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ReiserFS

ReiserFS is a general-purpose, journaled computer file system designed and implemented by a team at Namesys led by Hans Reiser. ReiserFS is supported on Linux licensed as GPLv2. Introduced in version 2.4.1 of the Linux kernel, it was the first journaling file system to be included in the standard kernel. ReiserFS was the default file system in Novell's SUSE Linux Enterprise until Novell decided to move to ext3 on October 12, 2006 for future releases. Namesys considered ReiserFS version 3.6 which introduced a new on-disk format allowing bigger filesizes, now referred to as Reiser3, as stable and feature-complete and, with the exception of security updates and critical bug fixes, ceased development on it to concentrate on its successor, Reiser4. Namesys went out of business in 2008 after Reiser's conviction for murder; the product is now maintained as open source by volunteers. The reiserfsprogs 3.6.27 were released on 25 July 2017. At the time of its introduction, ReiserFS offered features that had not been available in existing Linux file systems: Metadata-only journaling, its most-publicized advantage over what was the stock Linux file system at the time, ext2.

Online resizing, with or without an underlying volume manager such as LVM. Since Namesys has provided tools to resize ReiserFS file systems offline. Tail packing, a scheme to reduce internal fragmentation. Tail packing can have a significant performance impact. Reiser4 may have improved this by packing tails. ReiserFS stores file metadata, directory entries, inode block lists, tails of files in a single, combined B+ tree keyed by a universal object ID. Disk blocks allocated to nodes of the tree are "formatted internal blocks". Blocks for leaf nodes are "formatted leaf blocks". All other blocks are "unformatted blocks" containing file contents. Directory items with too many entries or indirect items which are too long to fit into a node spill over into the right leaf neighbour. Block allocation is tracked by free space bitmaps in fixed locations. By contrast, ext2 and other Berkeley FFS-like file systems of that time used a fixed formula for computing inode locations, hence limiting the number of files they may contain.

Most such file systems store directories as simple lists of entries, which makes directory lookups and updates linear time operations and degrades performance on large directories. The single B+ tree design in ReiserFS avoids both of these problems due to better scalability properties. Regarding the development of a filesystem, three fields have to be considered separately: The on-disk format, thus the way data is structured on the media; the implementation of the filesystem driver, which enables the operating system to read and write data. The maintenance tools for creating, resizing and checking partitions on the media; therefore this section contains three tables: one for the 3.5.x series of the filesystem driver, used to read and write the 3.5 on-disk format, another one for the 3.6.x series of the filsystem driver, used to read and write the 3.6 on-disk format and a third one for the tools contained in the reiserfsprogs package. Since the on-disk format 3.6 is regarded as feature complete and stable, it is frozen and doesn't get changed anymore.

The filesystem driver for Linux, part of the official kernel as well as the reiserfsprogs operating in user space are still being maintained and getting updates nowadays. The defrag program was never implemented, although there were attempts up to the year 2014. One reason why it never was finished was the rise of solid state disks which – contrary to the classic spinning wheel hard disk drives – do not need to be defragmented, or more precisely: shouldn't be defragmented at all, as any unnecessary write operations will shorten the life of an SSD. Compared with ext2 and ext3 in version 2.4 of the Linux kernel, when dealing with files under 4 KiB and with tail packing enabled, ReiserFS may be faster. This was said to be of great benefit in Usenet news spools, HTTP caches, mail delivery systems, other applications where performance with small files is critical. However, in practice news spools use a feature called cycbuf, which holds articles in one large file. For email servers, ReiserFS was problematic due to semantic problems explained below.

ReiserFS had a problem with fast filesystem aging when compared to other filesystems — in several usage scenarios filesystem performance decreased with time. Before Linux 2.6.33, ReiserFS used the big kernel lock — a global kernel-wide lock — which does not scale well for systems with multiple cores, as the critical code parts are only executed by one core at a time. ReiserFS was the default file system in SuSE Linux since version 6.4, until switching to ext3 in SUSE Linux Enterprise 10.2/openSUSE 11, announced in 2006. Jeff Mahoney of SUSE wrote a post on 14 September 2006 proposing to move from ReiserFS to ext3 for the default installation file system; some reasons he mentioned were scalability, "performance problems with extended attributes and ACLs", "a small and shrinking development community", that "Reiser4 is not an incremental update and requires a reformat, unreasonable for most people." On October 4 he wrote a response comment on a blog. He wrote that his

Literature of Kosovo

The literature of Kosovo is composed of literary texts written in the Albanian, Serbian and Turkish language by authors of Kosovo. Kosovo produced several prominent writers in the Ottoman era. However, Ottoman authorities banned the written use of the Albanian language until 1912; this policy continued during Serb rule until the outbreak of World War II. After the war, school tests were in Serbian language due to historic circumstances. Underground literature flourished in the late 1940s, which were published in Albanian. Under Aleksandar Ranković, everybody who bought the Albanian-language newspaper Rilindja was registered with the secret police. Full Albanian-language and cultural facilities were granted by the Yugoslav constitution of 1974, Kosovo Albanian literature and culture flourished. Kosovo, as well as Raška and Mount Athos, was the home of many pieces of early Serb literature from the 13th century onward; the most prominent Serb literary figures in Kosovo during the 20th century were novelist Vukašin Filipović, poets Darinka Jevrić, Petar Sarić and Radosav Stojanović, short story writer Lazar Vučković.

