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Reissner–Nordström metric

In physics and astronomy, the Reissner–Nordström metric is a static solution to the Einstein–Maxwell field equations, which corresponds to the gravitational field of a charged, non-rotating, spherically symmetric body of mass M. The analogous solution for a charged, rotating body is given by the Kerr-Newman metric; the metric was discovered between 1916 and 1921 by Hans Reissner, Hermann Weyl, Gunnar Nordström and George Barker Jeffery. In spherical coordinates, the Reissner–Nordström metric is g = c 2 d t 2 − − 1 d r 2 − r 2 d θ 2 − r 2 sin 2 ⁡ θ d ϕ 2, where c is the speed of light, t is the time coordinate, r is the radial coordinate, are the spherical angles, r s is the Schwarzschild radius of the body given by and r Q is a characteristic length scale given by Here 1 4 π ε 0 is Coulomb force constant K; the total mass of the central body and its irreducible mass are related by The difference between M and M i r r is due to the equivalence of mass and energy, which makes the electric field energy contribute to the total mass.

In the limit that the charge Q goes to zero, one recovers the Schwarzschild metric. The classical Newtonian theory of gravity may be recovered in the limit as the ratio r s / r goes to zero. In the limit that both r Q / r and r s / r go to zero, the metric becomes the Minkowski metric for special relativity. In practice, the ratio r s / r is extremely small. For example, the Schwarzschild radius of the Earth is 9 mm, whereas a satellite in a geosynchronous orbit has a radius r, four billion times larger, at 42,164 km. At the surface of the Earth, the corrections to Newtonian gravity are only one part in a billion; the ratio only becomes large close to black holes and other ultra-dense objects such as neutron stars. Although charged black holes with rQ ≪ rs are similar to the Schwarzschild black hole, they have two horizons: the event horizon and an internal Cauchy horizon; as with the Schwarzschild metric, the event horizons for the spacetime are located where the metric component grr diverges.

Black holes with 2rQ > rs can not exist in nature because if the charge is greater than the mass there can be no physical event horizon. Objects with a charge greater than their mass can exist in nature, but they can not collapse down to a black hole, if they could, they would display a naked singularity. Theories with supersymmetry guarantee that such "superextremal" black holes cannot exist; the electromagnetic potential is If magnetic monopoles are included in the theory a generalization to include magnetic charge P is obtained by replacing Q2 by Q2 + P2 in the metric and including the term Pcos θ dφ in the electromagnetic potential. The gravitational time dilation in the vicinity of the central body is given by which relates to the local radial escape-velocity of a neutral particle The Christoffel symbols with the indices give the nonvanishing expressions Given the Christoffel symbols, one can compute the geodesics of a test-particle; because of the spherical symmetry of the metric, the coordinate system can always be aligned in a way that the motion of a test-particle is confined to a plane, so for brevity and without restriction of generality we further use Ω instead of θ and φ.

In dimensionless natural units of G = M = c = K = 1 the motion of an electrically charged particle with the charge q is given by w

Ignacy Łempicki (diplomat)

Ignacy Łempicki was a Polish diplomat and military officer, Poland's chargé d'affaires in Vienna between 1793–1795. He was the son of Ignacy Czesław Łempicki, General of Poland's Crown Army, Marianna Hiż, he had a sister Eufemia. In the years 1776–1787 he studied at the Corps of Cadets in Warsaw. In 1786 he became a chorąży of the Army of the Polish Crown. Most in 1789 he went to Vienna together with the former Vice-Commandant of the Corps of Cadets Franciszek Woyna as his secretary. In 1791, Ignacy Łempicki was an adjutant at the office of the Polish embassy in Vienna. After Woyna's resignation in July 1793, he took the position of chargé d’affaires. During the Kościuszko Uprising in 1794, the Viennese office he directed sent the largest number of reports to the Foreign Interest Department of the Supreme National Council. After the fall of the uprising, Łempicki remained at the disposal of the king Stanisław August, who in February 1795 called him to return to the country. Remaining unpaid for months, Łempicki could not leave Vienna because of debt.

