The real was the unit of currency of Portugal from around 1430 until 1911. It replaced the dinheiro at the rate of 1 real = 840 dinheiros and was itself replaced by the escudo at a rate of 1 escudo = 1000 réis; the escudo was further replaced by the euro at a rate of 1 euro = 200.482 escudos in 2002. The first real was introduced by Ferdinand I around 1380, it had a value of 120 dinheiros. In the reign of King João I, the real branco of 3½ libras and the real preto of 7 soldos were issued. By the beginning of the reign of King Duarte I in 1433, the real branco had become the unit of account in Portugal. From the reign of Manuel I, the name was simplified to "real", coinciding with the switch to minting real coins from copper. In 1837, a decimal system was adopted for the coin denominations, with the first banknotes issued by the Banco de Portugal in 1847. In 1854, Portugal adopted a gold standard of 1000 réis = 1.62585 grams fine gold. This standard was maintained until 1891. Large sums were expressed as "mil-réis" or 1,000 réis, a term found in 19th-century Portuguese literature.
In figures a mil-réis was written as 1$000, so that 60,000 réis would be written as 60$000 or 60 mil-réis.) In 1911, the escudo replaced the real. One million réis was known as a conto de réis; this term survived the introduction of the escudo to mean 1000 escudos and is now used to mean five euros exactly the converted value of 1000 escudos or one million réis. Coins and banknotes were issued denominated in réis for use in the different parts of the Portuguese empire. See: Angolan real, Azorean real, Brazilian real, Cape Verde real, Mozambican real, Portuguese Guinea real and São Tomé and Príncipe real. Brazil has revived the real as the denomination of its present currency. Before the middle of the 19th century, many different denominations were minted with values in terms of the real which increased over time. For example, the cruzado was introduced at a value of 324 real branco in the reign of João II, it was fixed at a value of 400 réis during João III's reign and this remained the value of the silver cruzado until the reign of Pedro II, when it was revalued to 480 réis.
Meanwhile, the gold cruzado rose in value to 750 réis in the reign of João IV to 875 réis in the reign of Afonso VI before its demise. Two denominations which did not change their values were the vintém of 20 réis and the tostão of 100 réis; the last 1 real coins were minted in the 1580s. After this time, the smallest coins were worth 1½ réis; these were minted until around 1750, after which the three réis coin became the smallest circulating denomination. From the early 18th century, the standard gold coin was the peça, valued at 6400 réis. In the late 18th century and early 19th century, copper coins were issued in denominations of 3, 5, 10, 20 and 40 réis, with silver 50, 60, 100, 120, 240 and 480 réis and gold 480, 800, 1200, 1600, 3200 and 6400 réis; some of these coins showed denominations. These included the 240 and 480 réis which were inscribed 200 and 400. In 1837, a decimal system was adopted, with copper coins of 3, 5, 10 and 20 réis, silver coins for 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1000 réis and gold 1000, 2000, 2500, 5000 and 10,000 réis.
In 1875, the last 3 réis coins were issued, with cupro-nickel 50 and 100 réis issued in 1900. Portugal's first paper money was introduced in 1797 by the government. Denominations issued until 1807 included 2400, 5000, 6400, 10,000, 12,000 and 20,000 réis; some of these notes were revalidated for continued use during the War of the Two Brothers. From the 1820s, several private banks issued paper money; the most extensive issues were by the Banco de Lisboa, whose notes were denominated in both réis and moedas, worth 4800 réis. This bank issued notes for 1200 and 2400 réis, 4, 10, 20, 50 and 100 moedas; the Banco Commercial de Braga, Banco Commercial do Porto, Banco de Guimaraes and Banco Industrial do Porto issued notes, with bearer cheques issued by a number of other banks between 1833 and 1887. In 1847, the Banco de Portugal introduced notes for 20,000 réis. 5000 réis notes were issued from 1883, followed by 50,000 réis in 1886. In 1891, the Casa de Moeda introduced notes for 50 and 100 réis, the Banco de Portugal introduced notes for 200, 500, 1000 and 2500 réis, followed by 100,000 réis notes in 1894.
