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Relations of production

Relations of production is a concept used by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in their theory of historical materialism and in Das Kapital. It is first explicitly used in Marx's published book The Poverty of Philosophy, although Marx and Engels had defined the term in The German Ideology; some social relations are voluntary and chosen. But other social relations are involuntary, i.e. people can be related, whether they like that or not, because they are part of a family, a group, an organization, a community, a nation etc. By "relations of production", Marx and Engels meant the sum total of social relationships that people must enter into in order to survive, to produce, to reproduce their means of life; as people must enter into these social relationships, i.e. because participation in them is not voluntary, the totality of these relationships constitute a stable and permanent structure, the "economic structure" or mode of production. The term "relations of production" is somewhat vague, for two main reasons: The German word Verhältnis can mean "relation", "proportion", or "ratio".

Thus, the relationships could be quantitative, or both. Which meaning applies can only be established from the context; the relations to which Marx refers can be social relationships, economic relationships, or technological relationships. Marx and Engels use the term to refer to the socioeconomic relationships characteristic of a specific epoch, it is contrasted with and affected by what Marx called the forces of production. Here are four famous quotations showing Marx's use of the concept of relations of production: In the social production of their existence, men enter into definite relations, which are independent of their will, namely relations of production appropriate to a given stage in the development of their material forces of production; the totality of these relations of production constitutes the economic structure of society, the real foundation, on which arises a legal and political superstructure and to which correspond definite forms of social consciousness. The mode of production of material life conditions the general process of social and intellectual life.

It is not the consciousness of men that determines their existence, but their social existence that determines their consciousness. At a certain stage of development, the material productive forces of society come into conflict with the existing relations of production or – this expresses the same thing in legal terms – with the property relations within the framework of which they have operated hitherto. From forms of development of the productive forces these relations turn into their fetters. Begins an era of social revolution; the changes in the economic foundation lead sooner or to the transformation of the whole immense superstructure. - 1859 Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy Economic categories are only the theoretical expressions, the abstractions of the social relations of production, M. Proudhon, holding this upside down like a true philosopher, sees in actual relations nothing but the incarnation of the principles, of these categories, which were slumbering – so M. Proudhon the philosopher tells us – in the bosom of the “impersonal reason of humanity.”

M. Proudhon the economist understands well that men make cloth, linen, or silk materials in definite relations of production, but what he has not understood is that these definite social relations are just as much produced by men as linen, etc. Social relations are bound up with productive forces. In acquiring new productive forces men change their mode of production; the hand-mill gives you society with the feudal lord. The same men who establish their social relations in conformity with the material productivity, produce principles and categories, in conformity with their social relations, thus the ideas, these categories, are as little eternal as the relations they express. They are transitory products; the production relations of every society form a whole. - The Poverty of Philosophy We have seen that the capitalist process of production is a determined form of the social process of production in general. The latter is as much a production process of material conditions of human life as a process taking place under specific historical and economic production relations and reproducing these production relations themselves, thereby the bearers of this process, their material conditions of existence and their mutual relations, i.e. their particular socio-economic form.

For the aggregate of these relations, in which the agents of this production stand with respect to Nature and to one another, in which they produce, is society, considered from the standpoint of its economic structure. Like all its predecessors, the capitalist process of production proceeds under definite material conditions, which are, however the bearers of definite social relations entered into by individuals in the process of reproducing their life; those conditions, like these relations, are on the one hand prerequisites, on the other hand results and creations of the capitalist process of production.

SS Irish Willow (1918)

Irish Willow was one of the few ships which maintained Irish trade during World War II. At the outbreak of World War II, known as "The Emergency", Ireland declared neutrality and became isolated as never before. Although Ireland had a substantial food surplus, there were shortages of specific foods such as fruits and tea. There were few Irish ships as shipping had been neglected since independence. Foreign ships which had transported Irish cargoes, before the war, were soon unavailable. No country had been more blockaded because of the activities of belligerents and our lack of ships... Otto, an Estonian ship, was in Cobh when the Republic of Estonia was annexed by the USSR. In October 1941 trustees for the absent owners leased her to Irish Shipping, she was renamed Irish Willow, She made 18 voyages to Saint John, New Brunswick, returning with wheat. She exported food to Britain and imported coal. Irish ships sailed in British convoys. In the light of experience they chose relying on their neutral markings.