It was not until November 25, 1795, that Stanisław August sent him a thousand ducats along with a circular letter liquidating the Polish foreign service.Łempicki settled in Galicia, where he was the heir to Poraż in the Liski poviat, in 1805 he proved himself noble at the Department of the Galicia Estates. He was married to Aleksandra Olszewska, he had a daughter Maria, the wife of Teofil Romer, grandmother of general Franciszek Latinik

Insurance in Australia

Australia's insurance market can be divided into three components: life insurance, general insurance and health insurance. These markets are distinct, with most larger insurers focusing on only one type, although in recent times several of these companies have broadened their scope into more general financial services, have faced competition from banks and subsidiaries of foreign financial conglomerates. With services such as disability insurance, income protection and funeral insurance, these insurance giants are stepping in to fill the gap where people may have otherwise been in need of a personal or signature loan from their financial institution. There are many companies offering insurance policies in the Australian market, but many are in fact underwritten by a limited number of insurers operating under various brand names. There are a number of large companies that present themselves as providers of insurance or financial services, such as Coles, Australia Post, Myer, RACV, NRMA, among others, but which only sell insurance products of other companies under its brand name.

Such companies at times describe themselves as insurance companies or as providers of financial services, but are better described as insurance retailers or insurance distributors. Such companies are not exposed to any insurance risks, but receive a commission on the sale of these insurance products. Behind this apparent array of insurance providers and products, there are only a small number of companies that provide insurance, sometimes referred to as underwriters, some of which offer insurance products directly to the public. Four companies account for three-quarters of the general insurance market, they are Insurance Australia Group with 29% of the market, Suncorp Group with 27%, QBE with 10%, Allianz with 8%. Some general insurance is provided by government schemes or government insurers. Compulsory third party motor insurance, worker's compensation, disability cover, health cover may be covered by government schemes or insurers depending on the state of residence and insurance required.

Life insurance products sold in Australia include term life insurance and disability income insurance. Australian insurers are unusual in providing lump sum total and permanent disability insurance and trauma insurance. Life insurers sell superannuation investment products. Most life and related insurance is taken out through superannuation funds. Life insurance premiums paid by a superannuation fund are tax-deductible by the fund from assessable income; some insurance companies offer funeral insurance, accidental death and accidental injury policies. ASIC questioned the value of some of these policies and the methods used to sell them; the market for life insurance in Australia is worth about $44 billion. Life insurance in Australia is sold through intermediaries as well as directly by the insurer to the public. ASIC and the Hayne Royal Commission have highlighted the high pressure telephone selling practices and poor product design of some direct life insurance companies; the Australian Prudential Regulation Authority regulates life insurance companies registered under the Life Insurance Act in Australia.

As at 30 June 2018, there were 30 life insurers being monitored by APRA. The largest 10 life insurance companies accounted for 95.5% of the Australian market. These companies are: TAL Life owned by Japanese insurer Dai-ichi Life AIA Australia owned by Hong Kong based AIA Group MLC Life owned 20% by National Australia Bank and 80% by Japanese insurer Nippon Life AMP Life including the National Mutual Life Assurance Society owned by the global Resolution Life Group OnePath Life owned by ANZ Bank New Zealand CommInsure trading name for The Colonial Mutual Life Assurance Society owned by Commonwealth Bank Westpac Life including BT Life owned by Westpac Suncorp Life including Asteron Life owned by Suncorp Group MetLife Insurance owned by US insurer MetLife Inc Zurich Australia owned by Swiss insurer Zurich Insurance GroupBetween 2015 and 2018 five Australian banks have announced their intention to divest their life insurance operations: NAB, Macquarie Bank, CBA, ANZ and Suncorp. In 2019, when the last of these deals is completed over 60% of the Australian life insurance market will be controlled by three companies - AIA, TAL and Zurich.

General insurance products sold in the Australian market can be divided into two classes: Liability insurance such as compulsory third party motor insurance, worker's compensation, professional indemnity insurance and public liability insurance, business insurance. Many of Australia's largest companies and governments self-insure or totally. There are dedicated government insurers. Large general insurer groups include: Insurance Australia Group markets its products under brands including NRMA, RACV, CGU, SGIO, Buzz. Suncorp markets its products under brands including AAMI, GIO, APIA, Just Car, Vero, InsureMyRide, Shannons, CIL, Terri Sche

