In the context of human society, a family is a group of people related either by consanguinity, affinity, or co-residence or some combination of these. Members of the immediate family may include spouses, brothers, sisters and daughters. Members of the extended family may include grandparents, uncles, nephews and siblings-in-law. Sometimes these are considered members of the immediate family, depending on an individual's specific relationship with them. In most societies, the family is the principal institution for the socialization of children; as the basic unit for raising children, anthropologists classify most family organizations as matrifocal. Sexual relations among the members are regulated by rules concerning incest such as the incest taboo; the word "family" can be used metaphorically to create more inclusive categories such as community, global village, humanism. The field of genealogy aims to trace family lineages through history; the family is an important economic unit studied in family economics.
One of the primary functions of the family involves providing a framework for the production and reproduction of persons biologically and socially. This can occur through the sharing of material substances. Thus, one's experience of one's family shifts over time. From the perspective of children, the family is G "family of orientation": the family serves to locate children and plays a major role in their enculturation and socialization. From the point of view of the parent, the family is a "family of procreation", the goal of, to produce and enculturate and socialize children. However, producing children is not the only function of the family. Christopher Harris notes that the western conception of family is ambiguous and confused with the household, as revealed in the different contexts in which the word is used. Olivia Harris states this confusion is not accidental, but indicative of the familial ideology of capitalist, western countries that pass social legislation that insists members of a nuclear family should live together, that those not so related should not live together.
The total fertility rate of women varies from country to country, from a high of 6.76 children born/woman in Niger to a low of 0.81 in Singapore. Fertility is low in most Eastern Southern European countries. In some cultures, the mother's preference of family size influences that of the children through early adulthood. A parent's number of children correlates with the number of children that they will have. Although early western cultural anthropologists and sociologists considered family and kinship to be universally associated with relations by "blood" research has shown that many societies instead understand family through ideas of living together, the sharing of food and sharing care and nurture. Sociologists have a special interest in the function and status of family forms in stratified societies. According to the work of scholars Max Weber, Alan Macfarlane, Steven Ozment, Jack Goody and Peter Laslett, the huge transformation that led to modern marriage in Western democracies was "fueled by the religio-cultural value system provided by elements of Judaism, early Christianity, Roman Catholic canon law and the Protestant Reformation".
Much sociological and anthropological research dedicates itself to the understanding of this variation, of changes in the family that form over time. Levitan claims: "Times have changed; the way roles are balanced between the parents will help children grow and learn valuable life lessons. There is great importance of communication and equality in families, in order to avoid role strain." The term "nuclear family" is used in the United States of America, to refer to conjugal families. A "conjugal" family includes only the unmarried children who are not of age; some sociologists distinguish between nuclear families. Other family structures - with blended parents, single parents, domestic partnerships - have begun to challenge the normality of the nuclear family. A single-parent family consist one parent together with his or her children, where the parent is either widowed and not remarried, or never married; the parent may either have sole custody of the children, or, the parents may have a shared parenting arrangement, where the children divide their time between two different single-parent families or between one single-parent family and one blended family.
Romance is an emotional feeling of love for, or a strong attraction towards, another person, the courtship behaviors undertaken by an individual to express those overall feelings and resultant emotions. Although the emotions and sensations of romantic love are associated with sexual attraction, romantic feelings can exist without expectation of physical consummation and be subsequently expressed; the term romance originates with the medieval ideal of chivalry as set out in the literature of chivalric romance. Romantic love is a relative term that distinguishes moments and situations within intimate relationships as contributing to a deepened relational connection; the addition of "drama" to relationships of close and strong love. Anthropologist Charles Lindholm defined love as "an intense attraction that involves the idealization of the other, within an erotic context, with expectation of enduring sometime into the future"; the word "romance" comes from the French vernacular where it indicated a verse narrative.
