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Reinforcement learning

Reinforcement learning is an area of machine learning concerned with how software agents ought to take actions in an environment in order to maximize some notion of cumulative reward. Reinforcement learning is one of three basic machine learning paradigms, alongside supervised learning and unsupervised learning. Reinforcement learning differs from supervised learning in not needing labelled input/output pairs be presented, in not needing sub-optimal actions to be explicitly corrected. Instead the focus is on finding a balance between exploitation; the environment is stated in the form of a Markov decision process, because many reinforcement learning algorithms for this context utilize dynamic programming techniques. The main difference between the classical dynamic programming methods and reinforcement learning algorithms is that the latter do not assume knowledge of an exact mathematical model of the MDP and they target large MDPs where exact methods become infeasible. Reinforcement learning, due to its generality, is studied in many other disciplines, such as game theory, control theory, operations research, information theory, simulation-based optimization, multi-agent systems, swarm intelligence and genetic algorithms.

In the operations research and control literature, reinforcement learning is called approximate dynamic programming, or neuro-dynamic programming. The problems of interest in reinforcement learning have been studied in the theory of optimal control, concerned with the existence and characterization of optimal solutions, algorithms for their exact computation, less with learning or approximation in the absence of a mathematical model of the environment. In economics and game theory, reinforcement learning may be used to explain how equilibrium may arise under bounded rationality. Basic reinforcement is modeled as a Markov decision process: a set of environment and agent states, S; the observation involves the scalar, immediate reward associated with the last transition. In many works, the agent is assumed to observe the current environmental state. If not, the agent has partial observability. Sometimes the set of actions available to the agent is restricted. A reinforcement learning agent interacts with its environment in discrete time steps.

At each time t, the agent receives an observation o t, which includes the reward r t. It chooses an action a t from the set of available actions, subsequently sent to the environment; the environment moves to a new state s t + 1 and the reward r t + 1 associated with the transition is determined. The goal of a reinforcement learning agent is to collect as much reward as possible; the agent can choose any action as a function of the history. When the agent's performance is compared to that of an agent that acts optimally, the difference in performance gives rise to the notion of regret. In order to act near optimally, the agent must reason about the long term consequences of its actions, although the immediate reward associated with this might be negative. Thus, reinforcement learning is well-suited to problems that include a long-term versus short-term reward trade-off, it has been applied to various problems, including robot control, elevator scheduling, telecommunications, checkers and Go. Two elements make reinforcement learning powerful: the use of samples to optimize performance and the use of function approximation to deal with large environments.

Thanks to these two key components, reinforcement learning can be used in large environments in the following situations: A model of the environment is known, but an analytic solution is not available. The first two of these problems could be considered planning problems, whil

Independence, Mississippi

Independence is an unincorporated community in Tate County, United States. The settlement is 7 miles south of Cockrum and 11 miles east of Coldwater along Mississippi Highway 305. Although an unincorporated community, Independence has a zip code of 38638; the settlement was first known as "Flewellenes Crossroads" and "Buck Snorts". During the Civil War, R. W. Locke organized a company of soldiers in Buck Snorts, dispatched to Virginia where they became Company D of the 42d Mississippi Infantry Regiment. Locke was elected company captain; the population in 1900 was 100. By 1907, Independence had a post office, several stores/businesses, two churches, a public school. Hugh Freeze, former head coach of the Ole Miss Rebels football team at the Ole Miss. Michael Conner Humphreys, actor who played Young Forrest Gump in Forrest Gump

Dope Stars Inc.

Dope Stars Inc. is an alternative and industrial rock band from Rome, Italy formed in 2003. The band was founded by Darin Yevonde, Grace Khold and Brian Wolfram, they have five albums and three EPs released, with the latest being released on February 27, 2015. The band has signed with multiple labels since their inception, with Trisol Music Group being their first, their albums are distributed by Trisol in Europe, Subsound in Italy, Metropolis Records in North America, other small labels including Deathwatch Asia in Japan and other countries. In early 2003, Victor Love, met with friend and designer Grace Khold in Rome, Italy. Grace introduced Love to Darin Yevonde. Yevonde and Khold asked Love to front their band and he agreed; this was following Love's return from Finland, where he has since stated Finnish music as being an influence for him. In a interview in 2009, Love has cited Hanoi Rocks and HIM as major Finnish influences; the name "Dope Stars Inc." soon followed with "Dope" coming from the leading tone of the band, "Stars" came from their upcoming status, "Inc." coming from the industrial influence of their music.

