrasse, the Eckbach, now flowing eastward, passes under the north-south running B271 highway, before flowing through Bissersheim. From there, the Eckbach flows in a northeasterly direction to Großkarlbach, where it crosses the A6 motorway before flowing through Laumersheim. In Dirmstein, the Eckbach collects the 8-kilometre long Floßbach, locally known as the Landgraben, the Eckbach's largest tributary. To the left, that is, to the north of the Eckbach, the structure of the hills is defined.
There is a long, low ridge with three summits marking the divide between the Eisbach and the Eckbach: the Wörschberg, elevation 163 metres, north of the road connecting Obersülzen and Dirmstein, the Schneckenberg, elevation 143 metres, between Dirmstein and Offstein and the Stahlberg, elevation 134 metres, between Dirmstein and the Heppenheim district of Worms. The area south and to the right or the Eckbach is flatter and the Großkarlbach-Laumersheim-Dirmstein-Gerolsheim area used to be a boggy lowland, used as pasture land. Further south lies its southern neighbour, the Fuchsbach; this was a left tributary of the Isenach until the second half of the 20th century, when most of its water was diverted into Schrakelbach. The area between Laumersheim, Dirmstein and Heuchelheim contains a number of irrigation canals: Weihergraben, Altbach, Kühweidegraben, Altgraben and Lerchengraben; these ditches begin as distributaries of the Eckbach and return to the Eckbach 4 to 8 kilometres downstream, some of them directly into Eckbach, some flow into Schrakelbach.
East of Heuchelheim and to the north of the Frankenthal Interchange, the A61 crosses the Eckbach. The Eckbach flows past Beindersheim. Just north of Beindersheim, it accepts from the right the Schrakelbach, which contains water from the Fuchsbach and from some of the irrigation canals mentioned earlier; the Eckbach the flows through the western part of the Upper Rhine Plain, flowing north-northeast past the villages Großniedesheim and Kleinniedesheim. It continues northeast through Bobenheim, the northern part of Bobenheim-Roxheim; the next section is called flows due north. Southeast of Worms Airport, the Eckbach swings east; the river flows into the Wormser Ried nature reserve. It crosses the municipal border into Worms; the last bridge across the Eckbach carries the B9. It flows past the recreational area Bürgerweide on the southern side into the Upper Rhine at an elevation of 90 metres; the old name of the river, the Eck is thought by linguistic experts to be derived from the word Ache used in the
The Alpine Rhine Valley is a glacial alpine valley, formed by the part of the Alpine Rhine between the confluence of the Anterior Rhine and Posterior Rhine at Reichenau and the Alpine Rhine's mouth at Lake Constance. It covers the full length of the Apine Rhine is 93.5 km. From Reichenau, the Alpine Rhine flows east, passing Chur and turning north, before it turns north-east at Landquart, roughly north, east of Sargans. From here, the Alpine Rhine forms the border between the canton of St. Gallen of Switzerland on the left, west side, the Principality of Liechtenstein on the east side. About 28 kilometres further down, the Rhine meets the Austrian federal state Vorarlberg and flows into Lake Constance, south of Lindau, no longer part of the Rhine Valley; the Swiss-Austrian border follows the historical bed of the Rhine, but today the river follows an artificial canal within Austria for the final 5 kilometres. The Rhine Valley's upper third has the character of an Alpine valley, enclosing a bottom plain of about 1 to 4 kilometres across.
Downstream of Vaduz, the valley widens developing into a broad plain, measuring some 10 kilometres across at its lower end along the southeastern shores of Lake Constance. From the point of the Rhine's emergence from Lake Constance, it is known as High Rhine. Right tributaries of the Alpine Rhine are the Plessur in Chur, the Landquart in the village of the same name, the Ill and Frutz on the Upper Land of the Austrian plain near Feldkirch; the Alpine Rhine has no major left tributaries. Though all left tributaries in the St. Gall Rhine Valley are collected by the Rheintaler Binnenkanal, which flows into Lake of Constance by Alter Rhein, never meets the Alpine Rhine anymore; the alpine valley is flanked by its mountain ranges, some higher than 3,000 metres. The highest mountain of the Alpine Rhine Valley, the Ringelspitz, lies at the beginning, above Tamins. At 3'247 m, it is the highest peak of the canton of St. Gallen, bordering the Alps valley with its southeast flank. Geographical parts of the Alpine Rhine Valley are: Upper half: Chur Rhine Valley, or Grisonian Rhine Valley: The name refers to the town of Chur, or its canton Graubünden, respectively.