During Ottoman rule, Kosovo was part of the broader Ottoman literary culture. Prominent writers include: Pjetër Bogdani, the first Kosovar-Albanian writer. Tahir Efendi Jakova, Bejtexhinj movement poet and religious leader Little is known in the field of literary in countries which were once part of the Soviet bloc. Strict politics and obscurantism had forbid authors to express their thoughts for years, it was impossible for them to see their works published and gain prominence in the literary world. However, after the fall of the Soviet Union, Europe is now discovering a new interest in Eastern Europe. Not only in terms of travels and foreign relationships, but from a cultural perspective. Kosovo stands as the most peculiar nations which were formed from the dissolution of Yugoslavia. To this day, Kosovo's independence as a state is still open to debate, the European Union has not expressed an opinion on this matter yet. With such undefined situation, one might wonder if there is a cultural voice that defines this country and the answer is not definite as well.

The truth is that no one speaks of "Kosovar Literature" but it's more one hears of "Albanian Literature of Kosovo", because, what it is. But despite this literature being defined through the use of the term "Albanian", it still holds a peculiarity which makes it a bit foreign to the Albanian ear; the 1990s were a particular hard time for Kosovo and in the years leading to the 1999 war, the country's dissidents could either be threatened or worse. Discrimination and the strictness of Serbian rule did not allow this generation of Albanian speaking writers to express themselves. In addition to the chaos and repression taking place in Kosovo, the country's intellectual minds had language issues to overcome: having been denied access to Albanian as a language as part of the educational system in Kosovo, barriers could be found in literary form. Albanian literature in Kosovo was set off by poet Esad Mekuli, the founder of the literacy periodical Jeta e Re in 1949 though it was not active until the 1960s.

In addition to that the novelist Adem Demaci, who spent twenty-eight years as a political prisoner of Yugoslavian government plays a huge role in the advancement of the magazine "Jeta e Re", published as a book, as well as the successful collections Njifyell ndër male, Kânga e vërrinit by Martin Camaj who become a leading scholar of Albanian studies in Munich and Rome. In 1974, more freedom and a semblance of equality was given to Kosovo Albanians by the Yugoslav constitution for the first time, literature bloomed on the Plain of the Blackbird in the following decade. From the several leading prose writers, some that are worth mentioning are Anton Pashku, Rexhep Qosja, notably for his explosive political novel Vdjeka më vjen prej syve të tillë, Nazmi Rrahmani, a prolific novelist and Teki Dervishi. Kosovo's poetry has been experimental compared Albania. Among its leading proponents are Din Mehmeti, Besim Kokshi, Azem Shkreli, Rrahman Dedaj, Ali Podrimja, Eqrem Basha, Sabri Hamiti, Asri Çapriqi.

There are two distinct dialects in modern Albanian. Catholic priests wrote most of the Albanian literature in Toske dialect and Gheg, spoken in northern Albania and Kosovo, it is spoken in Northern Albania, in parts of Montenegro. Each area of Northern Albania has its own sub-dialect: Durrës, Elbasan and Kavaja. Malësia e Madhe and villages scattered alongside the Adriatic Coast form the northmost sub-dialect of Albania today. There are many other sub-dialects in the region of Kosovo and in parts of southern Montenegro, in Republic of Macedonia; the sub-dialects of Malësia e Madhe and Dukagjini near Shkodra are being lost because the younger generations prefer to speak the sub-dialect of Shkodra. The other dialect is Tosk, spoken in south Albania; when Albanian language was standardized in 1972,it was more based on Tosk than Gheg. The differen

Diocesan feud

A diocesan feud is either a warlike conflict between two contenders for the election of a prince-bishop, ruler of a bishopric or archbishopric in the Holy Roman Empire, or an armed conflict between two parties within such a territory. The introduction of the Imperial Church System in the 10th century had intended the position of prince-bishops to be non-hereditary, as all Catholic clergymen were required to be celibate and thus could not produce legitimate offspring to inherit their possessions. Instead, the Holy Roman Emperor would appoint one of his confidants as prince-bishop, upon whose death he could choose a successor himself. However, after the decline of imperial authority over clerical appointments due to the Investiture Controversy, ending with the Concordat of Worms, the cathedral chapters started electing the bishops, their choice had to be confirmed by the metropolitan bishop. In the 14th century, the Holy See began to reserve the appointment of certain bishops to itself, after which the pope laid claim to the exclusive right to appoint all bishops everywhere.