List of films set in ancient Rome

This page lists films set in the city of Rome during the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic, or the Roman Empire. The films only set in Rome are so noted. Films set during the founding of Rome include: Duel of the Titans – based on the legend of Romulus and Remus with Steve Reeves as Romulus and Gordon Scott as Remus The Avenger – based on Virgil's The Aeneid with Steve Reeves as Aeneas: a story of the hero leading escaped survivors of the Trojan War to new land in Italy. Il primo re - in archaic Latin. Stars Victor Mature. L'Assedio di Siracusa – on the siege of Syracuse, with Rossano Brazzi as Archimides Hannibal – TV docudrama directed by Edward Bazalgette, with Alexander Siddig as Hannibal Cartagine in fiamme – after the novel by Emilio Salgari, dir. by Carmine Gallone The Centurion – about the Battle of Corinth, with John Drew Barrymore as Diaeus Revolution – docudrama about of the reforms of Tiberius Gracchus Spartak – an early Soviet production, based on the novel by Raffaello Giovagnoli Sins of Rome – dir. by Riccardo Freda Spartacus – with Kirk Douglas as Spartacus and Laurence Olivier as Marcus Licinius Crassus Il figlio di Spartacus – unofficial Italian sequel to Spartacus directed by Sergio Corbucci Spartacus – with Goran Visnjic as Spartacus Spartacus: Blood and Sand – with Andy Whitfield as Spartacus, Manu Bennett as Crixus, Peter Mensah as Oenomaus, John Hannah as Lentulus Batiatus, Craig Parker as Gaius Claudius Glaber Spartacus: Gods of the Arenaprequel to Spartacus: Blood and Sand.

The plot of Gods of the Arena follows Lentulus Batiatus's life as a lanista, Gannicus's time as a gladiator Spartacus: Vengeance – sequel to Spartacus: Blood and Sand, with Liam McIntyre replacing Andy Whitfield as Spartacus, after Whitfield's unexpected death in 2011 Spartacus: War of the Damned – the third season of the series Gaius Julius Caesar – a silent film, directed by Enrico Guazzoni Caesar Against the Pirates – a tale of Caesar being caught by pirates and asking for help to get back to Rome Caesar the Conqueror – an Italian film about the career of Julius Caesar and his Gallic Wars The Giants of Rome – Italian-French adventure film set in the Roman warfare against Vercingetorix, with Richard Harrison as Claudius Marcellus Julius Caesar. This is a film adaptation of Shakespeare's play Julius Caesar – deals with the assassination of Julius Caesar and the Liberators' civil war, with Marlon Brando as Mark Antony and John Gielgud as Gaius Cassius Longinus; this is a film adaptation of Shakespeare's play Julius Caesar – deals with the assassination of Julius Caesar and the Liberators' civil war Druids – the life and career of Vercingetorix, a Gallic adversary of Rome in the film of Jacques Dorfmann Julius Caesar Empire Rome – deals with the assassination of Julius Caesar and the Liberators' civil war Caesar – docudrama about the Gallic Wars and Caesar's Civil War Roman Empire: Reign of Blood – five episode Documentary/drama series produced by Netflix about the life and reign of Julius Caesar Cléopâtre – French film made by Georges Méliès, the earliest known version considered to be lost, retrieved 2005 Antony and Cleopatra – a film starring Maurice Costello and Florence Lawrence Cléopâtre – French film by Henri Andréani and Ferdinand Zecca Cléopâtre – new silent version after the play of Victorien Sardou Marcantonio e Cleopatra – Italian production from the era of the silent film, directed by Enrico Guazzoni Cleopatra – American film with Theda Bara as Cleopatra Cleopatra – the second American version Cleopatra – with Claudette Colbert as Cleopatra Caesar and Cleopatra – with Vivien Leigh as Cleopatra and Claude Rains as Julius Caesar, after the play by G

Mathilde Grooss Viddal

Mathilde Grooss Viddal is a Norwegian musician and composer, known as the leader of Friensemblet and as member of bands like Lucky Loop and Eick/Viddal Duo. Viddal was born in Oslo, she released albums Undergroove with her band Friensemblet, including live takes at Victoria, the Norwegian Nasjonal Jazzscene in Oslo, where she presents her more or less uklassifiserbare compositions, representing free spirited contemporary music full of improvisation and freewheeling elements. The collaboration was formed in 2004 by the name Chateau Neuf Friensemble, with a history from the 1960s University Big Band and the musical environment surrounding the Department of Musicology at University of Oslo, she runs her own record label Giraffa Records. With Trude Eick she released the album November Log. Friensemblet/Chateau Neuf Fri Ensemble 2006: Holding Balance 2009: ComeCloser 2012: Undergroove Eick/Viddal Duo 2008: November Log Official website Friensemblet on MySpace Lucky Loop official website