The word was an adverb of Latin origin, "romanicus," meaning "of the Roman style". European medieval vernacular tales and ballads dealt with chivalric adventure, not bringing in the concept of love until late into the seventeenth century; the word romance developed other meanings, such as the early nineteenth century Spanish and Italian definitions of "adventurous" and "passionate," which could intimate both "love affair" and "idealistic quality." Anthropologists such as Claude Lévi-Strauss show that there were complex forms of courtship in ancient as well as contemporary primitive societies. There may not be evidence, that members of such societies formed loving relationships distinct from their established customs in a way that would parallel modern romance. Before the 18th century, many marriages were not arranged, but rather developed out of more or less spontaneous relationships. After the 18th century, illicit relationships took on a more independent role. In bourgeois marriage, illicitness may have become more formidable and to cause tension.
In Ladies of the Leisure Class, Rutgers University professor Bonnie G. Smith depicts courtship and marriage rituals that may be viewed as oppressive to modern people, she writes "When the young women of the Nord married, they did so without illusions of love and romance. They acted within a framework of concern for the reproduction of bloodlines according to financial and sometimes political interests." Subsequent sexual revolution has lessened the conflicts arising out of liberalism, but not eliminated them. Anthony Giddens, in The Transformation of Intimacy: Sexuality and Eroticism in Modern Society, states that romantic love introduced the idea of a narrative to an individual's life, telling a story is a root meaning of the term romance. According to Giddens, the rise of romantic love more or less coincided with the emergence of the novel, it was that romantic love, associated with freedom and therefore the ideals of romantic love, created the ties between freedom and self-realization. David R. Shumway states that "the discourse of intimacy" emerged in the last third of the 20th century, intended to explain how marriage and other relationships worked, making the specific case that emotional closeness is much more important than passion, with intimacy and romance coexisting.
One example of the changes experienced in relationships in the early 21st century was explored by Giddens regarding homosexual relationships. According to Giddens, since homosexuals were not able to marry they were forced to pioneer more open and negotiated relationships; these kinds of relationships permeated the heterosexual population. The conception of romantic love was popularized in Western culture by the concept of courtly love. Chevaliers, or knights in the Middle Ages, engaged in what were non-physical and non-marital relationships with women of nobility whom they served; these relations were elaborate and ritualized in a complexity, steeped in a framework of tradition, which stemmed from theories of etiquette derived out of chivalry as a moral code of conduct. Courtly love and the notion of domnei were the subjects of troubadours, could be found in artistic endeavors such as lyrical narratives and poetic prose of the time. Since marriage was nothing more than a formal arrangement, courtly love sometimes permitted expressions of emotional closeness that may have been lacking from the union between husband and wife.
In terms of courtly love, "lovers" did not refer to those engaging in sexual acts, but rather, to the act of caring and to emotional intimacy. The bond between a knight and his Lady, or the woman of high stature of whom he served, may have escalated psychologically but ever physically. For knighthood during the Middle Ages, the intrinsic importance of a code of conduct was in large part as a value system of rules codified as a guide to aid a knight in his capacity as champion of the downtrodden, but in his service to the Lord. In the context of dutiful service to a woman of high social standing, ethics designated as a code were established as an institution to provide a firm moral foundation by which to combat the idea that unfit attentions and affections were to be tolerated as "a secret game of trysts" behind closed doors. Therefore, a knight trained in the substance of "chivalry" was instructed, with especial emphasis, to serve a lady most honorably, with purity of heart and mind. To that end, he committed himself to the welfare of both Lord and Lady with unwavering discipline and devotion, while at the same time, presuming to uphold core principles set forth in the code by the religion by which he followed.
Beautiful Thugger Girls
Beautiful Thugger Girls is a mixtape by American rapper Young Thug. It was released on June 2017, by 300 Entertainment and Atlantic Records; the mixtape features guest appearances from Future, Jacquees, Lil Durk, Millie Go Lightly and Snoop Dogg. Production on the mixtape was handled by Billboard Hitmakers, Charlie Handsome, Rex Kudo, Wheezy, among others. Beautiful Thugger Girls received acclaim from critics, debuted at number eight on the US Billboard 200, it debuted at number four on the US Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums. On April 26, 2017, Young Thug announced that the project would be titled E. B. B. T. G. An abbreviation for Easy Breezy Beautiful Thugger Girls, a play on "easy, beautiful CoverGirl" as the slogan for CoverGirl. After several delays, the release date was hinted a week before release and confirmed two days before release. Beautiful Thugger Girls was described by Young Thug as a "singing album", which includes crossovers to musical genres such as R&B, dancehall and country. Although it has been referred to as an album by Young Thug, 300 Entertainment have reported it as a commercial mixtape.