The trio soon found Brian Wolfram and all four converged to begin casually writing a demo EP. The demo, "10,000 Watts of Artificial Pleasure", was self-produced and sold out following the November 2003 release. Dope Stars Inc. began working on their debut album. In 2005, the band released their debut album, shortly before the releasing their second album. Neuromance produced by John Fryer was a two-disc bundle Digipack. A few tracks were taken from 10,000 Watts of Artificial Pleasure. Soon after, the band was awarded with the title "Newcomer of the Month" by both Orkus and Sonic Seducer music magazines. In 2008 victor love formed Epochate with noras blake of spineflesh. Following the release of Neuromance, the band began working on a second EP, released one year after the full studio album; the EP, Make a Star, contained fewer tracks than their first EP and consisted of remixes of the eponymous song, Make a Star containing five tracks of the full nine. Remixes included L'Âme Immortelle, Samsas Traum and The Birthday Massacre.

In 2005, the band remixed labelmate Emilie Autumn's track Dead Is the New Alive with the title "Dead Is the New Alive". This track was included on the Saw IV Soundtrack; the band did a second track for Autumn's "Liar". Both these remixes were included on Autumn's EP Liar/Dead Is the New Alive, released in 2007. Following the release of Make a Star, Dope Stars Inc. began working on their untitled second album. In 2006, Gigahearts was released, again through Trisol Music Group, the same label as their debut album. Soon after, the band played at the 2006 M'era Luna Festival with about 40 other bands. A single from Gigahearts titled Beatcrusher was included on the Saw IV Soundtrack for the 2007 film Saw IV; this shot the band with gaining popularity. This would mark the band's third appearance on a Saw soundtrack following a version of "Make a Star" included on the Saw II Soundtrack and the song "Getting Closer" being included on the Saw III Soundtrack, their biggest appearance for the Saw franchise, was their live show at the premier of Saw III in Munich, which gained them many fans.

This led to the band's inclusion in the 2007 Infest Festival along with other prominent bands including: Apoptygma Berzerk, Caustic and Synnack. This was the band's second festival with other similar bands. Dope Stars' third album and a third EP were both in production for over two years, the longest gap to date for the band to release music. On April 24, 2009, the band released Criminal Intents/Morning Star. Rather than Trisol Music Group, their label since 2003, the band released the EP under a new label, Subsound, their song, "Lost", was remixed in 2009 by The LoveCrave as the single "Lost". This was a recollaboration from 2007 when Dope Stars mixed their song "Vampires" into a song titled "Vampires " for a collection album released that year. For their third album, the band continued to use Trisol Music Group and it was released on July 21, 2009; the album, 21st Century Slave, was the band's full breakthrough album and has earned mention in the industrial music industry, with much attention being spread online.

The album was first released in Europe with North American and Australian releases following, along with other minor releases. The European and Italian versions of the album included lyric booklets; the North American and Japanese versions included booklets, but with varying content. In addition, the North American version got a special edition jewel case with an exclusive 16-page booklet. All versions were released in July 2009. After release, the album received much attention from critics. Dom Smith of Sphere magazine wrote "While ’21st Century Slave’ doesn't make any major adjustments to DSI's tried and tested formula of monstrous cyberpunk, it's their most vibrant and accessible record to date." The band was expected to begin working on future projects sometime in 2010. Rather than continuing to use a drum machine for albums and live performances, the band is planning to hire a real drummer for their future projects. On July 7, 2010, the band opened A. Live Rock Festival in Barletta with Extrema and Skid Row as headliners.