It ends east of Sargans. Lower half: To the north, the Bündner Rheintal crosses into the Rhine valley between Sargans and Lake of Constance, where it forms the border between the canton of St. Gallen on the west side and Liechtenstein and Austria on its east side. On both sides, the valley is called the Rhine Valley, though the Swiss sometimes call it the St. Gall Rhine Valley in order to distinguish it from its upper half. St. Gall Rhine Valley: On its western side, the Rhine Valley is politically further divided into Werdenberg and Rheintal, though geographically it is separated by the Hirschensprung near Rüthi. Eastern side: On its eastern side, the upper half of the valley is called the Lichtenstein Rhine Valley. Vorarlberg Rhine Valley: The lower half is called the Voralberg Rhine Valley, since it belongs to the Austrian federal state Voralberg, it is further referred to as the Upper and Lower Lands. The Lower Lands, sometimes called Vorderland, stretches from the shores of Lake Constance to the small hill Kummaberg to the south, the upper part lies south of it.
The Alpine Rhine begins in the centre of the Swiss canton of Grisons, forms the border between Switzerland to the west and Liechtenstein and Austria to the east. It is formed near Tamins-Reichenau by the confluence of the Posterior Rhine, it descends from an elevation of 585 to 396 metres. The river makes a distinctive turn to the north near Chur. At Landquart it turns north-east and to the north east of Sargans. Near Sargans a natural dam, only a few metres high, prevents it from flowing further to the north-west into the open valley, called Seeztal, consequently through Lake Walen; the mouth of the Rhine into Lake Constance forms an inland delta. The delta is delimited in the west in the east by a modern canalized section. Most of the delta is a nature reserve and bird sanctuary and has been designated as a Ramsar site since 1982.. It includes the Austrian towns of Höchst and Fußach; the natural Rhine branched into at least two arms and formed small islands by precipitating sediments. A regulation of the Rhine was called for, with an upper canal near Diepoldsau and a lower canal at Fußach, in order to counteract the constant flooding and strong sedimentation in the western Rhine Delta.
The Dornbirner Ach had to be diverted, it now flows parallel to the canalized Rhine into the lake. Its water has a darker color than the Rhine, it is expected. This has happened to the former Lake Tuggenersee; the cut-off Old Rhine at first formed a swamp landscape. An artificial ditch of about 2 kilometres was dug, it was made navigable to the Swiss town of Rheineck. The Alpine valley is ch
The Vorderrhein is one of the two sources of the Rhine. Its catchment area of 1,512 square kilometres is located predominantly in the canton of Graubünden; the Vorderrhein is about 76 kilometres long, thus more than 5% longer than the Hinterrhein/Rein Posteriur. The Vorderrhein, has an average water flow of 53.8 m3/s, less than the flow of the Hinterrhein. According to the Atlas of Switzerland of the Swiss Federal Office of Topography, the source of the Vorderrhein– and the Rhine –is located north of the Rein da Tuma and Lake Toma. Vorderrhein was the name of a judicial district, created in 1851 with the reorganization of the judiciary of Graubünden. In 2001, it was annexed by the District Surselva; the largest communities along the Vorderrhein are Ilanz. The Vorderrhein flows in an east-northeast direction, through the Surselva, a large longitudinal valley, its north side is steep, with short valleys, the southern side, however, is divided by some long valleys. Its main tributaries, the Rein da Sumvitg, the Glenner and the Rabiusa all come from the south.