In practice, all candidates to succeed a deceased prince-bishop, as well as the members of the cathedral chapters which were entitled to vote for these candidates, were either part of powerful aristocratic dynasties or, more the lesser German nobility which sought to de facto add these prince-bishoprics to their Hausmacht. In some cases in the late Middle Ages, the result of the election did not satisfy one of the contending parties, military conflicts ensued, which have become known as diocesan feuds, that bear a lot of similarities to wars of succession; the best known examples in the Holy Roman Empire were the: Bremen Diocesan Feud Cologne Diocesan Feud Hildesheim Diocesan Feud Mainz Diocesan Feud Münster Diocesan Feud Strasbourg Bishops' War Utrecht Schism Utrecht war Utrecht war of 1481–83

Jane Dillon

Jane Dillon is a British designer and artist. She made significant contributions to furniture and Architectural lighting design across America and Europe. One of the few female international designers of her generation, Dillon's work encompassed contract and domestic furniture, lighting and glassware. Dillon was a pupil at Adcote School in Shropshire studied design at Manchester College of Art furniture at Royal College of Art in London. Between 1968 and 1971, Dillon worked at Olivetti in Milan under Ettore Sottsass, she founded her own studio and Jane Dillon Associates, in London. For over 30 years, Dillon taught design at the RCA and was made an Honorary Fellow in 2007, her complete studio archives are held at the Albert Museum. Lesley Jackson, Modern British Furniture: Design Since 1945, V&A Museum Publishing, 2013 Fiona MacCarthy, The Perfect Place to Grow: 175 Years of the Royal College of Art, Royal College of Art, 2012. Deyan Sudjic, Terence Conran: The Way We Live Now, Design Museum, 2011.

Giorgio Maffei, Bruno Tonini and Ettore Sottsass, Books by Ettore Sottsass, Corraini Editore, 2011. Lesley Jackson, The Sixties: Decade of Design Revolution, Phaidon Press, 2000. Charlotte & Peter Fiell, ‘Multipla by Jane Dillon and Peter Wheeler’ in 1000 CHAIRS, Taschen, 1997. Pp. 661

1977 Western Australian state election

Elections were held in the state of Western Australia on 19 February 1977 to elect all 55 members to the Legislative Assembly and 17 members to the 32-seat Legislative Council. The Liberal-National Country coalition government, led by Premier Sir Charles Court, won a second term in office against the Labor Party, led by Opposition Leader Colin Jamieson; the election produced a decisive victory for the Coalition, attributed by some observers to its strong and organised campaign, the Premier's ability in dealing with the media and good economic times built on resource exports, as contrasted against the Labor Opposition's unfocussed campaign dwelling on the government's perceived autocratic methods and those sections of the general population which were not benefitting from the good times. Notes: 1 The National Country Party contested seven seats in the election; the previous high vote stemmed from its attempted merger with the Democratic Labor Party prior to the 1974 election, known as the "National Alliance", which contested 44 seats including many in the metropolitan area.

The Alliance ceased to exist shortly after the 1974 election, adopted a more traditional strategy in 1977. Members in italics did not recontest their seats. Members of the Western Australian Legislative Assembly, 1974–1977 Members of the Western Australian Legislative Assembly, 1977–1980 Candidates of the 1977 Western Australian state election

Jason Greeley

Jason Greeley is a singer-songwriter from Upper Island Cove and Labrador, best known as a contestant on the 2nd season of Canadian Idol. He released his solo album, Live... Love... Sing... in 2005 and in late 2009 released his self-titled follow-up album. Jason is signed to Royalty Records out of Alberta. Https://myspace.com/greeleyjason On June 14, 2005, Greeley released his debut CD Live... Love... Sing.... The album's first single released was Slammin' Doors, he received 4 Music Industry Association of Newfoundland and Labrador award nominations, winning the Entertainer of the Year award. In 2006, Greeley received an East Coast Music Award nomination for Country Album of the Year. In season 2 of Canadian Idol, Greeley reached the top 4 round before being eliminated. At 27, he was the oldest of the top 10. Jason placed 3rd in his top 32 group behind Shane Wiebe and Manoah Hartmann but he qualified, along with Elena Juatco, for the top 10 through the wildcard round where he was the top vote getter.

Below is his list of performances with the theme in brackets: First audition: "Sad Songs" by Elton John Toronto auditions: "Islands in the Stream" by Kenny Rogers and Dolly Parton Top 32: "Heaven" by Bryan Adams Wildcard: "Sad Songs" by Elton John Top 10: "Cuts Like a Knife" by Bryan Adams Top 9: "Saturday Night's Alright for Fighting" by Elton John Top 8: "Proud Mary" by Creedence Clearwater Revival Top 7: "Easy" by The Commodores Top 6: "Rainy Day People" by Gordon Lightfoot Top 5: "Bad Case of Loving You" by Robert Palmer Top 4: "I Won't Dance" by Frank Sinatra, "It Had To Be You" by Harry Connick Jr. 1. Live... Love... Sing 2. Another Day 3. Slammin' Doors 4. Sad Songs 5. Get Over You 6. Shady Ole Town 7. Tonight 8. Living For Nothing 9. Dreams 10. Tear Me Away This album has sold a total of 12,000 copies. 1. Born That Way 2. 3. Godbye Jersey 4. Around For A Reason 5. Get A Life 6. Slammin Doors 7. Good Part 8. Live Our Lives 9. Walk Away 10. Louder Than Words 11. Four Walls 12. What You Gotta Do