Monarchy of Sweden
The Monarchy of Sweden concerns the monarchical head of state of Sweden, a constitutional and hereditary monarchy with a parliamentary system. The Kingdom of Sweden has been a monarchy since time immemorial. An elective monarchy, it became an hereditary monarchy in the 16th century during the reign of Gustav Vasa, though all monarchs before that belonged to a limited and small number of families which are considered to be the royal dynasties of Sweden. Sweden in the present day is a representative democracy in a parliamentary system based on popular sovereignty, as defined in the current Instrument of Government; the monarch and the members of the Royal Family undertake a variety of official and other representational duties within Sweden and abroad. Carl XVI Gustaf became King on 15 September 1973 on the death of Gustaf VI Adolf. Scandinavian peoples have had kings since prehistoric times; as early as the 1st century CE, Tacitus wrote that the Suiones had a king, but the order of Swedish regnal succession up until King Eric the Victorious, is known exclusively through accounts in controversial Norse sagas.
The Swedish king had combined powers limited to that of a war chief, a judge and a priest at the Temple at Uppsala. However, there are thousands of runestones commemorating commoners, but no known chronicle about the Swedish kings prior to the 14th century, there is a small number of runestones that are thought to mention kings: Gs 11, U 11 and U 861. About 1000 A. D. the first king known to rule both Svealand and Götaland was Olof Skötkonung, but further history for the next two centuries is obscure, with many kings whose tenures and actual influence/power remains unclear. The Royal Court of Sweden, does count Olof's father, Eric the Victorious, as Sweden's first king; the power of the king was strengthened by the introduction of Christianity during the 11th century, the following centuries saw a process of consolidation of power into the hands of the king. The Swedes traditionally elected a king from a favored dynasty at the Stones of Mora, the people had the right to elect the king as well as to depose him.
The ceremonial stones were destroyed around 1515. In the 12th century, the consolidation of Sweden was still affected by dynastic struggles between the Erik and Sverker clans, which ended when a third clan married into the Erik clan and the House of Bjelbo was established on the throne; that dynasty formed pre-Kalmar Union Sweden into a strong state, king Magnus IV ruled Norway and Scania. Following the Black Death, the union weakened, Scania reunited with Denmark. In 1397, after the Black Death and domestic power struggles, Queen Margaret I of Denmark united Sweden and Norway in the Union of Kalmar with the approval of the Swedish nobility. Continual tension within each country and the union led to open conflict between the Swedes and the Danes in the 15th century; the union's final disintegration in the early 16th century led to prolonged rivalry between Denmark-Norway and Sweden for centuries to come. Catholic bishops had supported the King of Denmark, Christian II, but he was overthrown in a rebellion led by nobleman Gustav Vasa, whose father had been executed at the Stockholm bloodbath.
Gustav Vasa was elected King of Sweden by the Estates of the Realm, assembled in Strängnäs on 6 June 1523. Inspired by the teachings of Martin Luther, Gustav I used the Protestant Reformation to curb the power of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1527 he persuaded the Estates of the Realm, assembled in the city of Västerås, to confiscate church lands, which comprised 21% of the country's farmland. At the same time, he broke with the papacy and established a reformed state church: the Church of Sweden. Throughout his reign, Gustav I suppressed both aristocratic and peasant opposition to his ecclesiastical policies and efforts at centralisation, which to some extent laid the foundation for the modern Swedish unitary state. Sweden has only been a hereditary monarchy since 1544 when the Riksdag of the Estates, through Västerås arvförening, designated the sons of King Gustav I as the heirs to the Throne. Tax reforms took place in 1538 and 1558, whereby multiple complex taxes on independent farmers were simplified and standardised throughout the district and tax assessments per farm were adjusted to reflect ability to pay.