German respect for that neutrality varied from friendly to tragic. The ship was built for the United States Shipping Board in Toledo, Ohio by the Toledo Shipbuilding Company. A Standard World War I cargo ship, she was laid down as War Flag, but named Lake Sunapee after the lake in New Hampshire, she was launched on 28 December 1917. The ship was a single deck vessel with a grain capacity of 130,000 cubic feet and bunker capacity of 2,009 GRT, she was 252 ft long, 43 ft 5 in wide and 18 ft 9 in deep. As a Laker she was designed to navigate. Lake Sunapee served as a U. S. Army transport, based in Cardiff, United Kingdom, bringing coal to France, she departed from Cardiff for New York City on 7 June 1919, arrived 25 June and was decommissioned at Hoboken, New Jersey 3 July 1919. Little is known of her service in the years following World War I, although it is recorded that she arrived at New York from the Pará on 29 May 1920, she was laid up until 1923 when she was sold to W. J. Gray Jnr. of San Francisco and renamed Frank Lynch.

Frank Lynch was built as a coal-fired steamship with a triple-expansion steam engine. In 1923 the engine was replaced with a Werkspoor diesel engine. On 29 August 1929, the passenger ship San Juan collided with the tanker S. C. T. Dodd and sank with the loss of many lives. Frank Lynch, Munami and S. C. T. Dodd rescued the survivors. In 1937, she was sold to the Greek company George D. Gratsos' Sons. In 1938 she suffered a total engine failure and was towed to Rotterdam, where she was converted back to a steamer. In 1939 she was sold to K Jurnas of renamed Otto; the Irish government had pursued a policy of autarky or self-sufficiency, so international trade was discouraged and the mercantile marine ignored. At independence in 1923 there were 127 Irish ships, but by September 1939 there were only 56, including 7 which did not carry cargo. Irish imports such as wheat, maize and fertilizer were carried on foreign British, ships. With the outbreak of hostilities, they were unavailable. Churchill explained "we need this tonnage for our own supply".

In November 1939, American ships were excluded from Irish waters by the neutrality act. By the end of 1940, nine Irish ships as well as ten neutral foreign ships carrying Irish cargoes, some of, chartered by Irish companies, had been sunk by U-boats, the Luftwaffe or mines. Against this background, the government founded Irish Shipping and sought ships which it could charter or purchase. Irish Willow was one of those ships. In June 1940 the Soviet Union occupied the Baltic states and on 6 August 1940 Estonia was annexed as the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic. Industry was nationalised and Estonian ships were instructed to go a Soviet port. There were several ships from the Baltic states in, or heading to, Irish ports. All ignored that instruction. Peter Kolts, a crewman of Pirer, another Estonian ship at Dublin south quays, hoisted the hammer and sickle and prevented Captain Joseph Juriska from removing it; the Garda Síochána were called. Following a court appearance before Justice Michael Lennon the sailor spent a week in jail.

Ivan Maisky, the Soviet Union's ambassador to the United Kingdom, applied to the High Court in Dublin for possession of the ships. Their owners could not be contacted; the Soviet case was supported by a letter from John Whelan Dulanty, the Irish High Commissioner in London. This letter, written when the ships had been instructed to go to the USSR, asked if the three ships carrying cargoes destined for Ireland, could first deliver their Irish cargo. Maisky had agreed on behalf of the Soviet Union, provided that the Irish government guaranteed that after discharging their cargo they would be given food sufficient for the journey to a Soviet port. A. K. Overend K. C. acting for Maisky, said that this established that his client was recognised by Ireland as "the proper person to give instruction to the ships", that his client was the only claimant. John McEvoy was the honorary consul of the Republic of Estonia in Dublin, he opposed the Soviet claim along with Estonian representatives in Switzerland.

Though he lacked diplomatic status, the Court recognised the right of Herbert Martinson, described as "an Estonian national, resident in Switzerland", to vindicate the rights of the absent owners. The High Court considered five ships: three from Estonia, Otto and Mall, two from Latvia, Rāmava and Everoja. McEvoy acted for the various owners of the Estonian ships. On 16 May 1941 the High Court rejected the Soviet


The Dobličica is a stream in White Carniola. It is part of a karst aquifer. Due to its geological and hydrological characteristics and urbanization of the area, it is considered sensitive and subject to pollution; the Dobličica has its source in the eastern foothills of Mount Poljane at Lake Dobliče, 40 meters across and up to 10 meters deep. The bed of the lake is covered with large boulders, among which karst water flows from two depressions. A karst spring with a constant flow feeds the lake, with an outflow in a shallow channel; the upper part of the stream bed is rocky mixed with sand, the banks are loamy. Soon after the source, another spring adds its water to the flow from the lake; the channel is bordered by typical riverside vegetation and meanders through meadows before being joined by another stream, the Potok, emptying into the Lahinja River at Črnomelj. The Dobličica and the Lahinja surround the old town center of Črnomelj on three sides. A catchwater for the White Carniola water system was created near the lake in 1958.