In its lower course the Vorderrhein flows through the Flims Rockslide, giving rise to the canyon country of the Ruinaulta. Near Reichenau, it joins the Hinterrhein to form the Rhine; some of the tributaries of the Vorderrhein are as long as the main branch. In downstream order, they are: Two unnamed streams originating in the Puozas and Milez areas near the Oberalppass Rein da Tuma, including the Lai da Tuma and the main head of the lake, about 71 kilometres The Aua da Val from the Val valley Rein da Maighels Rein da Curnera Rein da Nalps Rein da Medel, the upper reaches in the Canton of Ticino are known as Reno di Medel, as Froda So the longer arms are not the source at Oberalppass, but further southeast; the longest headwater front of the Vorderrhein, is the Reno di Medel, which rises on the border of the municipality Quinto in Ticino. In the uppermost part of its course, it runs in the Val Cadlimo, south of the geomorphological main Alpine ridge, west of the Lukmanier Pass; the culminating point of the Anterior Rhine's drainage basin is the Piz Russein of the Tödi massif of the Glarus Alps at 3,613 metres above sea level.
It starts with the creek Aua da Russein. Thanks to its attractive scenery and some interesting passage, the Vorderrhein is a popular river for paddling and rafting the section between Ilanz and Versam. Along entire length of the Vorderrhein there is a narrow-gauge railway line: from Chur to Disentis there is a line of the Rhätische Bahn. From Disentis, the Furka-Oberalp line of the Matterhorn Gotthard Bahn runs to the Oberalp Pass and on to Andermatt. In the Ruinaulta area, the main road runs to the North of the river, at its highest point, at Flims, it is about 480 metres above the Rhine; the Senda Sursilvana, a hiking trail along the young Rhine River lead from the Oberalp Pass along the Vorderrhein in the direction of Chur. Natural Monument Ruinaulta flow description for water rides
The Eisbach, locally known as die Eis, is a 38-kilometre long river and left or western tributary of the Rhine in the northeastern Palatinate and southeastern Rhenish Hesse, in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate. The largest of the seven springs of the Eisbach is at an elevation of about 290 metres above sea level on the northern slope of the Hohe Bühl mountain, 443 metres, in the northern Palatinate Forest, southwest of Ramsen. After about two kilometres, the seven streams unite in the Eiswoog reservoir. At the hamlet of Kleehof, the 3.5-kilometre long Bockbach flows in from the right. Here, the direction of the river changes from straight north to northeast; the direction remains northeast until the confluence with the Rhine. The river flows past Ramsen and Eisenberg. Below Ebertsheim, it receives the 5-kilometre long Seltenbach from the right and a few metres further, its largest tributary, the Rodenbach from the left. At Asselheim, a ward of Grünstadt, the Eisbach reaches the Upper Rhine Valley.
It flows through the wards of Albsheim, Mühlheim and Colgenstein Obrigheim itself and the hamlet of Neuoffstein. Here, it receives up to 350 cubic metres per work day of waste water from the sugar beet processing plant Südzucker-Werk Offstein. At Offstein, it crosses the border into Rhenish Hesse, it flows past some southwestern and southern wards of Worms, viz. Heppenheim and Weinsheim. Near State Road 523, the Mariamünsterbach branches off. During the middle ages, this stream provided the dyeing industries in Worms with water. From this point onwards, the Eisbach is called Altbach and flows south of the Worms city centre, through the Bürgerweide ward, it flows at an elevation of 89 metres. Etymology research suggests that the syllable Eis in the name of the Eisbach did not refer to the frozen state of water, but was derived Eisen, referring to the iron ore, mined in this region; the name of the town of Eisenberg on the river appears to have the same meaning. The middle of the Eisbach valley was being exploited in the Old Stone Age by ice age hunters and gatherers.
