Franz Volkmar Reinhard
Franz Volkmar Reinhard was a German Protestant theologian born in Vohenstrauß. In 1780 he became an associate professor of theology and philosophy at the University of Wittenberg, where he served as rector in 1790–91. In 1792 he was appointed Oberhofprediger to the Saxon court in Dresden. Reinhard was one of the more influential Protestant ministers of his era, was an important representative of "enlightened theological supernaturalism", he was not opposed to contemporary rationalist thought, yet at the same time stressed the importance of divine supremacy and Biblical authority. In his sermons and lectures he attempted to establish the "truth of Lutheranism" by rational means. Reinhard was a prominent figure in the Leben-Jesu-Forschung movement, a concept initiated by Hermann Samuel Reimarus, he exerted considerable influence upon the German educational system. Among written works attributed to him was a 39-volume collection of his sermons that were published between 1793 and 1837. Other noted publications by Reinhard include: Versuch über den Plan, welchen der Stifter der christlichen Religion...
System der christlichen Moral. Vorlesungen über die Dogmatik. Christian Classics Ethereal Library
Reinhard Gehlen was a German general and intelligence officer, chief of the Wehrmacht Foreign Armies East military-intelligence unit during World War II. Gehlen was regarded as "one of the most legendary Cold War spymasters."Gehlen became a professional soldier in 1920 during the Weimar Republic. In 1942, he became chief of the German Army's military intelligence unit on the Eastern Front, he achieved the rank of major general before being sacked by Adolf Hitler because of the FHO’s pessimistically accurate intelligence reports about Red Army superiority. In late 1945, at the start of the Cold War, the U. S. military recruited him to establish the Gehlen Organisation, an espionage network against the Soviet Union, which employed former military officers of the Wehrmacht and former members of the Schutzstaffel and the Sicherheitsdienst. Gehlen was the first president of the Federal Intelligence Service of West Germany from 1956 to 1968. While this was a civilian office, he was a lieutenant-general in the Reserve forces of the Bundeswehr, the highest-ranking reserve-officer in the military of West Germany.
Gehlen was born to a Roman Catholic family. In 1920, he joined the Reichswehr. In 1935, Gehlen graduated from German Staff College. After college, Gehlen was assigned to the German General Staff. Gehlen served on the General Staff until 1936, was promoted to major in 1939. In 1940, he became liaison officer to Field Marshal Walther von Brauchitsch, Army Commander-in-Chief. In July 1941, he received a promotion to lieutenant-colonel and was sent to the Eastern Front, where he was assigned as senior intelligence-officer to the Fremde Heere Ost section of the Staff. In spring of 1942, Gehlen assumed command of the FHO from Colonel Eberhard Kinzel. Before the Wehrmacht disasters in the Battle of Stalingrad, a year into the German war against Soviet Union, Gehlen understood that the FHO required fundamental re-organisation, secured a staff of army linguists and geographers, anthropologists and junior military officers who would improve the FHO as a military-intelligence organisation despite the Nazi ideology of Slavic inferiority.
In summer 1944, Colonel Henning von Tresckow, Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg, General Adolf Heusinger asked Gehlen to participate in their plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler. As head of the FHO, Gehlen allowed the military conspirators to make their plans under his protection. Gehlen's cadre of FHO intelligence-officers produced faithful and accurate field-intelligence about the Red Army that contradicted rear-echelon perceptions of the Eastern battle front, which Hitler dismissed as defeatism, philosophically harmful to the Nazi cause against "Judeo-Bolshevism" in Russia. In April 1945, despite his professionalism and the accurate military intelligence, Hitler dismissed Gehlen, soon after his promotion to major general; the FHO collection of both military and political intelligence from captured Red Army soldiers assured Gehlen's post–WWII survival as a Western anti–Communist spymaster, with networks of spies and secret agents in the countries of Soviet-occupied Europe. During the German war against the Soviet Union in 1941–45, Gehlen's FHO collected much tactical military-intelligence about the Red Army, much strategic, political intelligence about the Soviet Union.
Understanding that the Soviet Union would defeat and occupy the Third Reich, Gehlen ordered the FHO intelligence files copied to microfilm. They amounted to fifty cases of German intelligence about the Soviet Union which were at Gehlen's disposal for sale to Western intelligence services. Meanwhile, as of 1946, when the Soviet consolidated their hegemony and sphere of influence in central and south-eastern Europe as agreed at the Potsdam Conference of 1945 and demarcated with what became known as the Iron Curtain, the Western Allies of World War II, the U. S. Britain, had no sources of covert information within the countries where the occupying Red Army had vanquished the Wehrmacht. On 22 May 1945, Gehlen surrendered to the Counter Intelligence Corps of the U. S. Army in Bavaria and was taken to Camp King, near Oberursel, interrogated by Captain John R. Boker; the American Army recognised his potential value as a spymaster with great knowledge of Soviet forces and anti-communist intelligence contacts in the USSR.