Period of financial distress

A period of financial distress occurs when the price of a company or an asset or an index of a set of assets in a market is declining with the danger of a sudden crash of value occurring, either because the company is experiencing increasing problems of cash flow or a deteriorating credit balance or because the price had become too high as a result of a speculative bubble that has now peaked. It is not known or by whom. However, it or phrases equivalent were certainly first used in connection with the theory of value investing as developed by Benjamin Graham in his famous book Security Analysis; this theory advocated long-term investing in stocks or assets that are underpriced compared to their intrinsic value, they have suffered “distress sales” and the stock or asset of company is going through a “period of financial distress.” If such a period is temporary, the company can be expected to return to an improved condition of normal solvency investing in such an asset can be expected to outperform the stock market in general in the longer run.

In connection with this Graham developed the Benjamin Graham formula known as “net current asset value.” A similar analysis was done by John Burr Williams. A prominent advocate of Graham and his approach has been Warren Buffett, who has claimed that he is an “85% Graham investor”; this approach has been criticized by advocates of modern portfolio theory and the related doctrine of the efficient-market hypothesis most associated with Eugene Fama. These theories argue that if a stock or asset is selling at what appears to be a “distress value” compared to some estimate of its true value based on its current income flows the market has information about the expected future of the company or asset, not reflected in its current income flow. In this regard, investors such as Buffett who have used the Graham approach should expect to spend extra resources to have better information about the companies or assets they purchase compared to most agents in the market. A study that shows that the Graham approach may well do better than various other alternatives, is Xiao and Arnold.

Another use of this phrase has been in connection with efforts to predict corporate bankruptcies that may come out of such a period of financial distress. One who developed an approach to making such predictions has been Edward Altman, who developed the z-score financial analysis tool. Further study of this and related tools has been done by Hotchkiss; this idea can be related to the earlier issue in that why the Graham approach might not do as well as such alternatives as MPT or EMH is that it does not satisfactorily account for the risk of such bankruptcies. Again, it is clear that to outperform such models a Graham-style investor will have to have sufficiently good information about such possibilities to know whether or not such a threat can be discounted. Drawing on these uses from corporate finance, Hyman Minsky applied the phrase to analyzing speculative bubbles and crashes, using it to characterize a period in a speculative bubble that follows a peak in price, in which the price declines, and, followed by a crash in which the price falls precipitously.

This analysis was adopted by Charles P. Kindleberger, who in Appendix B of the 4th edition of his book, Manias and Crashes identified 37 out of 47 historical bubbles as exhibiting such a pattern, including most of the more famous ones. Although the phrase was not used, participants in periods of financial distress in early bubbles used a variety of colorful terms and phrases for them, such as "apprehension" or "an ugly drop in the market" during the South Sea bubble in Britain in 1720. Arguably the recent global bubble in financial derivatives exhibited this pattern, with a peak in August 2007, followed by a crash in September 2008; the first to develop a mathematical model of this period of financial distress was J. Barkley Rosser, Jr. drawing on catastrophe theory, while a more detailed such model using agent-based modeling and relying on the wealth constraint idea due to Minsky has been done by Gallegati and Rosser Benjamin Graham and David Dodd. 1934. Security Analysis: Principles and Technique.

New York: McGraw-Hill. John Burr Williams. 1938. The Theory of Investment Value. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Warren Buffett. 2003. “Preface” to Benjamin Graham and Jason Zweig. 2003. The Intelligent Investor, revised version of 4th edition. New York: Harper-Collins. Eugene Fama. 1970. “Efficient capital markets: a review of theory and empirical work.” Journal of Finance, 28, 383-417. Eugene Fama and Kenneth French. 1996. “Multifactor explanations of asset pricing anomalies.” Journal of Finance, 51, 55-84. Ying Xiao and Glen C. Arnold. 2008. “Testing Benjamin Graham’s net current value strategy in London.” The Journal of Investing, Winter 17. Edward I. Altman. 1968. “Financial ratios, discriminant analysis and the analysis of corporate bankruptcy.” Journal of Finance, September, pp. 189-209. Edward I. Altman and Edith Hotchkiss. 2005. Corporate financial distress and bankruptcy: predict and avoid bankruptcy and invest in distressed debt, 3rd edition. New York: Wiley & Sons. Hyman P. Minsky. 1972. "Financial instability revisited: the economics of disaster."

Reappraisal of the Federal Reserve Discount Mechanism. Washington: Board of Governors of the Federal