Beautiful Thugger Girls received acclaim from critics. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream publications, the mixtape received an average score of 84, based on eight reviews. Paul Thompson of Pitchfork labelled Beautiful Thugger Girls Young Thug's "most compelling experiment in pop," saying it "strips away all the clutter, leaving his best-developed melodies and most evocative songwriting to date" while comparing it to Lil Wayne's Rebirth. Scott Glaysher of XXL said, "Thug sounds the best he's sounded, despite some of the songs begin far removed from his proverbial comfort zone." Daniel Bromfield of Pretty Much Amazing argued "Young Thug cycles through a lot of styles here: lovebird R&B, sensitive acoustic folk country. But he doesn't terraform them to his whims so much as try them on for size." Judnick Maynard of The Fader commented that Beautiful Thugger Girls "becomes more than a country album: the music isn't his master, instead he bends it to his will."
And is a "testament to Young Thug's evolving creative reach." Tiny Mix Tapes's Corrigan B stated: "Beautiful Thugger Girls is remarkable because of its Thugger-ness" but noted that "Beautiful Thugger Girls marks the point at which his pure lyricism, absent an unimpeachable sense of melody and flow, has begun to detract from the project as a whole."The A. V. Club's Renatio Pagnani stated: "Few artists manage to balance wide-eyed eroticism with genuine warmth, fewer manage the feat while packing multiple albums' worth of hooks into each song. For Thug, it's just his default mode." Winston Cook-Wilson of Spin said, "The album feels unprecedented within his catalog because it strikes a balance Thug has never quite pulled off on a single project: mixing a unified, album-wide sound with moments of aggressive experimentation and nagging hooks." Exclaim! Critic Anya Zoledziowski thought that "Beautiful Thugger Girls—which lists Drake as executive producer—pushes the boundaries of Atlanta hip-hop while adding yet another groundbreaking project to the trapper's discography."
Beautiful Thugger Girls debuted at number eight on the US Billboard 200 and number four on the US Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums with 37,000 album-equivalent units of which 7,000 were pure album sales in its first week of release. Credits adapted from the album's liner notes. Notes "Tomorrow Til Infinity" did not feature vocals by Gunna "You Said" did not feature vocals by Quavo The vinyl version of "Me or Us" features a guest appearance by Travis Scott Credits adapted from the album's liner notes
BeBe & CeCe Winans
BeBe & CeCe Winans are an American gospel music brother and sister duo. BeBe and CeCe Winans are the seventh and eighth of the Winans family's ten children, most of whom have had gospel music careers. Together, they have received several awards, including three Grammys. While BeBe and CeCe were in high school, four of their elder brothers formed the successful gospel group The Winans. Known as The Winans Part II, BeBe and CeCe first appeared in the public eye when they debuted in 1982 as part of the singing group The PTL Singers on the Christian television show The PTL Club, they were introduced by Jim Bakker, recorded their first album Lord Lift Us Up as a duo for PTL Records. BeBe and CeCe left the PTL Singers in 1987 to pursue a musical career and that same year, Sparrow Records offered the two siblings a Gospel recording contract, their mainstream debut release was the self-titled album CeCe Winans. It was produced by Keith Thomas, who had at that time produced Amy Grant and Vanessa L. Williams.
The debut record gave them their first R&B hit, "I. O. U. Me", which topped R&B and inspirational charts and generated Grammy nominations, Dove and Stellar Awards. CeCe earned a Grammy for "Best Soul Gospel Performance, Female" for the song "For Always." They were one of the first African American artists to receive significant airplay on contemporary Christian music radio stations and the second African American artists to receive the Dove Award in the Group of the Year category. With the release of their second LP Heaven, they remained popular with R&B audiences, spawning 3 R&B hit singles including two No. 1 singles. The pair became the first Gospel artists to see their album reach No. 1 on the Billboard sales charts in 1988. The title track reached No. 12 on the Billboard R&B singles chart. Other hits from the album included "Lost Without You" and "Celebrate New Life."The album reached the R&B Top Ten, went to No. 95 on the Pop Charts and was certified Gold. The release of their 1991 album Different Lifestyles brought their biggest success to date.