In exchange for his liberty and the liberty of his command, Gehlen offered the Counter Intelligence Corps access to the FHO’s intelligence archives, to his anti-communist espionage network in the Soviet Union, known as the Gehlen Organization. Boker removed his name and those of his Wehrmacht command from the official lists of German prisoners of war, transferred seven FHO senior officers to join Gehlen; the FHO archives were unearthed and secretly taken to Camp King, ostensibly without the knowledge of the camp commander. By the end of summer 1945, Boker had the support of Brigadier General Edw
Reinhard Justus Reginald Selten was a German economist, who won the 1994 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. He is well known for his work in bounded rationality and can be considered as one of the founding fathers of experimental economics. Selten was born in Breslau in Lower Silesia, now in Poland, to a Jewish father, Adolf Selten, Protestant mother, Käthe Luther. Reinhard Selten was raised as Protestant. After a brief family exile in Saxony and Austria, Selten returned to Hesse, Germany after the war and, in high school, read an article in Fortune magazine about game theory by the business writer John D. McDonald, he recalled he would occupy his "mind with problems of elementary geometry and algebra" while walking back and forth to school during that time. He studied mathematics at Goethe University Frankfurt and obtained his diploma in 1957, he worked as scientific assistant to Heinz Sauermann until 1967. In 1959, he married with Elisabeth Lang Reiner, they had no children. In 1961, he received his doctorate in Frankfurt in mathematics with a thesis on the evaluation of n-person games.
He was a visiting professor at Berkeley and taught from 1969 to 1972 at the Free University of Berlin and, from 1972 to 1984, at the University of Bielefeld. He accepted a professorship at the University of Bonn. There he built the BonnEconLab, a laboratory for experimental economic research, where he was active after his retirement. Selten was professor emeritus at the University of Bonn and held several honorary doctoral degrees, he met his wife through the Esperanto movement. He was a co-founder of the International Academy of Sciences San Marino. For the 2009 European Parliament election, he was the top candidate for the German wing of Europe – Democracy – Esperanto. For his work in game theory, Selten won the 1994 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. Selten was Germany's first and, at the time of his death, only Nobel winner for economics, he is well known for his work in bounded rationality, can be considered as one of the founding fathers of experimental economics. With Gerd Gigerenzer he edited the book Bounded Rationality: The Adaptive Toolbox.
He developed an example of a game called Selten's Horse because of its extensive form representation. His last work was "Impulse Balance Theory and its Extension by an Additional Criterion", he is noted for his publishing in non-refereed journals to avoid being forced to make unwanted changes to his work. Preispolitik der Mehrproduktenunternehmung in der statischen Theorie, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer-Verlag. – in German General Equilibrium with Price-Making Firms, Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer-Verlag. A General Theory of Equilibrium Selection in Games, Massachusetts: MIT-Press. Models of Strategic Rationality and Decision Library, Series C: Game Theory, Mathematical Programming and Operations Research, Dordrecht-Boston-London: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Enkonduko en la Teorion de Lingvaj Ludoj – Ĉu mi lernu Esperanton?, Berlin-Paderborn: Akademia Libroservo, Institut für Kybernetik. – in Esperanto Game Theory and Economic Behavior: Selected Essays, 2.
Vol Cheltenham-Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing. New edition of: Models of Strategic Rationality, with a Chinese Introduction. Outstanding Academic Works on Economics by Nobel Prize Winners. Dordrecht-Boston-London: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Chinese Translation of: Models of Strategic Rationality. Outstanding Academic Works on Economics by Nobel Prize Winners. Dordrecht-Boston-London: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Russian Translation of: A General Theory of Equilibrium Selection in Games, Massachusetts: MIT-Press. Gigerenzer, G. & Selten, R... Bounded rationality: The adaptive toolbox. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. Impulse Balance Theory and its Extension by an Additional Criterion. BoD. Subgame perfect Nash equilibrium Laboratory for Experimental Economics, at the University of Bonn, Germany Reinhard Selten – Autobiography IDEAS/RePEc Reinhard Selten at the Mathematics Genealogy Project Economista alemán, nacido en Breslau. Reinhard Selten; the Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Library of Economics and Liberty.
