Luigi's Mansion is a 2001 action-adventure video game developed and published by Nintendo for the GameCube. The game was a launch title for the GameCube and is the first game in the Mario franchise to be released for the console, launched in Japan on September 14, 2001, in North America on November 18, 2001, in Europe on May 3, 2002, in Australia on May 17, 2002, it is the second video game in which Luigi is the main character instead of Mario, with players controlling him as he explores a haunted mansion, searching for Mario and dealing with ghosts that lie within its rooms by capturing them through a special device supplied by Professor E. Gadd. Luigi's Mansion was well-received by reviewers; the game has sold over 2.5 million copies, is the fifth best selling GameCube game of all time. It was one of the first games to be re-released as a Player's Choice title on the system; the game was followed by two sequels – Luigi's Mansion: Dark Moon, released for the Nintendo 3DS in 2013, Luigi's Mansion 3, released for the Nintendo Switch on October 31, 2019.
A remake of Luigi's Mansion for the 3DS was co-developed by Nintendo and Grezzo and released in October 2018. In Luigi's Mansion, the main story is played out over four stages, with players able to access a training room and a gallery at the Professor E. Gadd's laboratory between stages. In each stage, players control Luigi as he explores the mansion's rooms and hunts down the ghosts that lie within them, acquiring keys to get through locked doors and dealing with a boss ghost hidden at the end of the stage, with more rooms becoming accessible as each stage is completed. To assist him in his task, Luigi uses a flashlight and two inventions supplied by E. Gadd – the Poltergust 3000, a specially modified, high powered vacuum cleaner. In order to capture ghosts, Luigi must first use his flashlight to light up the ghost and stun it, revealing their heart; when this happens, players use the Poltergust 3000 to suck them up reducing the ghost's hit points to zero. Once a ghost's HP is reduced to zero, they are captured.
Some ghosts cannot be captured until Luigi locates three special medallions, each granting the Poltergust with the ability to suck up certain elements from the rooms and use them to capture special ghosts lying within the mansion. In addition to capturing the regular ghosts in the mansion, Luigi must draw out special "portrait ghosts" from some rooms, each requiring a condition be met to make them available for capture. Once all the ghosts in a room are captured, it brightens up. Utilizing the Game Boy Horror, players can access a map of the mansion, seeing which rooms they have visited, what doors are open, which remain locked; when Luigi finds a key during his explorations, the Game Boy Horror automatically indicates which door it unlocks. In addition to a map function, the device keeps track of any treasure that Luigi has found – rooms will have treasure hidden within, which can be either coins, gold bars and so forth, hidden within items and in a chest that appears when the ghosts are cleared out, which Luigi can draw out and suck up with the Poltergust.
After Luigi encounters a group of Boos hiding in the mansion, the device can be used to find each one hiding in a room, through a beeper sound and a flashing yellow light on the device, which turns red when Luigi is close to one. Boos are trickier to deal with, as they can plant decoys and traps within objects they can hide in that can fool the Horror, will escape into other rooms if they can, forcing the player to chase after them. Once a stage is completed, all portrait ghosts are restored to their paintings by E. Gadd, which the player can view in his laboratory's gallery, at which point a result screen reveals the portrait ghosts Luigi has managed to capture, along with the total amount of treasure he recovered for that stage. Once the final boss of Luigi's Mansion is defeated, the player is given a rating during the end credits, based on the amount of treasure Luigi has found. After completing the game once, a second mode is offered, called the "Hidden Mansion". In the European version of this mode, the mansion appears as a reflection of the previous version, with bosses being made more difficult and Portrait Ghosts being trickier to capture, more ghosts being in some of the rooms.
Luigi is notified. He informs Mario, they agree to meet up outside the mansion that evening. Luigi follows a map to the mansion. With Mario nowhere to be found, Luigi enters the mansion alone, he is attacked by a ghost, but is saved by a scientist who tries unsuccessfully to suck up the ghost with a vacuum cleaner. The two evacuate before more ghosts can arrive, the man introduces himself as Professor Elvin Gadd, or E. Gadd for short, who explains the mansion is supernatural in origin and only appeared a few nights prior. E. Gadd tells Luigi that he saw Mario heading towards the mansion, but has not se
Hutchings' Illustrated California Magazine was a magazine published between 1856 and 1861, in San Francisco, which played an important role in popularizing California in general, to a large extent Yosemite National Park in particular. Publisher and promoter James Hutchings was born in Towcester, in 1848 came to the United States along with a vast wave of Europeans that were escaping a maelstrom of economic and religious oppression in the late 1840s. Shortly after he arrived gold was found in the Sierra Nevada, Hutchings decided to seek his fortune, his was a common story insofar as he did not make a good living mining gold, but what little he did make he invested. In addition to attracting settlers to the west coast, the gold rush brought technology, in particular printing presses, Hutchings learned to make a moderately lucrative living publishing and selling letter sheets, which were printed broad sheets purposely left blank on the back so they could be used to write letters, something akin to large-format postcards.