It featured the singles "Addictive Love" and a cover of The Staple Singers' "I'll Take You There" featuring Mavis Staples. Both singles topped the R&B chart. Rapper MC Hammer was featured on the single "The Blood" at the height of his career. In 1992, the song peaked at No. 8 on Billboard's Christian Adult Contemporary chart. A holiday release titled First Christmas followed in 1993; this album showcased BeBe's production skills and led to him doing production work with Whitney Houston on the soundtrack for the movie The Bodyguard as well as production and writing music for artists such as Gladys Knight, Bobby Brown, The Clark Sisters and his younger sisters Angie and Debbie Winans. 1994 saw the release of their studio album Relationships, featuring the notable singles "If Anything Ever Happened To You," "Love Of My Life," and "Stay With Me." This album conveyed a more personal approach, in CeCe's words: "A lot of people think we're supposed to be perfect, but we're people too, we go through hurt pain.
We get songs through experiences and as we reveal these things, people are touched." In 2009, Still was BeBe & CeCe's first album in more than 15 years. Premiering 12 new songs, the album's lead single was "Close to You"; the album won two Grammy Awards: Best Gospel R&B Album. As a duo, BeBe and CeCe Winans' accolades include three Grammy Awards, nine Dove Awards, two NAACP Image awards, two Soul Train Music Awards, numerous Stellar Awards, three Gold albums, one Platinum album. 1991: Best Contemporary Soul Gospel Album – Different Lifestyles 2010: Best Gospel Performance – “Grace” 2010: Best Contemporary R&B Gospel Album – Still 1988: New Artist of the Year 1990: Group of the Year 1990: Pop/Contemporary Album – Heaven 1990: Pop/Contemporary Song – “Heaven” 1990: Contemporary Gospel Song – “With My Whole Heart” 1992: Group of the Year 1992: Contemporary Gospel Song – “Addictive Love” 1998: Contemporary Gospel Song – “Up Where We Belong” 2010: Urban Recorded Song – “Close To You” 1990: Best Gospel Artist 1992: Best Gospel Artist 1990: Best Gospel Album – Heaven 1992: Best Gospel Album – Different LifestylesThe Walk of Fame Committee of the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce has announced that BeBe & CeCe Winans names will be added to the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2011.
"Heaven" "Celebrate New Life" "Addictive Love" "I'll Take You There" "It's O. K." "Jingle Bells" "If Anything Ever Happened To You" "Love Of My Life" "Feels Like Heaven" "Close To You" One of the duo's signature songs, was remade by Destiny's Child member Michelle Williams featuring Carl Thomas on her 2002 Gospel album Heart to Yours. In 1992, the duo made an appearance on Sesame Street in the song "Dancing Shoes", for which they provided the vocals. Both appear on the television series Martin on the episode titled "Go Tell It on the Martin". On the Disney Channel's animated television show The Proud Family, the youngest children in the family are twin toddlers named BeBe and CeCe. Timothy Bowman Jr. and Deborah Joy Winans portrayed BeBe and Cece in the 2015 Lifetime biopic Whitney. In 1995, they parted ways to work on their solo careers and other areas of interest. Both artists have gone on receiving numerous awards and accolades. To date, BeBe has released six solo albums. BeBe and CeCe Winans recorded twice as a duo during their hiatus - "What A Child", a duet on CeCe's Christmas album His Gift, "Tonight Tonight", a duet on BeBe's 2000 album Love & Freedom.