Liberty Fund. 2008
A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions
Johan Reinhard, is an Explorer-in-Residence at the National Geographic Society. He is a senior research fellow at The Mountain Institute, West Virginia, a visiting professor at Catholic University, Argentina, an honorary professor of Catholic University, Peru. Reinhard is famous for his discoveries of Inca mummies, including Mummy Juanita and frozen sacrifices on the peaks of the Andes in Peru and Argentina, he has explored the sacred valleys of the Himalayas and performed underwater archaeology in some of the world's highest lakes. His investigations have led him to present theories to explain the mystery of the Nazca Lines, the giant desert drawings, pre-Hispanic ceremonial sites built on Andean mountain summits, the ancient ceremonial centers of Machu Picchu and Tiahuanaco. Born in Joliet, Illinois, Dr. Reinhard began his undergraduate studies at the University of Arizona, before going on to receive his Ph. D. in Anthropology from the University of Vienna, Austria. Much his current research focuses on the sacred beliefs and cultural practices of mountain peoples and in the preservation of their cultural patrimony in the Andes and the Himalayas.
His anthropological field research since 1980 has focused on the Incas and sacred landscape in Argentina, Chile and Peru. During 1989–92 he directed an underwater archaeological research project in Lake Titicaca, the world’s highest navigable lake, that resulted in the discovery of rare Inca and Tiahuanaco artifacts, he has lived more than ten years in the Himalayas, conducting anthropological research in Nepal, but he has undertaken investigations in Tibet, Bhutan and the Garhwal Himalaya. His studies in Nepal included culture change among the Raji of nomadic hunter-gatherers to settled agriculturalists. While in Nepal, he directed Peace Corps Training Projects and was a member of teams that made some of the first rafting descents of Trisuli and Sun Kosi rivers. Elsewhere in South Asia, in 1977 he studied Muslim fishermen in the Maldive Islands. While living in Austria during 1972, he participated in an underwater archaeological study of a Neolithic site at Mondsee. In 1965 and 1967, he was a member of teams which undertook nautical archaeological research of Roman shipwrecks in the Mediterranean Sea off southern Italy and of an Iron Age Villanovan village in a northern Italian lake in 1965.
His interest in the Iceman led to his study in recent years of the role of sacred landscape in Neolithic religion in the central Alps. Johan first began mountain climbing in 1964 in the Alps and in the mid-1970s in the Himalayas, including participating on the successful 1976 American Everest Expedition and making a first ascent in 1979 of the South Face of Buni Zom in the Hindu Kush, his climbs in the Andes began in 1980 with ascents of mountains in Ecuador, he climbed the majority of Andean peaks over 6,500 m —several of them solo. A historian of Andean ascents for the American Alpine Club noted in the early 1990s that Johan had climbed more high-altitude Andean peaks than any person. While sky diving in the 1960-70s, Johan participated in 150 jumps in Europe and the US, including in snow, in water, at night, in large free fall "stars," besides having made jumps with groups from over 20,000 feet in 1963–-world records at the time. In 1979 he made one of the first crossings by a westerner of the Great Indian Desert by camel, in 1980 one of the few land crossings of Tierra del Fuego in Chile, in 1980 one of the few crossings of the Llanganatis mountain range in Ecuador to reach the Amazon.
Reinhard participated in underwater archaeological investigations of sacred lakes of the Incas, including in the crater lake of Licancabur in 1981–82, a lake at 19,100 ft on Paniri volcano in 1983. During 1987 and 2004, he dove in lower-lying lakes near Cuzco, in the highlands of Ecuador in 2009, while in 2007 and 2010 he was a member of teams that investigated sacred lakes of the Aztecs on Toluca volcano in Mexico and underwater archaeological sites in Lake Issyk Kul in Kyrgyzstan in 2010, he has investigated traditional religious beliefs and climbed sacred mountains in Greece in 2002, in Bali, Indonesia during 2007, in Venezuela and the Holy Land in 2012. He has served as a cinematographer for the BBC, the Smithsonian Institution, the Scientific Film Institute of Germany, his research has been featured in several TV documentaries, including National Geographic, BBC, NOVA, PBS, Discovery, he is an avid photographer and his images have appeared in over a hundred newspapers and magazines, including National Geographic, Newsweek, etc. and with thousands of these images available on his website.
He has lectured on cruise ships traveling in the Caribbean, along the Pacific coast of South America, to Antarctica, the Galapagos, Easter Island, lectured on round-the-world flights for the National Geographic Society. He speaks Spanish and German, in Nepal he analyzed two unwritten languages: Raji, a Tibeto-Burman language, Kusunda, a linguistic isolate. While making over 200 ascents in the Andes, he led expeditions resulting in the discovery of more than 50 high altitude Inca ritual sites, he directed teams that recovered four Inca human sacrifices on Ampato
Rainhard Jürgen Fendrich is an Austrian singer, composer and actor. He is one of the most successful Austropop musicians, his songs are written in Viennese German, he is popular in Austria, but less so in other German-speaking countries. In non-German-speaking countries he is little known, his song from 1990 is still popular in Austria. Rainhard, called "Raini" by his friends, attended a Catholic boarding school. By his own admission he was a lazy pupil, shy, he got his first guitar on his 15th birthday, taught himself how to play it and started writing songs. He began to study law, but soon gave up and took several jobs in order to finance his education as a professional actor and singer, he has acted in the musicals Die Gräfin vom Naschmarkt, Jesus Christ Superstar, he played Jeff Zodiak in the musical Wake Up, which he co-wrote with Harold Faltermeyer in 2002. He has appeared in numerous Austrian and German movies; as an entertainer, he followed Rudi Carrell in the ARD TV show Herzblatt, was the first host of Die Millionenshow and for a while had his own TV comedy show, Nix Is Fix, produced by ORF and ARD.