In 1986, members of the Slovenian Karst Research Institute discovered black olms during experimental pumping at the lake. Inventar najpomembnejše naravne dediščine Slovenije, Ljubljana, 1991 List of rivers of Slovenia Media related to Dobličica at Wikimedia Commons Dobličica at Geopedia

The Winner's Song

"The Winner's Song" is a single by fictional character Geraldine McQueen from Peter Kay's Britain's Got the Pop Factor... and Possibly a New Celebrity Jesus Christ Soapstar Superstar Strictly on Ice, a spoof talent contest/comedy by British comedian Peter Kay, who plays Geraldine. It was reached number two on the UK Singles Chart, it reached number one in Scotland in June 2009. The song was co-written by Kay together with Gary Barlow from Take That, parodies the style of changing key part-way through a song - a popular trick of modern-day pop songs - starting out in A flat major, moving up to B flat major, quickly up to B major; the video to the song was released both as a DVD single and as part of the Peter Kay compilation "Special Kay", The video itself is a parody of Leona Lewis' video for her cover of Kelly Clarkson's, "A Moment Like This", the box art of the single is a parody of The Meaning of Love, the debut album from Michelle McManus, who won the second series of Pop Idol in 2003.

The CD for the Winners Song featured the tracks. In Scotland, the opposite occurred: It was beaten to the top by "Don't Call This Love" and charted one position ahead of "So What". However, the song remained on the Scottish Singles Chart for the rest of 2008 and during the first half of 2009 reaching the number-one spot on 14 June 2009. Overall, the song spent a full consecutive year on the Scottish Singles Chart, making its last chart appearance on 4 October 2009 before leaving the top 100

Statute Law (Repeals) Act 1978

The Statute Law Act 1978 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. This Act was in force in Great Britain at the end of 2010, it implemented recommendations contained in the ninth report on statute law revision, by the Law Commission and the Scottish Law Commission. Section 1 was repealed by Group 2 of Part IX of Schedule 1 to the Statute Law Act 1998; this section was repealed by section 1 of, Part IV of Schedule 1 to, the Statute Law Act 1995. In section 3, the words "or the Isle of Man" were repealed by Group 2 of Part IX of Schedule 1 to the Statute Law Act 1998. Orders under this section The power conferred by section 3 was exercised by the Statute Law Repeals Order 1984; the Orders in Council made under section 3 have lapsed because of the repeal made to that section by the Statute Law Act 1998. This Schedule was repealed by Group 2 of Part IX of Schedule 1 to the Statute Law Act 1998. Paragraph 1 of this Schedule authorised the citation by short titles of three Acts passed between 1554 and 1854.

This Schedule was repealed by section 1 of, Part IV of Schedule 1 to, the Statute Law Act 1995. Statute Law Act Halsbury's Statutes. Fourth Edition. 2008 Reissue. Volume 41. Page 835. Peter Allsop. Current Law Statutes Annotated 1978. Sweet & Maxwell, Stevens & sons. London. W Green & son. Edinburgh. 1978. Volume 2; the Public General Acts and General Synod Measures 1978. HMSO. London. 1979. Part II. Pages 1095 to 1137. HL Deb vol 390, col 1979, vol 391, cols 1160 to 1162, vol 395, col 321, HC Deb vol 954, cols 1104 to 1105

SS Belle of Spain

Belle of Spain was a steam cargo ship built in 1908 by the Northumberland Shipbuilding Co of Newcastle for Crow, Rudolf & Co of Liverpool. The ship was spent her career doing tramp trade. In early 1900s Crow, Rudolf & Co ordered two ships, Belle of England and Belle of France, to carry cargo for their merchant operations. With their trade expanding, three more ships were ordered in subsequent years, with Belle of Spain being the last of the five Belle ships built for the company; the vessel was laid down at Northumberland Shipbuilding Co. shipyard in Howdon and launched on 5 December 1907, with Mrs. P. W. Bertlin, of Jesmond, serving as a sponsor. After successful completion of sea trials, Belle of Spain was handed over to her owners in January 1908; the vessel was intended for general cargo trade, 8 steam winches, large number of cargo derricks were installed to facilitate quick cargo loading and unloading process. In addition, accommodations for a large number of first and second-class passengers in houses on the bridge deck were built.