This is evinced by stone tools from the Middle Stone Age. Other finds from Asselheim date to the Mesolithic, but the permanent presence of man in the Eisbach valley began with the population explosion of the New Stone Age. Neolithic settlements were established at the Wormser Adlerberg, in Weinsheim, Wiesoppenheim, Albsheim an der Eis and Asselheim; the Wormser Adlerberg is a small eminence, piled up by the Eisbach, where the high ground, secure from flooding, reaches right up to the banks of the Rhine. Other favourable sites in Worms itself are the Domberg and the Rheingewann, an alluvial cone at the mouth of the Pfrimm; these bridgeheads offered good crossing sites over the river. The valleys of the Pfrimm and the Eis form natural corridors through the hills and were therefore important east-west routes from the Rhine through the Kaiserslautern Basin to Gaul in prehistoric times, its location as a natural communications hub was the reason. "Of all the streams that empty into the Rhine north and south of Worms, only the Pfrimm and the Eis were of any great importance, because they formed the only riverside high ground suitable for settlements in the Rhine Plain."
Although long-distance trade experienced an important upsurge during the Bronze Age, there have been no Bronze Age finds in the upper Eis valley. In the Iron Age the upper Eis valley was settled. By Roman times, if not before, iron ore was being mined in the area of Ramsen and iron smelting in Eisenberg. In Eisenberg, a Roman vicus grew up with the character of a small industrial town; the important trunk road through the Eisbach valley was fortified in Roman times, but was only classified as a secondary Roman road. In Eisenberg there was a beneficarius station; the road along the Pfrimm was however always more important through the Eisbach valley. In Roman times there were numerous Roman estates in the valleys of the Eis and the Pfrimm, which followed one another in quick succession. Roman rule came to an end in the second half of the 5th century. Frankish settlement of the Eisbach valley began in the late 5th century. All the present-day Eisbach villages go back to Frankish settlements that were founded between the end of the 5th century and the 8th century.
The road from Metz to Worms via Kaiserslautern through the Eisbach valley played a central role in the settlement. This road increased further in importance during the Merovingian era because it linked Metz, the capital of the eastern part of the empire, with the Upper Rhine region. During the Saxon Wars, Charlemagne used Worms as an assembly area for his troops, because there, near the Palatinate, was sufficient room and plentiful supplies for large armies; the water power of the Eisbach was being used in the Middle Ages to drive water mills, such as the Papiermühle in Quirnheim-Tal, the Krausmühle and the Schiffermühle in Albsheim or the Stegmühle in Offstein. The first record of a mill on the Eisbach dates to the year 766, but in Roman times water mills were known and were used in the Germanic provincest. There were numerous mills on the Eisbach. Before the town was destroyed in 1689 the stream drove eleven mills alone in Worms itself and within one hour's walk from Worms upstream there were another nineteen mills.
The Eisbach was well suited for mills thanks
The Ergolz is the main river in the canton of Basel-Landschaft, Switzerland. It rises on Mount Geisflue in the Faltenjura mountains in the upper region of Basel-Landschaft, on the border with Aargau and Solothurn, joins the Rhine at Augst. Among the tributaries of the Ergolz are Eibach, Diegterbach, Orisbach, Röserenbach and Violenbach. Since 1934 the water level and discharge of the Ergolz have been measured at Liestal. During these more than 70 years, the average flow towards the Rhine was 3.73 cubic metres per second. During 2006, the average flow was 5.63 cubic metres per second. The peak in that year was on 10 April 2006, at 134 cubic metres per second; the extreme values measured at Liestal were a minimum of 0.1 cubic metres per second and a maximum of 155 cubic metres per second. The river supplied drinking water to the Roman city of Augusta Raurica. To this end, an aqueduct was constructed. Parts of the aqueduct still stand today. Two places where the aqueduct can be visited and walked today, are in the Heidenloch district of Liestal and north-east of the sewage treatment plant in Füllinsdorf.
The Ergolz was polluted during the first half of the 20th century. From 1960 onwards, pollution was countered by the construction of sewage treatment plants. Measurement data of the Federal Office for the Environment from 2006 Ergolz in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland. Water in the Jura mountains