They became popular among miners, who used them when they wrote home to friends and relatives in the east. Aside from making a living selling the letter sheets, as Hutchings traveled around California he gained a sense of what was important in the popular mind and came up with the idea of an illustrated magazine; the news of the Mariposa Battalion's incursion into a valley for the purpose of tracking down alleged renegade Indians was widely published, but the news focused on the confrontation. Hutchings was one of the few people to note the mention of a 1000 foot waterfall, in 1854 when he was first formulating the idea of his illustrated magazine, he decided that a trip into that valley might make for interesting stories in the inaugural issue of the magazine. In the late spring of 1855 he hired artists to join him, when the party arrived in the foothills he hired two Mi-Wuk men as guides; as the party came around Inspiration Point, they stopped long enough for Thomas Ayres to get a detailed sketch, published as a lithographic poster that fall, the first published image of Yosemite Valley.
In June 1856, the entire account was published in Volume I of the magazine, included five of Ayres' drawings. The magazine was published monthly from July 1856 to five volumes total. Although Yosemite was prominent, it was a magazine of general interest that focused on California's nascent tourist attractions; each issue contained travel narratives, ranging from simple day trips out of San Francisco to arduous trans-Sierra treks. Longer articles were interspersed with shorter and lighter pieces, such as poetry and tables of interesting facts; the magazine popularized a number of well-known legendary stories of the West including the Pony Express, Grizzly Adams and Snowshoe Thompson. The story of the naming of Yosemite was first published in the magazine in an article by Lafayette Bunnell. Huntley, Jen A.. The Making of Yosemite: James Mason Hutchings and the Origin of America's Most Popular National Park. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-1805-7. OCLC 714731511. Hutchings' Illustrated California Magazine at the Internet Archive Hutchings' Illustrated California Magazine archive at HathiTrust
Multi-jackbolt tensioners are an alternative to traditional bolted joints. Rather than needing to tighten one large bolt, MJTs use several smaller jackbolts to reduce the torque required to attain a certain preload. MJTs can achieve 20 million pounds-force or more. MJTs only require hand-held tools, such as torque wrenches or air/electric impacts, for loading and unloading bolted joints. Multi-jackbolt tensioners, registered under the trademark Superbolt or Supernut, are designed to decrease the torque required to tighten large bolted joints. One of the major problems associated with traditional bolt tightening methods is as the diameter of the bolt increases, the amount of torque required to tighten it increases in the third power of the diameter; because of this, the largest size bolt a person can tighten by hand is 1 in. Multi-jackbolt tensioners reduce the amount of torque required to clamp the joint by using multiple jackbolts threaded through the nut or bolt head; the jackbolts, which are small enough to be tightened by simple hand tools, thrust against a hardened washer and generate clamping force on the joint.
Loads up to greater are attainable using only hand tools. MJTs and related products are produced by Superbolt, Inc. in Carnegie, PA. Nut type Nut type MJTs, otherwise known as Torquenuts, can be retrofitted onto existing bolts or studs; because of this, they are the most common type of MJT. Bolt type Bolt type MJTs, otherwise known as Torquebolts, have a ring of jackbolts touching the bolt shank, they have a smaller outside diameter than Torquenuts. With Torquebolts, it is possible to have close spacing at high preloads. Thrust-collar type Thrust-collar type MJTs are used in applications where it is difficult to use threaded tensioners, such as on rolling mills where the joint would need to be tightened by crane wrenching. Jackbolts push a threadless nut against a retainer ring, fitted into a groove and transfers the jacking force to the main bolt or stud; because there are no threads, they can be used in press column applications, eliminating the problems and hassles associated with large nut threads.
MJTs have a high mechanical advantage for tightening large nuts. To calculate mechanical advantage over standard hex nuts, the following formula is used: M A = T T j = n D A d Where: MJTs are a safe bolting method because only small hand or air tools are required for tightening. Other methods, including thermal tightening, crane wrenching, hydraulic wrenches and sledgehammers, can cause serious worker injuries due to heat, electricity pressurized hydraulic fluid and brute force. Back and other injuries can be avoided because no heavy tightening equipment needs to be lifted onto the bolt. Safety is increased because MJTs prevent parts from becoming loose. Due to dynamic loads, bolted joints have a tendency to loosen. Downtime is reduced because MJTs are able to achieve the large clamping forces required to prevent bolted components from vibrating loose. Therefore, less time is spent tightening joints and fixing problems caused by loose joints. MJTs reduce the likelihood the bolted joint will fail, which reduces downtime caused by needing to replace damaged components.