As built, the ship was 360 feet 2 inches long and 48 feet 0 inches abeam, a mean draft of 20 feet 2 inches. Belle of Spain was assessed at 4,223 GRT and 2,742 NRT and had deadweight of 7,300; the vessel had a steel hull, a single 372 nhp triple-expansion steam engine, with cylinders of 25-inch, 41-inch and 69-inch diameter with a 48-inch stroke, that drove a single screw propeller, moved the ship at up to 10.0 knots. To operate the vessel, a holding company, Belle of Spain Steamship Co Ltd, was registered on January 16, 1908 with capital of £15,000. After delivery Belle of Spain was chartered for South American trade, departed for her maiden voyage on February 9, 1908 from Hull via Dunkerque and St. Vincent, she arrived in Montevideo on March 9 and from there proceeded to Rosario, reaching it on March 15. The ship was loaded with agricultural products, such as wheat and linseed in South America and left Montevideo on April 18; the vessel touched off at St. Vincent on May 7, Havre on May 20, before reaching Hull on May 25, 1908.

The ship conducted two more trips down to South America from England in 1908. For her second trip, she sailed from Barry on June 16, 1908, arriving in Montevideo on July 15 via Dunkirk and Tenerife; the vessel departed Rosario for her return journey on August 31, called at St. Vincent on September 18, arrived in Belfast on September 30. Belle of Spain left for her third trip from Barry on October 14 to load cargo at Cardiff, Dunkirk and Pauillac, she arrived at Montevideo on November 27 via Vigo and Tenerife. The ship again visited ports of Buenos Aires and Rosario but this time she continued to Santos arriving there on December 19; the ship was loaded with 44,628 bags of coffee and departed Santos on January 2, 1909 for Havre, which she reached on January 29. Upon return to England, the ship was chartered for one trip to Southeast Asia, left Cardiff for Colombo on February 19. After passing through the Suez Canal on March 7, the vessel reached her destination on March 23. From Ceylon, the vessel continued on, visiting ports of Madras and Rangoon.

She sailed from Rangoon on her return trip for Hamburg on April 29 and arrived at Cuxhaven on June 16. From Germany the ship sailed to Sweden via Newcastle where she loaded iron ore at Luleå and left for Philadelphia on July 10; the vessel made a stopover at South Shields on her way over to North America, departing it on July 19, 1909. During the journey in the Atlantic, the vessel experienced some rough weather and had to stay in Philadelphia for minor repairs. Subsequently, she was chartered by the Dominion Steel Company to transport steel rails from the company's plant in Nova Scotia to the site of Grand Trunk Pacific Railroad being constructed on the West coast of Canada. Belle of Spain continued on to North Sydney, where she took on around 6,000 tons of rails and left Sydney on September 1, 1909. During the trip, the vessel ran into more rough weather and had her steering gear damaged, as a result she had to call in St. Lucia for repairs on September 10, it took over a month to finalize her repairs, it was not until October 18 that the ship could leave St. Lucia.

Belle of Spain proceeded to Prince Rupert by rounding the Cape Horn, called at Nanaimo on November 14 to replenish her bunkers. During her long journey, one of the officers on board went insane, had to be institutionalized upon arrival at Prince Rupert. Upon unloading, Belle of Spain was chartered to carry phosphate rock from Ocean Island to Europe, departed Victoria on December 21, 1909. After loading her cargo the ship departed Ocean Island on January 29, 1910 and arrived at Stettin on April 13 via Colombo and Malta. Belle of Spain afterwards proceeded to England and left from Newport on May 6 for Bahía Blanca which she reached on June 5. Next, the vessel was chartered to transport coal from Newcastle to the West coast of South America, left Bahía Blanca on June 16; the ship called at Durban and arrived at her destination on August 2. After loading 5,619 tons of coal, Belle of Spain departed Newcastle on August 19 for Talcahuano and arrived there on September 16; the vessel was afterwards chartered by the W. R. Grace & Co and proceeded to Valparaíso, Antofagasta and Iquique to load 4,500 tons of nitrates for delivery to California.

Belle of Spain arrived in San Francisco on November 30, 1910. After unloading most of her cargo, the vessel continued north calling at several Pacific ports. For example, the ship unloaded about 1,100 tons of her cargo at Victoria on December 20. Next, Bell