In early 2011, the band released the single "

Morphotectonics

Morphotectonics, or tectonic geomorphology, is a branch of geomorphology that studies how landforms are formed or affected by tectonic activity. Morphotectonists seek to understand the deep Earth mechanisms behind the creation of tectonic landforms by processes such as crust uplift, faulting, or folding. Morphotectonics relies on cross-disciplinary research, drawing from fields such as geology, physical geography, climatology and geodesy; this diversity creates a challenge in that successful morphotectonic studies require combining information from specialized unrelated fields of study. Furthermore, this wide range of fields leads to new discoveries in the field coming from unexpected sources, such as paleobotany or stratigraphy; the field of morphotectonics has been gaining attention since the 1980s. The study of how landforms are created by inner Earth processes was a topic focused on in the mid-20th century appearing in geomorphology and geology textbooks. However, the term morphotectonics was not coined until 1961 by Edwin Hills, who defined the field as involving "a study of the external form and outlines of major topographic units...as well as their internal structure".

After the 1960s, the field became neglected until a resurgence of morphotectonic literature in the 1980s. Tectonic landforms are natural geomorphic landscape features. Traditionally, it was believed that many geomorphic landscape features were formed via external, non-tectonic processes, such as water and ice erosion. However, it is now believed that in all cases, geomorphic features were formed by a combination of external and internal mechanisms. A fault scarp is a small step or offset on the ground surface where one side of a fault has moved vertically with respect to the other. Active faulting can cause fault scarps to appear either individually or as multiple subparallel scarps. Valleys are the low areas lying between mountains or hills in which something flows water, debris, or ice; the customary view is that valleys are carved by running water eroding path through land, or by glaciers scouring across slopes. Traditional morphotectonic methods directly associated landform structure with geologic origin, with little regard to actual geophysical data.

In more recent decades, morphotectonists have developed a more analytic approach with the advancement of technologies including the advancement of dating methods, development of new geodetic tools, the availability digital topographic data along with high-speed computing

Wilson Gunaratne

Wilson Gunaratne is an actor and comedian in Sri Lankan cinema, stage drama and television. He is most notable for the role Kodithuwakku in television comedy sitcom Nonavaruni Mahathvaruni and stage drama Charitha Atak, it is the only stage play in Sri Lanka in which one actor portrays eight different characters with eight different voices. He was introduced to drama under the guidance of former parliamentary translator and actor Alfred Perera. Alfred has worked in the Philippines Radio, he invited Gunaratne to the orchestra for the popular television serial Vinoda Samaya program aired by the Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation. He was the drummer of that program, his maiden cinema acting came through film Samuganimi Ma Samiyani directed by his elder brother. He got a chance to play in his brother's second directed film Sasaraka Pethuma. By that time I was working as a senior manager in the hotel industry. After that, he entered the stage with the play Veniciye Welenda. Gunaratne was popularized with the television sitcom Nonavaruni Mahathvaruni through the character Kodithuwakku.

In the meantime, he acted in the serial Sathpura Wasiyo with the role "Pappa" which made his hallmark in drama career. Apart from that, he produced a political comedy stage drama titled Charitha Hathak, updated into Charitha Atak. Since its opening, Charitha Hathak has completed 37 shows within eight months, his seven characters include, Kodituwakku from "Nonava-runi Mahatvaruni", Prof. Pragnaratne, Transport Teacher Mr. Bastian, Prof. Marenzie. In 1998, he made first directorial debut with the television political satire Kodivinaya telecast by ITN. Charitha Hathak Charitha Atak Bhavana - Amuttha Charitha Dekak Hathara Wate Kinihiraka Pipi Mal Kodivinaya Kula Kumariya Kulavilokanaya Nonavaruni Mahathvaruni Kathura Sadisi Tharanaya Vinivindimi Willy King Show Yes Madam No. Denotes the Number of Sri Lankan film in the Sri Lankan cinema. Wilson Gunaratne's Charitha Atak Charitha Atak for a stress free evening චරිත අටක් මවන එකම චරිතය

621st Contingency Response Wing

The 621st Contingency Response Wing is the sole contingency response wing of the United States Air Force, based out of Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst, New Jersey. The 621st CRW is specialized in training and deploying personnel to open airfields and establish, expand and coordinate air mobility operations. From wartime taskings to disaster relief, the 621st extends Air Mobility Command's reach in deploying people and equipment around the globe. Most of the operations can be classified by three types, Joint Task Force - Port Opening, where USAF and US Army units create distribution chains, Expeditionary Air Mobility Support, where CRW personnel augment existing forces for the mission, Initial Airbase Opening. Other operations include: Air Advisory with partner nations, augmenting or stand alone Command and Control, Air Advisory of airlift assets for U. S. Army and Marine Units; the 621st was established on 24 June 1994 as the 621st Air Mobility Operations Group before being activated on 22 July of that year at McGuire Air Force Base.