Though more individual jackbolts must be tightened, installation is still fast in comparison to other methods. Because the torque required to tighten each small jackbolt is exponentially less than the torque required to tighten one large nut, it takes less time and effort overall to tighten the larger number of jackbolts. No additional time is spent moving around heavy equipment to tighten each nut. Installation processes have been developed using air tools, which greatly reduces installation time. Additionally, multiple workers can work on a joint since the tooling required is inexpensive. Another common method, thermal tightening, can take a long time because the stud must be heated, clamping force is not obtained and cannot be checked until it is cooled since it depends on shrinkage. If the stud is not at proper stretch, the heating process must be repeated. MJTs are versatile tools, they can be used in tight spaces. MJTs can be engineered to specifications for any application. There are few size limitations, they can be used with large thread sizes.
They can be used in high temperature applications, given proper materials are used. Overall, the unique properties of MJTs created by the use of jackbolts can simplify complicated applications for large thread sizes. Thread galling and seizing is reduced because mating bolts or studs are loaded in pure tension without twisting. In many applications, elasticity in a bolt helps to keep a joint held together. Tests have shown turbine-type MJTs increase the elasticity of the average bolting system by the equivalent of four stud diameters, nut-type MJTs increase the elasticity by 4 to 12 diameter equivalents, which would triple or quadruple the elasticity of the bolting system. In other words, MJTs increase elasticity by adding up to 2 to 4 equivalent bolt effective lengths; this is advantageous in high-temperature bolting applications where bolts are subject to creep, because elastic bolting systems will take longer to reach a given relaxation stress th
Eudocima salaminia, the green fruit-piercing moth, is a moth of the family Erebidae. The species was first described by Pieter Cramer in 1777, it is found from India, across south-east Asia to the Pacific Islands. In Australia it occurs in the Northern Territory and New South Wales; the adult is a fruit piercer. The wingspan is about 80–104 mm. Palpi with second joint short and non-spatulate. Forewings with straight outer margin. Cilia non-crenulate. Head and collar plum fruit colored. Thorax greenish with tufts on metathorax. Abdomen orange. Forewings are golden greenish. A broad cream-colored costal fascia runs from near base of inner margin to apex, striated with pale red and turning to green at costa. There is a creamy marginal band as well. A curved red streak found below vein 2. Hindwings orange with large black lunule beyond lower angle of cell. A black marginal band with cilia whitish spots runs from costa to vein 2. Ventral side of forewings fuscous, with orange at base. Broad whitish postmedial band not reaching inner margin.
Cilia whitish. Larva dark purplish grey with a few whitish specks. Somites 4th to 6th with small yellowish sub-dorsal spots, beneath which on 5th and 6th somites is a red-ringed black ocellus with whitish pupil. 11th somite is with a conical reddish dorsal tubercle. Late instar is olive brown with dark specks. A pale lateral fascia found on medial somites and purplish fascia from tubercle to last abdominal segment; the larvae feed on Sarcopetalum harveyanum. Adults are a pest on fruit plantations, they penetrate fruit. After the fruit has been pierced, it is vulnerable to other micro-organisms. Piercing occurs on oranges and other citrus as well as lychees and longans. Effects of temperature on development and seasonality of Eudocima salaminia
James Hare was an English politician and wit. He was the son of an apothecary of Wells, Somerset, he was educated at Eton College, entered King's College, Cambridge in December 1765. He graduated B. A. in 1770, having become a fellow in 1768, a position he held to 1774. Hare entered London life, where his status as a wit was recognised, he associated with the fashionable set of Frederick Howard, 5th Earl of Carlisle, Earl Fitzwilliam, General Richard FitzPatrick, Charles James Fox, Anthony Morris Storer. He sat for the borough of Stockbridge, in Hampshire, from May 1772 to 1774, for Knaresborough, a constituency controlled by the Duke of Devonshire, from 3 July 1781 until his death in 1804, he broke down in his maiden parliamentary speech, never made a second attempt. Hare was extravagant at cards, ran short of money. From October 1779 to January 1782 he was minister plenipotentiary in Poland. In 1802 he was ill in Paris, Fox paid him frequent visits, he died at Bath, Somerset 17 March 1804. Hare was believed to have been one of the writers of the Rolliad.
Hare's fortune was improved by his marriage at St. George's, Hanover Square, London, on 21 January 1774, to Hannah, only daughter of Sir Abraham Hume, 1st Baronet, she died 6 May 1827, a monument to her memory was placed in the chancel of Wormley Church, Hertfordshire. They had one daughter. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Stephen, Leslie. "Hare, James". Dictionary of National Biography. 24. London: Smith, Elder & Co