BeBe & CeCe Winans at AllMusic
Consanguinity is the property of being from the same kinship as another person. In that aspect, consanguinity is the quality of being descended from the same ancestor as another person; the laws of many jurisdictions set out degrees of consanguinity in relation to prohibited sexual relations and marriage parties. Such rules are used to determine heirs of an estate according to statutes that govern intestate succession, which vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. In some places and times, cousin marriage is expected. For most of European history, cousin marriage was quite common, but in modern, Western Europe, it is illegal and practiced at a marginal rate. The degree of relative consanguinity can be illustrated with a consanguinity table in which each level of lineal consanguinity appears as a row, individuals with a collaterally consanguineous relationship share the same row; the Knot System is a numerical notation. Issues of consanguinity arise in several aspects of the law. Laws prohibiting incest govern the degree of kinship within which marriage or sexual intercourse is permitted.
These are universally prohibited within the second degree of consanguinity. Some jurisdictions forbid marriage between first cousins. Marriage with aunts and uncles is legal in several countries. Consanguinity is relevant to inheritance with regard to intestate succession. In general, the law favors inheritance by persons related to the deceased; some jurisdictions ban citizens from service on a jury on the basis of consanguinity with persons involved in the case. In many countries, laws prohibiting nepotism ban employment of, or certain kinds of contracts with, the near relations of public officers or employees. Under Roman civil law, which early canon law of the Catholic Church followed, couples were forbidden to marry if they were within four degrees of consanguinity. In the ninth century the church raised the number of prohibited degrees to seven and changed the method by which they were calculated; the nobility became too interrelated to marry as the pool of non-related prospective spouses became smaller.
They had to either look elsewhere for eligible marriage candidates. In 1215 the Fourth Lateran Council made what they believed was a necessary change to canon law reducing the number of prohibited degrees of consanguinity from seven back to four; the method of calculating prohibited degrees was changed also: Instead of the former practice of counting up to the common ancestor down to the proposed spouse, the new law computed consanguinity by counting back to the common ancestor. In the Roman Catholic Church, unknowingly marrying a consanguineous blood relative was grounds for a declaration of nullity, but during the eleventh and twelfth centuries dispensations were granted with increasing frequency due to the thousands of persons encompassed in the prohibition at seven degrees and the hardships this posed for finding potential spouses. After 1215, the general rule was that while fourth cousins could marry without dispensation the need for dispensations was reduced. In fourteenth century England, for example, papal dispensations for annulments due to consanguinity were few.
The connotations of degree of consanguinity varies by context, though most cultures define a degree of consanguinity within which sexual interrelationships are regarded as incestuous or the "prohibited degree of kinship". Among the Christian Habesha highlanders of Ethiopia and Eritrea, it is a tradition to be able to recount one's paternal ancestors at least seven generations away starting from early childhood, because "those with a common patrilineal ancestor less than seven generations away are considered'brother and sister' and may not marry." The rule is less strict on the mother's side, where the limit is about four generations back, but still determined patrilinearly. This rule does not apply to other ethnic groups; the Quran at 4:22-24 states. "Forbidden to you in marriage are: your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, your father's sisters, your mother's sisters, your brother's daughters, your sister's daughters." Therefore, the list of forbidden marriage partners, as read in the Qur'an, Surah 4:23, does not include first cousins.
Muhammad himself married his first cousin Zaynab bint Jahsh. Financial incentives to discourage consangineous marriages exist in some countries: mandatory premarital screening for inherited blood disorders exist in the UAE since 2004, Qatar in 2009, where couples with positive results will not receive their marriage grant. In the Manusmriti blood relation marriage is prohibited for 7 generations. Ayurveda states that marriage within the Gotra is a consanguineous marriage which can lead to many gestational and genetic problems in the fetus. So it has become a common practice in the Hindu households during pre-marriage discussions to ask the couples' Gotra. Couples of the same Gotra are advised not to marry; the advisers of this system say that this practice helps in reducing the gestational problems and ensures a healthy progeny. Genetically, consanguinity derives from the reduction in variation due to meiosis that occurs because of the smaller number of near ancestors. Since all humans share between 99.6% and 99.9% of their genome, consanguinity only affects a small part of the sequence.