Economic history of Portugal Portuguese Coins Catalogue of Portuguese Coins. The Coins of Portugal Photos and descriptions of the coins of Portugal from the Kingdom to the euro
Portuguese Indian rupia
The rupia was the currency of Portuguese India sometime after 1668 until 1958. Prior to 1668, the currency unit was Xerafim. In 1666, the Portuguese administration struck a silver coin calling it double xerafin and this was declared equal to a rupia in circulation in India outside of Portuguese possessions. A xerafim was a convertible subunit of rupia, it was unique to Portuguese colonies in India. One rupia equalled two xerafims. In decades that followed, the double xerafin came to be known in Goa and other Portuguese Indian territories as rupia was subdivided into units such as reis and pardao that mirrored the currency terms introduced by Portuguese officials in other colonies worldwide. Before 1871, the rupia was subdivided into 600 réis, 20 pardaus or 10 tangas. A rupia equaled two xerafims. After 1871, 960 réis or 16 tangas equalled 1 rupia; the rupia was equal in value to the Indian rupee. This meant. In 1958, the currency was replaced by the escudo at the rate of 1 rupia = 6 escudos. Goa, Damão and Diu issued their own coinages until the middle of the 19th century.
Damão issued copper 15, 30 and 60 réis coins until 1854 when the mint closed. Diu issued lead and tin 5 and 10 bazarucos together with tin 20 bazarucos, copper 30 and 60 réis and silver 150 and 300 réis and 1 rupia; the Diu mint closed in 1859. Goa issued the most diverse coinage of the three mints. In addition to tin bastardo, there were copper coins in denominations of 3, 4 1⁄2, 6, 7 1⁄2, 9, 10, 12 and 15 réis, 1⁄2 and 1 tanga, silver coins for 1⁄2 and 1 tanga, 1⁄2 and 1 pardau, 1 rupia, gold 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 xerafins; the Goa mint was closed by the British in 1869. Following the closure of the last local mint, coins were imported from Portugal beginning in 1871; this new coinage coincided with the reform of the subdivisions of the rupia. Copper coins were introduced in denominations of 5, 10 and 15 réis, 1⁄2 and 1 tanga. In 1881, copper 1⁄8 tanga and silver 1⁄8, 1⁄4, 1⁄2 and 1 rupia coins were introduced. Bronze replaced copper in 1901, whilst cupro-nickel 2 and 4 tangas were introduced in 1934, followed by 1⁄2 and 1 rupia in 1947 and 1952, respectively.
The first paper money issued for Portuguese India was issued by the Junta da Fazenda Pública in 1882 in denominations of 10 and 20 rupias. These were followed in 1883 by notes issued by the General Government for 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 500 rupias. In 1906, the Banco Nacional Ultramarino took over the issuance of paper money, issuing notes for 5, 10, 20 and 50 rupias. In 1917, notes were added for 1 and 2 1⁄2 rupias; these were the only issue of tanga denominated notes, whilst the 2 1⁄2 rupia notes were issued until 1924 and the 1 rupia until 1929. 100 and 500 rupias notes were reintroduced in 1924. Indo-Portuguese Issues
Angra dos Reis
Angra dos Reis is a Brazilian municipality located in the southern part of Rio de Janeiro state. Angra is located at an altitude of 6 meters and includes in its territory many offshore islands, the largest being the Ilha Grande, it was discovered on January 6, 1502, but it has been under continual settlement since 1556. Its population was estimated, on July 2009, to be 168,664 inhabitants. Angra dos Reis has an area of 816.3 km². The neighboring municipalities are Paraty, Rio Claro and Mangaratiba in Rio de Janeiro state, Bananal and São José do Barreiro, which are adjacent in São Paulo state; the municipality contains the 12,072 hectares Ilha Grande State Park, created in 1971 on the Ilha Grande off the southern coast. It contains the 3,502 hectares Praia do Sul Biological Reserve, a protected conservation unit created in 1981 on the Ilha Grande, it contains the 1,312 hectares Aventureiro Sustainable Development Reserve the Aventureiro Marine State Park on Ilha Grande. The municipality contains part of the Tamoios Ecological Station.