It was expanded into the 621st Contingency Response Wing on 1 March 2005. The 621st included four groups, eight squadrons and ten geographically separated operating locations aligned with major US Army and Marine Corps combat units; the wing maintains a ready corps of light and agile mobility support forces able to respond as directed by the 18th Air Force at Scott Air Force Base, Ill. in order to meet Combatant Command wartime and humanitarian requirements. Following the 2010 Haiti earthquake of 12 January, the 817th Contingency Response Group deployed to Toussaint L'Ouverture International Airport, Port-au-Prince, Haiti in support of Operation Unified Response. Before the earthquake, Toussaint L'Ouverture handled an average of 20 flights a day. Following the earthquake this number jumped dramatically. At its peak on 19 January, more than 160 aircraft landed and were safely unloaded by the CRW—an 800 percent increase in air traffic from pre-disaster levels. In early 2010, Airmen from the 571st Contingency Response Group and 819th Global Support Squadron deployed to Camp Marmal, Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan to provide aerial cargo handling support for the Operation Enduring Freedom logistics surge.

The 816th Contingency Response Group was inactivated on 11 June 2010. In August 2010, 30 Airmen from the 818th Contingency Response Group deployed as a Contingency Response Element, or CRE, to Chaklala Airbase, Pakistan. Once deployed, they provided additional aerial port capabilities to increase aircraft loading efficiency for the Pakistan Air Force's Central Flood Relief Cell. Airmen from the 621st Contingency Response Group deployed thrice in support of Operation Inherent Resolve, in 2015, they deployed to Iraq where it established an airstrip at al-Taqaddum to support coalition forces in the Battle for Ramadi. In 2016, the group established the Kobani airfield in Syria and set up an airfield at Qayarrah West in Iraq to support coalition forces in the Battle of Mosul. In November 2016 Airman from the group with a contingent of civil engineers, intelligence personnel and security forces were temporarily deployed to expand and modify the airstrip that the Airmen had established at an air base where they deployed to near Kobani, so it can be used to assist in the offensive to retake Raqqa from ISIS.

The airbase gives the US an additional location for its aircraft to support U. S. and other anti-ISIS forces, but it had been used by US forces limitedly due to the condition of the runway which restricted what types of aircraft could land there. General Carlton Everhart II, commander of US Air Mobility Command, said that the base enables aircraft to deliver critical supplies and help position forces, he added that airmen from the 621st group have supported anti-ISIS coalition forces on the ground in Syria. With a separation of over 1,000 miles, teams from the 621st remained ready to launch at a moment's notice in support of the Space Shuttle launches during the years of the program. Designed to provide a quick response mobility force, the 621st CRW's shuttle support mission was only to be executed in the event of a post launch emergency that forced the shuttle to land at an alternate location. CRW Airmen sat on-call during the schedule launch to facilitate the response in case the shuttle mission was aborted.

Constituted as the 621st Air Mobility Operations Group on 24 June 1994Activated on 22 July 1994Redesignated the 621st Contingency Response Wing on 1 March 2005 Twenty-First Air Force, 22 July 1994 United States Air Force Expeditionary Center, 19 March 2012 – present 621st Air Mobility Advisory Group 321st Air Mobility Operations Squadron 621st Air Mobility Operations Squadron 571st Mobility Support Advisory Squadron 621st Mobility Support Operations Squadron 818th Mobility Support Advisory Squadron 621st Contingency Response Group 321st Contingency Response Squadron 621st Contingency Response Squadron 621st Contingency Response Support Squadron 821st Contingency Response Group 821st Contingency Response Squadron 821st Contingency Response Support Squadron 921st Contingency Response Squadron McGuire Air Force Base, New Jersey, 22 July 1994 Travis Air Force Base, California, 29 May 2012 621st Contingency Response Wing Fact Sheet 621 CRW Official Site