If two siblings have a child, the child only has two rather than four grandparents. In these circumstances the probability that the child inher
Georgie Fame is an English rhythm and blues and jazz singer and keyboard player. Fame, who had a string of 1960s hits, is still a popular performer working with contemporaries such as Van Morrison and Bill Wyman. Fame is the only British pop star to have achieved three number one hits with his only Top 10 chart entries: "Yeh, Yeh" in 1964, "Get Away", in 1966 and "The Ballad of Bonnie and Clyde" in 1967. Fame was born in Lancashire, he took piano lessons from the age of seven and on leaving Leigh Central County Secondary School at 15 he worked for a brief period in a cotton weaving mill and played piano for a band called the Dominoes in the evenings. After taking part in a singing contest at the Butlins Holiday Camp in Pwllheli, North Wales, he was offered a job there by the band leader, early British rock and roll star Rory Blackwell. At sixteen years of age, Fame went to London and, on the recommendation of Lionel Bart, entered into a management agreement with Larry Parnes, who had given new stage names to artists Marty Wilde and Billy Fury.
Fame recalled that Parnes had given him an ultimatum over his forced change of name: "It was much against my will but he said,'If you don't use my name, I won't use you in the show'". Over the following year Fame toured the UK playing beside Wilde, Joe Brown, Gene Vincent, Eddie Cochran and others. Fame played piano for Billy Fury in the Blue Flames; when the backing band got the sack at the end of 1961, the band were re-billed as "Georgie Fame and the Blue Flames" and went on to enjoy great success with a repertoire of rhythm and blues numbers. Fame was influenced by jazz and the musicians Mose Allison and Willie Mabon, he was one of the first white musicians to be influenced by ska after hearing it in cafés in Jamaica and Ladbroke Grove in England. He recalled The Flamingo Club was "full of American GIs who came in from their bases for the weekend" who played for him the song "Green Onions" by Booker T. & the M. G.'s. "I had been playing piano up to that point but I bought a Hammond organ the next day."In 1963 the band recorded its debut album and Blues at the Flamingo.
Produced by Ian Samwell and engineered by Glyn Johns, the album was released in place of a planned single by EMI Columbia. It failed to reach the chart, but the October 1964 follow-up, Fame at Last, reached No. 15 on the UK album chart. Ronan O'Rahilly failed to get Fame's first record played by the BBC. After it was rejected by Radio Luxembourg, he announced he would start his own radio station to promote the record; the station became the offshore pirate radio station Radio Caroline. Fame enjoyed continual chart success, with three number one hits in the UK Singles Chart, his version of "Yeh, Yeh", released on 14 January 1965, spent two weeks at No. 1 on the UK singles chart. "In the Meantime" charted in both UK and US. Fame made his US television debut that same year on Hullabaloo, his single "Get Away", released on 21 July 1966, spent one week at No. 1 on the UK chart and 11 weeks on the chart. The song was written as a jingle for a petrol commercial, his version of the Bobby Hebb song "Sunny" made No. 13 in the UK charts in September 1966.
His greatest chart success was in 1967 when "The Ballad of Bonnie and Clyde" became a number one hit in the UK, No. 7 in the US. "Yeh, Yeh" and "The Ballad of Bonnie and Clyde" sold over one million copies and were awarded gold discs. Fame continued playing into the 1970s, having a hit with "Rosetta" with his friend Alan Price of the Animals in 1971, they worked together extensively. In 1974, he began to sing with European orchestras and big bands, he wrote jingles for radio and TV commercials and composed for the films Entertaining Mr Sloane and The Alf Garnett Saga. He became a member of Van Morrison's band, as well as his musical producer, he played keyboards and sang harmony vocals on "In the Days Before Rock'n' Roll" from the album Enlightenment while recording and touring as a solo act. He played organ on Van Morrison's albums between 1989 and 1997 and starred at Terry Dillon's 60th-birthday party on 10 May 2008. Morrison refers to Fame in the line "I don't run into Mr. Clive" in his song "Don't Go to Nightclubs Anymore" on the 2008 Keep It Simple album.