Crown tax revenues increased, but more the new system was perceived as fairer. A war with Lübeck in 1535 resulted in the expulsion of the Hanseatic traders, who had had a monopoly on foreign trade. With its own burghers in charge, Sweden's economic strength grew and by 1544 Gustav controlled 60% of the farmlands in all of Sweden. Sweden now built the first modern army in Europe, supported by a sophisticated tax system and an efficient bureaucracy. At the death of King Gustav I in 1560, he was succeeded by his oldest son Eric XIV, his reign was marked by Sweden's entrance into the Northern Seven Years' War. The combination of Eric's developing mental disorder and his opposition to the aristocracy led to the Sture Murders in 1567 and the imprisonment of his brother John, married to Catherine Jagiellon, sister of King Sigismund II of Poland
Göran Persson served as Prime Minister of Sweden between 22 March 1996 and 6 October 2006. Persson took over after Ingvar Carlsson, who retired as Prime Minister. Following the 2006 general election, he and the Persson Cabinet lost power to a centre-right coalition government; when Ingvar Carlsson in the fall of 1995 declared that he intended to resign as leader for the Social Democratic Party and prime minister of Sweden, deputy prime minister Mona Sahlin was the only one who accepted to run for that position. However, a scandal concerning irresponsible use of her Riksdag credit card and unpaid parking tickets forced her to withdraw her candidacy that same fall; the search continued and Jan Nyman, Ingela Thalén as well as Göran Persson became the new possible candidates, but all of them declined to run when approached by the election board. After declining to candidate Göran Persson changed his mind and was elected new leader of the Social Democratic Party and prime minister of Sweden in March 1996.
Göran Persson inherited a party with a solid representation in the parliament, in the 1994 election more than 45 percent of the voters had given his predecessor their vote. Still not leading a party with a majority of the seats in the parliament, Göran Persson relied on parliamentary support from the Centre Party when outlining his politics, he launched a series of criticized cut-back programs, defending them in a famous speech to the parliament starting with the expression "One, in debt is not free". He did not manage to convince the voters however and the 1998 general election became a huge setback for the Social Democratic Party, now supported by only 36,4 percent of the voters; the Moderate party leader, Carl Bildt, expressed his concerns about Göran Persson not resigning from office, as an outcome of the election. Bildt claimed that the government forming process should start all over with the Speaker of parliament selecting a prime minister based on his or her ability to form a government.
He initiated a vote of no confidence, opposed by a majority formed by the Social Democratic Party as well as the Green and Left parties which were to be the new political partners. Göran Persson formed a one-party government, refusing to give seats to the Left or Green parties. In the 2002 general election Persson gained an increase in voter support with 39,9 percent voting for his party, again the Moderate Party leader, this time Bo Lundgren, initiated a vote of no confidence targeting the whereabouts of the actual parliamentary support for Persson; this time Persson was not backed by the Green Party, received support from a minority but managed to stay in office since the Green Party refrained from voting at all. He continued his one-party government policy, but extended his co-operation with the Green and Left parties for another four-year term. After the 2002 elections, electoral workers in the Stockholm area expressed concerns about how Social Democratic campaign workers had collected large numbers of voting cards from voters and voted on their behalf.
To collect large quantities of voting cards and vote in such a way is unconstitutional and therefore gained some initial media attention. The county and city of Stockholm, governed by a coalition led by the Moderate Party, became subject to change of leadership as a result of the election and the criticism was silenced; the circumstances of the suspected ballot rigging was never investigated. There have been other cases that have led to evictions at 2002 elections for ballot rigging by Social democratic party members working in the election offices. Many reports of other ballot rigging have been announced throughout the country by other parties but in lack of proof none has gone to court. During 2005 a scandal erupted as a result of widespread discontent with the lack of government aid to Swedes who fell victims to the notorious tsunami disaster, killing hundreds of Swedish tourists in December 2004; the criticism emerged early since the government refused to give clearance to prepared Swedish military rescue planes to aid in the rescue efforts in Asia.
The planes were left stranded on Swedish airfields and Swedish tourists, in many cases injured, had to wait for the few crowded regular flights that were available back home to Sweden. A committee initiated an investigation in 2005 to shed some light on what happened during the Christmas of 2004 and if anyone had noticed the early reports from the Swedish military intelligence offices; the scandal escalated into a case for the Swedish standing committee of constitution inqueries as it became evident that Swedish government officials either lied or refused to answer properly to the questions asked by the investigators. In early 2006 the scandal reached its climax as top ministers, including the prime minister, were interrogated under trial-like circumstances broadcast live on Swedish television. There has been suspicious deletion of communication traffic registers and e-mails regarding the time of this event. A directive was changed to delete this kind of data after a shorter time and after it had been done the directive was once again revised to its original writing.