The conservation units are contained within the 12,400 hectares Tamoios Environmental Protection Area, created in 1982. The municipality fell into decline after 1872 with the advent of railways, it came back into prominence in the 1920s when a railway extension connected it to the states of Minas Gerais and Goias, as a terminus for the transportation of agriculture production from these same two states. The railway extension, in meter gauge, still exists and is operated by the Ferrovia Centro-Atlântica company. In the mid-twentieth century, the municipality was an essential part of the implementation of Companhia Siderurgica Nacional – CSN, Volta Redonda, the endpoint for coking coal supplied from Santa Catarina. Today, the same company uses the port, in part, for its steel exports, its current importance is due, in part, to having a ferry terminal facility in the Bay of Ilha Grande and its harbour, used by TEBIG Petrobras, which transports large quantities of oil and thus positions the port of Angra dos Reis as one of the busiest in the country.
Today, because of its beautiful beaches and nearby regions, the place has become a focal point for tourism – not only statewide but on a national scale also. Within the municipality are over three hundred islands, many of them owned by national and international celebrities, with the largest one called Ilha Grande; the pioneering Brazilian plastic surgeon and philanthropist Dr. Ivo Pitanguy was a noted resident. Most of the place is covered by hills, its hilly terrain helped generate the landslides that occurred at the beginning of 2010, when numerous homes and hotels were damaged or destroyed on Ilha Grande; the most important economic activities are commerce, industry and tourism. The port has an oil terminal as well as shipbuilding facilities. Brazil's nuclear power stations, Angra I and Angra II are located nearby, they employ 3,000 people, generate another 10,000 indirect jobs in Rio de Janeiro State. Tourism is developed with countless beaches and pristine waters perfect for swimming or scuba diving.
The nuclear power stations warm the area's waters with their thermal discharges, a form of thermal pollution. There is a small amount of cattle raising, with 4,200 head; the main agricultural products cultivated are: bananas: 1,460 hectares / 3,600 tons coconut: 10 hectares / 130,000 fruits oranges: 4 hectares / 25 tons hearts of palm: 50 hectares / 75 tons sugarcane: 20 hectares / 390 tonsData are from IBGE Gaspar de Lemos, a navigator and commander of the Portuguese naval fleet landed at Ilha Grande on 6 January 1502, a “Kings’ day” – that is, “Dia de Reis”. Accordingly, the place was named “Angra dos Reis”, which means “Creek of the Kings” or loosely – “Anchorage of the Kings”. According to Köppen climate classification, Angra dos Reis has a tropical rainforest climate. Angra dos Reis Angra dos Reis Angra dos Reis Angra dos Reis
Caldas de Reis
Caldas de Reis is a municipality in Galicia, Spain in the north of the province of Pontevedra. In Ptolemy's Tables, the town appears as Aquae calidae and in the Itinerarium Antonini as Aquae Celenae. Lucas de Tuy calls it Caldas de Rege. F. Pérez calls it Celenae. A bishop of this see named Ortigius was at the first Council of Toledo at the end of the 4th century. Of two bishops consecrated named Pastor and Siagrius, one appears to have been for this diocese. In the mid-6th century, the bishop's seat was transferred to Iria Flavia, now the archdiocese of Santiago de Compostela. Thus, no longer a residential bishopric, Caldas de Reyes is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see; the town is the second to last stop on the Portuguese Way path of the Camino de Santiago before it reaches Santiago de Compostella