Fame appeared as a guest on Morrison's television concert presented by BBC Four on 25 and 27 April 2008. Fame was a founding member of Bill Wyman's band Rhythm Kings, he worked with Count Basie, Eric Clapton, Muddy Waters, Joan Armatrading, the Verve. Fame has played residences at jazz club Ronnie Scott's, he played organ on Starclub's album. He was the headline act on the Sunday night at the Jazz World stage at the 2009 Glastonbury Festival after performing at the Midsummer Music at Spencers festival in Essex. On 18 April 2010, Fame and his sons Tristan Powell and James Powell performed at the Live Room at Twickenham Stadium for the tenth birthday celebrations of The Eel Pie Club. Part of the proceeds from the concert benefitted the Otakar Kraus Trust, which provides music and voice therapy for children and young people with physical and mental difficulties; the trio performed that year at the Towersey Festival. In July 2014 Fame played at the village hall in Goring-on-Thames and at the Cornbury Festival in Oxfordshire In 1972, Fame married Nicolette, Marchioness of Londonderry, the former wife of the 9th Marquess.
Lady Londonderry had given birth to one of Fame's children during her marriage to the marquess. When tests determined the child was Fame's, the Londonderrys divorced; the couple had another son, during their marriage. Nicolette Powell died on 13 August 1993
An archaeological relationship is the position in space and by implication, in time, of an object or context with respect to another. This is determined, not by linear measurement but by determining the sequence of their deposition – which arrived before the other; the key to this is stratigraphy. Archaeological material would, to a large extent, have been called rubbish when it was left on the site, it tends to accumulate in events. A gardener laid a gravel path or planted a bush in a hole. A builder back-filled the trench. Years someone built a pig sty onto it and drained the pig sty into the nettle patch. Still, the original wall blew over and so on; each event, which may have taken a short or long time to accomplish, leaves a context, a deposit of material, on the site. This deposit and its relationship to earlier contexts may show up in section or in plan when viewed from above; when there are hundreds of these relationships, a formal method of keeping track of them is required. An effective method is to prepare a Harris matrix.
Their position in the matrix places the contexts in their sequence in time. Provided the archaeologist has maintained a record of the context in which each artefact was found, the tracing of the contexts by the matrix does well for the artefacts. Terminology in archaeology is not definitive but the following are typical uses of terms: Cuts: A context is said to cut another context if the former's creation removed a part of the latter. For example a ditch cut, cuts all the contexts that made up the ground the ditch was dug into. Reciprocally, a context may be said to be cut by another. Overlies: A context is said to overlie another when the overlying context is in time and makes physical contact with the earlier context. Above: A context is said to be above another if created and, in general, vertically above the other context but not in physical contact; the description holds when they are not aligned vertically, if one and the same intervening context lies both below the higher and above the lower.
Below: A context is said to be below another context if it was created earlier and in general is vertically below the other context but not in physical contact. The description holds when they are not aligned vertically, if one and the same intervening context lies both below the higher and above the lower. Butts: A context "butts up to" or "abuts" another context when it was created and contacts the other but in general does not have a vertical physical relationship "above". An example would be a clay floor laid up to the vertical face of an existing wall. Contemporary with. A context formed in the sequence at the same time. An example of this would be a body in a coffin was in the coffin when the two where fixed in the sequence. Arguments concerning that the skeleton went into the coffin afterwards are based on knowledge of what constituted the formation of the sequence offsite. Is the body created at death or birth? Anomalies like this show up the limitations of the stratigraphic sequencing of human made deposits Same as.
A context upon further investigation may be discovered to the same one another context but assigned different context numbers in errorA relationship, in the sequence is sometimes referred to as "higher" in the sequence and a relationship, earlier "lower" though the term higher or lower does not itself imply a context needs to be physically higher or lower. It is more useful to think of this higher or lower term as it relates to the contexts position in a Harris matrix, a two dimensional representation of a sites formation in space and time. Alignment Archaeological association Archaeological context Archaeological phase Archaeological plan Archaeological section Cut Feature Fill Harris matrix Single context recording The MoLAS archaeological site manual MoLAS, London 1994. ISBN 978-0-904818-40-6. Rb 128pp. Bl/wh Principles of Archaeological Stratigraphy. 40 figs. 1 pl. 136 pp. London & New York: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-326651-3