After the election and a new cabinet come to be in power. Backup tapes of the deleted information has now been found stored in a vault in the cellar. During the live broadcast interrogations the CEO of the largest held Swedish TV-channel, Jan Scherman, claimed that Prime Minister Göran Persson threatened him during the election campaign in 2002. According to Mr. Scherman, Persson said that "TV4 is investing heavy in a non-socialistic election victory", if the socialists wins you "will have a lots of enemies in Rosenbad"; the claims never gained as much public inte
Supreme Court of Sweden
The Supreme Court of Sweden is the supreme court and the third and final instance in all civil and criminal cases in Sweden. Before a case can be decided by the Supreme Court, leave to appeal must be obtained, with few exceptions, leave to appeal can be granted only when the case is of interest as a precedent; the Supreme Court consists of 16 Justices who are appointed by the government, but the court as an institution is independent of the Riksdag, the Government is not able to interfere with the decisions of the court. All judicial power was vested in the Monarch, but in 1614 Gustavus Adolphus instituted Svea Hovrätt and authorized it to issue sentences in his name; those not satisfied with sentencing were able to turn directly to the monarch, appeals were handled by the Justice Department of the Privy Council, a committee of that council. Under the rule of King Gustav III, the noble Privy Council was suspended in 1789 after the Riksdag of the estates introduced an addition to the instrument of government from 1772 called the Union and Security Act.
After the Riksdag ended the King on May 19 instituted the King's Supreme Court to handle legal matters. There were twelve judges of the court, half of, to be nobles and half commoners. While in session, no more than eight judges could serve at the same time, with equal numbers of nobles and commoners. In the court the king held two votes, as well as the deciding vote in case of a tie. However, this voting right was never exercised, except on the centennial of the court, when King Oscar II took part in the decision of one case. Under the 1809 Instrument of Government, the judges of the Supreme Court became salaried civil servants, with the title of Councillor of Justice; the earlier Lord High Steward or Justiciar became the new Minister of State for Justice and the foremost member of the court in 1809, but when the modern government ministries were created in 1840, this minister of justice were separated from the court. In 1844 the requirement on equal numbers of noblemen and commoners in service as judges of the court was dropped.
In 1909 the Supreme Administrative Court and the Council on Legislation were created to assume certain tasks, handled by the Supreme Court. The Supreme Administrative Court assumed responsibility for ruling on administrative cases and the Legal Council received the responsibility for judicial review. At the same time the monarch lost voting power in the court; the right to appeal cases to the Supreme Court was limited for the first time in 1915. A special dispensation was required before trying a minor criminal case. Dispensation was to be given when there was a ruling that could become a precedent, in 1945 this requirement was extended to all cases. In 1948, the legal procedure was supplemented with oral proceedings and to satisfy the need for additional space the Supreme Court was moved in 1949 from the Royal Palace to the Bonde Palace on Stadsholmen. By the Instrument of Government of 1974 the Supreme Court discontinued the practice to award sentencing in the name of the Swedish monarch, as well as announcing them at the Royal Palace where they were adorned with the royal seal.
The current Councillors of Justice of the Supreme Court of Sweden, followed by year of appointment: Anders Eka, Chairman Gudmund Toijer, Chairman of Chamber Ann-Christine Lindeblad Kerstin Calissendorff Johnny Herre Agneta Bäcklund Ingemar Persson Svante O. Johansson Dag Mattsson Lars Edlund Sten Andersson Stefan Johansson Petter Asp Malin Bonthron Eric M. Runesson Official website
The Moderate Party is a liberal-conservative political party in Sweden. The party supports tax cuts, the free market, civil liberties and economic liberalism. Internationally, it is a full member of the International Democrat Union and European People's Party; the party was founded in 1904 as the General Electoral League by a group of conservatives in the Riksdag, the Swedish parliament. The party was known as The Right and Right Wing Party. After holding minor posts in centre-right governments, the Moderates became the leading opposition party to the Swedish Social Democratic Party and since those two parties have dominated Swedish politics. After the 1991 general election, party leader Carl Bildt formed a minority government, the first administration since 1930 to be headed by a member of the party, which lasted three years; the party was returned in government, under party leader and Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeld, after the 2006 and 2010 general elections. In 2010 the party, the leading member of the centre-right Alliance coalition, obtained its best result ever.
The current chairman of the party, Ulf Kristersson, was elected at a special party congress on 1 October 2017, following Anna Kinberg Batra's sudden resignation. Kinberg Batra had replaced Reinfeldt, Prime Minister from 2006 to 2014. Under Reinfeldt's leadership, the party moved more towards the centre in Swedish politics; the party was founded on 17 October 1904 in a restaurant called Runan in Stockholm. The intention was to start a campaign organization in support of the group of Conservatives which had emerged in the Riksdag. During the 19th century conservatives had organised themselves in the Riksdag but there was no party to support them; the Swedish right were threatened by the rise of the Swedish Social Democratic Party and the Liberals. The party was called the General Electoral League. At first the party was nationalist and staunchly conservative; the importance of a strong defense was underlined and other societal institutions embraced by the party were the monarchy and the state of law.