Fendrich received the Austrian Golden Romy award for TV entertainment. In 1994, 1995 and 2000, he was nominated for the Amadeus Austrian Music Award four times before winning it in 2002. Austrian NEWS magazine readers voted him "Best Entertainer of the Decade" in same year. Besides working as a solo artist, he gathered, in 1997, the Austrian singer-guitarists Georg Danzer and Wolfgang Ambros for one single beneficial concert in favour of homeless people, their success was overwhelming, the three individualists showed up on stage as Austria3 from that day, until they decided to stop that project in 2006. However, at Georg Danzer's comeback concert in Vienna on 16 April 2007, they met again for a few songs, "thought" in public about re-uniting in 2008; this can not happen, as Danzer died of lung cancer on 21 June 2007. The concert on Donauinselfest which Fendrich gave "instead and for Georg Danzer" who a few weeks before the event had to refuse because of his progressing disease, attracted 200.000 fans on 23 June 2007.
1998: Austria3 - Live 1998: Austria3 - Live Vol. 2 2000: Austria3 - Die Dritte 2002: Ein Saitensprung 2004: Jetzt "Little Drummer Boy" with Eric Minsk, "Stille Nacht" with Andrew Edge. Rainhard Fendrich on IMDb Rainhard Fendrich discography at MusicBrainz
Reinhard Mohn was a German businessman who turned Bertelsmann, a "provincial, war-shattered German publisher", into the sixth-largest media conglomerate in the world. He was born in Gütersloh, the fifth of six children of Heinrich Mohn, his great-great- or great-grandfather, Carl Bertelsmann, had founded the family publishing company in the town in 1835. The eighteen-year-old Mohn was drafted in World War II. A lieutenant in Erwin Rommel's Afrika Korps, he was wounded and captured by the Americans in Tunisia in 1943, he ended up in a prisoner of war camp in Kansas. There, he learned English, as well as American business practices; when he was released and returned home in 1946, his father persuaded him to work in the family business. The premises had been destroyed by Allied bombing. Though his father had been a supporter of the SS, the company was able to obtain a publishing permit from the occupying British. Nearly half a century Austrian journalist Hersch Fischler determined that the company had, contrary to its official version of its wartime activities, worked with the Nazi regime from the 1930s through the war, had employed Jewish slave labour at some of its plants.
Reinhard Mohn however denied being involved in the company's operations during World War II. Mohn ran the company as chief executive officer from 1947 to 1981. Short of capital, he raised it from the employees by offering them a profit sharing arrangement, earning him the nickname "Red Mohn", he introduced the American concept of the book club with great success in 1950. He expanded into Spain in 1962 with the Círculo de Lectores; the revenue from book club sales enabled him to acquire other publishing companies, including Bantam Books and Random House. He took the company public in 1971, he retired in 1981, but became alarmed at the direction in which one of his successors, Thomas Middelhoff, was taking the firm and ousted Middelhoff in 2002. The family reasserted its control, he has appeared on Forbes magazine's list of the richest people in the world. In March 2009, Forbes estimated that Mohn and his family were worth $2.5 billion, good enough to make them the 261st wealthiest family in the world.
He maintained a low-profile, "self-effacing" style of management, allowing his subordinates great latitude. Despite his great wealth, he lunched in the staff canteen. Mohn set up the non-profit Bertelsmann Foundation to promote social and political reform in 1977. In 1993, he endowed it with 69% of his Bertelsmann shares, though the voting shares were held by another company, half of whose directors were from his family, he was married twice. He had a son and two daughters with his first wife, whom he married in 1949. At the age of 38, he met seventeen-year-old switchboard operator Liz Beckmann at a company function, they had two sons and Andreas, a daughter and married in 1982. He died on 3 October 2009 at the age of 88, he was survived by his six children. Reinhard Mohn was recognized with the Commander's Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1994, the Order of Merit with Star in 1998, he was made an honorary member of the Club of Rome in 1996, awarded the Premio Príncipe de Asturias in Communication and Humanities in 1998, given an honorary doctorate from the University of Münster in 2001.
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