The party held a protectionist view towards the economy. In the defence policy crisis in 1914, which overturned the parliamentary Liberal government, the party sided with King Gustav but stopped short of accepting a right-wing government by royal appointment, instead opting for an independent-conservative "war cabinet" under Hjalmar Hammarskjöld, overturned in favor of a Liberal-Social Democratic majority coalition government and thus the breakthrough of parliamentary rule, albeit reluctantly embraced by the right. Arvid Lindman became influential in the party and served two terms as Prime Minister of Sweden and after the enactment of universal suffrage. In 1907 he proposed universal male suffrage to the parliament and in 1912 he was formally elected leader, but the party voted against universal suffrage and the party again voted against women's right to vote. It was only because the party was in minority that Sweden was able to grant the right to vote for all, pushed through by the Liberals and the Social Democrats, against the objections of the right.
Although not one of the founders of the party and not a prominent ideologist and his achievements as a leader are appreciated as being of great importance for the new party. His leadership was marked by a consolidation of the Swedish right, by transforming the party into a modern, political movement. Lindman was a pragmatic politician, but without losing his principles, he was peace-broker. For this he was respected by his fiercest political opponents and when he resigned and left the parliament in 1935, the leader of the Social Democrats, Per Albin Hansson, expressed his "honest thanks over the battle lines". From the beginning of the 20th century social democracy and the labour movement rose to replace liberalism as the major political force for radical reforms; the Moderate Party intensified its opposition to socialism during the leadership of Lindman—the importance of continuance and strengthening national business were cornerstones. But at the same time, recent social issues gained significant political attention.
During the governments led by Lindman, several reforms for social progress were made, it was his first government that initiated the public state pension. In the 1920s the Swedish right started to move towards a classical liberal view on economic issues under the influence of the liberal economist Gustav Cassel, but the economic downturn following the Great Depression frustrated the possible liberal transition of their economic policy. Before that occurred the party gained its greatest success yet with 29.4% in the general election of 1928 called the Cossack Election, on a anti-socialist programme. The government formed by the party did not accept the concept of the market economy, but continued the protectionist policy by generous financial aid; the government began complete regulation of agriculture. Production associations, with the objective to administer the regulations and to run monopolies on imports, were established du
Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden
Carl XVI Gustaf is the King of Sweden. He ascended the throne on the death of his grandfather, King Gustaf VI Adolf, on 15 September 1973, he is the youngest child and only son of Prince Gustaf Adolf, Duke of Västerbotten, Princess Sibylla of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. His father died on 26 January 1947 in an airplane crash in Denmark when Carl Gustaf was nine months old. Upon his father's death, he became second in line to the throne, after his grandfather, the Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf. Following the death of King Gustaf V in 1950, Gustaf Adolf ascended the throne and thus Carl Gustaf became Sweden's new crown prince and heir apparent to the throne at the age of four. A short while after he became king in 1973, the new 1974 Instrument of Government took effect, formally stripping Carl XVI Gustaf of any role in the legislative process, several other duties accorded to a head of state, such as the formal appointment of the prime minister, signing off legislation, being commander-in-chief of the nation's military.
The new instrument explicitly limits the king to ceremonial functions and, among other things, to be informed of affairs of state. As head of the House of Bernadotte Carl Gustaf has been able to make a number of government-supported decisions about the titles and positions of its members; the king's heir apparent, after passage on 1 January 1980 of a new law establishing absolute primogeniture, is Crown Princess Victoria, the eldest child of the King and his wife, Queen Silvia. Before the passage of that law, Crown Princess Victoria's younger brother, Prince Carl Philip, was the heir apparent, as of his birth in May 1979. Carl XVI Gustaf is the longest-reigning monarch in Swedish history, having surpassed King Magnus IV's reign of 44 years and 222 days on 26 April 2018. Carl Gustaf was born on 30 April 1946 at 10:20 in Haga Palace in Stockholm County, he was the youngest of five children and the only son of Sweden's Prince Gustaf Adolf and Princess Sibylla. He was christened at the Royal Chapel on 7 June 1946 by the Archbishop of Erling Eidem.
He was baptised in Charles XI's baptismal font, which stood on Gustav III's carpet and he lay in Charles XI's cradle with Oscar II's crown beside him. The same christening gown in white linen batiste which the prince carried had been worn by his father in 1906 and would be worn by his three children, his godparents were the Crown Prince and Crown Princess of Denmark, the Crown Prince of Norway, Princess Juliana of the Netherlands, the King of Sweden, the Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the Crown Prince and Crown Princess of Sweden, Count Folke and Countess Maria Bernadotte af Wisborg. Prince Carl Gustaf was given the title of the Duke of Jämtland, his father, Prince Gustaf Adolf, Duke of Västerbotten was killed in an airplane crash on 26 January 1947, at Copenhagen Airport. His father's death had left the nine-month-old prince second in line for the throne, behind his grandfather Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf; when his paternal great-grandfather Gustaf V died in 1950, the four-year-old prince became the heir apparent of Sweden.
Carl Gustaf was seven years old before he was told about his father's death, he expressed his feelings about growing up without knowing his father in a speech in 2005. His earliest education was received at the Royal Palace; the young prince was sent to Broms school, on to Sigtuna boarding school. After graduating from high school in 1966, Carl Gustaf completed two and a half years of education in the Swedish Army, the Royal Swedish Navy, the Swedish Air Force. During the winter 1966-1967 he took part in a round-the-world voyage with the mine-laying vessel Älvsnabben; the Crown Prince received his commission as an officer in all three services in 1968 rising to the rank of captain and lieutenant, before his ascension to the throne. He completed his academic studies in history, political science, tax law, economics at Uppsala University and Economics at Stockholm University. To prepare for his role as the head of state, Crown Prince Carl Gustaf followed a broad program of studies on the court system, social organisations and institutions, trade unions, employers' associations.
In addition, he studied the affairs of the Riksdag and Ministry for Foreign Affairs. The Crown Prince spent time at the Swedish Mission to the United Nations and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, worked at a bank in London and at the Swedish Embassy in there, at the Swedish Chamber of Commerce in France, at the Alfa Laval Company factory in France. In 1970 he represented the King at the head of the Swedish delegation to the World Exposition in Osaka, Japan. Since his youth the present monarch has been a strong supporter of the Scout Movement in Sweden. On 15 September 1973, Carl Gustaf became King of Sweden upon the death of his grandfather, Gustaf VI Adolf. On September 19, he took the required regal assurance during an extraordinary meeting of the cabinet. Afterwards, he appeared before the parliament, diplomatic corps, etc. in the Hall of State at the Royal Palace where he gave a speech. Both the cabinet meeting and ceremony at the Hall were broadcast live on television.
Following the ceremonies, he appeared on the balcony to acknowledge gathered crowds. At the cabinet meeting, the King declared that his name would be Carl XVI Gustaf and that his title would be King of Sweden, he adopted, "For Sweden – With the times" as h
Swedish royal family
The Swedish royal family since 1818 has consisted of a number of persons in the Swedish Royal House of Bernadotte related to the King of Sweden. Today those who are recognized by the government are entitled to royal titles and style, perform official engagements and ceremonial duties of state; the extended family of the King consists of other close relatives who are not royal and thus do not represent the country officially. A Swedish royal family, as related to a head of state, has been able to be identified as existent from as early as the 10th century A. D. with more precise detail added during the three centuries that followed. An exceptional case is that of Saint Bridget who outside of Sweden became known as the Princess of Nericia, a title which appears to have been a noble, rather than a royal one, since she was not the daughter of a king. Confirmed monarchs are listed by the Swedish Royal Court; until the 1620s Swedish provinces were granted as territorial appanages to royal princes which, as dukes thereof, they governed semi-autonomously.
Beginning during the reign of Gustav III, as codified in § 34 of the 1772 Instrument of Government, provincial dukedoms have existed in the royal family as nominal non-hereditary titles only, without any inherent property ownership or trust attached to them. The son of a Swedish king has held the princely title as a royal dynast, but on a rare occasion as a rank of nobility, or as a courtesy title for an ex-dynast; the Swedish Royal Court lists the following persons as members of the Royal House: King Carl XVI Gustaf Queen Silvia Crown Princess Victoria, Duchess of Västergötland Prince Daniel, Duke of Västergötland Princess Estelle, Duchess of Östergötland Prince Oscar, Duke of Skåne, Prince Carl Philip, Duke of Värmland Princess Sofia, Duchess of Värmland Prince Alexander, Duke of Södermanland Prince Gabriel, Duke of Dalarna Princess Madeleine, Duchess of Hälsingland and Gästrikland,married to Christopher O'Neill Princess Leonore, Duchess of Gotland Prince Nicolas, Duke of Ångermanland Princess Adrienne, Duchess of Blekinge Princess Birgitta, widow of Prince Johann Georg of Hohenzollern The Royal Court lists the following persons additionally as members of the Royal Family: Princess Margaretha, Mrs. Ambler, widow of John Ambler Princess Désirée, Baroness Silfverschiöld, widow of Baron Niclas Silfverschiöld Princess Christina, Mrs. Magnuson, married to Consul General Tord Magnuson Marianne Bernadotte, widow of Sigvard Bernadotte Red-framed persons are deceased.
Notes* Member of the Royal House ** Member of the Royal Family Monarchy of Sweden Dukes of Swedish Provinces Swedish Royal Court Complete list of Sweden's royal family, alphabetically, on Swedish Wikipedia
Deputy Prime Minister of Sweden
The Swedish constitution allows the Prime Minister to appoint one of the Ministers in the cabinet as Deputy Prime Minister, in case the Prime Minister for some reason is prevented from performing his or her duties. If a Deputy Prime Minister has not been appointed, the Minister in the cabinet who has served the longest time takes over as head of government. A Deputy Prime Minister can only serve as Prime Minister in a temporary function, as the resignation of a Prime Minister automatically includes the entire cabinet, the Instrument of Government of Sweden requires the Speaker of the Riksdag to dismiss the cabinet in the case of the death of the Prime Minister. Under the 1809 Instrument of Government the Minister for Foreign Affairs was to function as acting Prime Minister should the Prime Minister not be able not to perform his duties. With the enactment of the 1974 Instrument of Government and the inauguration of Thorbjörn Fälldin's three-party cabinet in 1976, Per Ahlmark was formally sworn in as the first to hold the office of Deputy Prime Minister.
In 1986 Deputy Prime Minister Ingvar Carlsson became acting Prime Minister for the transitional cabinet from March 1 to March 12, upon the assassination of Olof Palme, the only time the death of the Prime Minister has caused the Deputy Prime Minister to temporarily assume the office. Carlsson subsequently received the task of forming a new cabinet from the Speaker of the Riksdag; the cabinet was approved by the Riksdag on March 12, 1986 reappointing most cabinet members in their previous offices. The role and position of a Deputy Prime Minister may vary. In the five last coalition cabinets, Fälldin III, Bildt and Reinfeldt I and II, Löfven, the Deputy Prime Minister was the head of the second-largest coalition partner. In the governments Fälldin I and II, the Deputy Prime Ministership belonged to the Liberal Party despite the fact that it was the smallest of the three members; the reason for this might be ascribed to an unwillingness on behalf of the Centre and Liberals to give this position to the Moderates, due to ideological differences.
In all of these governments, the Deputy Prime Minister had a regular Cabinet portfolio. In July 2015, the office of the Deputy Prime Minister was the subject of some political debate. Following a brief illness of the social democratic Prime Minister, Stefan Löfven, the Prime Minister's office revealed that the Deputy Prime Minister Åsa Romson of the Green Party, although named Vice statsminister when the cabinet took office in October 2014, was in fact not expected to temporarily assume the duties of the Prime Minister as Statsministerns ställföreträdare as stated in the Instrument of Government, instead yielding to the most senior minister of the cabinet; this makes social democratic Foreign Minister Margot Wallström the actual deputy of the Prime Minister, due to seniority rather than appointment. It rendered the title of Vice statsminister an honorary title, for the most senior member of the party functioning as junior partner in the governing coalition, rather than an actual function; the situation is different in the one-party governments that have existed since the position of Deputy Prime Minister was introduced in 1976, namely the Liberal Ullsten government and the Social Democratic governments Palme II, Carlsson I-III and Persson.
While Mona Sahlin might well have been described as something of a "successor-in-waiting", the other Deputy Prime Ministers have tended to be older and experienced politicians who have been in charge of coordinating the work of the Government and may have been in charge of some policy areas of their own which were not substantial enough to warrant a full-time Cabinet position, such as Bo Ringholm, Minister of Sport concurrently with being Deputy Prime Minister. Color key Independent Social Democratic Moderate Centre Left Liberals Christian Democrats Green Sweden Democrats www.sweden.gov.se