Victory Square, Vancouver
Victory Square is a park in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The square is bordered by West Hastings Street to the northeast, West Pender Street to the southwest, Cambie Street to the southeast, the term is used to refer to the neighbourhood immediately surrounding the square. Victory Square was at one time the grounds of the provincial courthouse. An area of 0.9 acres out of the 480 acres allotted to the CPR was held aside as Government Square on February 13,1886. The southwest corner of Hamilton and Hastings Streets is where L. A. Hamilton drove the first survey stake to commence laying out the system for the city. Boyd & Clendenning were contracted by the CPR to begin felling the forest at a rate of $26 per acre, a tangled mass soon built up to 20 feet thick that was to be the kindling for the great fire that leveled the townsite. On the northern side of the square, on a plaza flanking Hastings Street, lies the Vancouver war memorial, the cenotaph is approximately 30 feet tall, and is a triangular edifice whose shape conforms to that of the square. D. D.
chaplain of the 29th Battalion, C. E. F, to the Glory of God, and in thankful remembrance of those who served their King and Country overseas in the cause of truth and freedom. The 24th Psalm was read by Hon. Lt. -Col. D. D. of the Methodist Church, and the music included O Canada, O God, Our Help in Ages Past, Lochaber No More, For All the Saints, Last Post and God Save the King. The first wreath, being the tribute of the Corporation and Citizens of Vancouver, was placed by Mrs. W. R. Owen. The ornamentations on the stone include one long sword and two wreaths, one of laurels, the other of poppies, both entwined with maple leaves, a stone replica of the steel helmet, as used in the war of 1914–1918, adorns three corner buttresses. A larger wreath of laurels surrounds the numerals 1914–1918 at the base of the front, of the monument faces, one side faces Hastings Street, the others Pender and Hamilton Streets, and was designed thus by Major G. L. Thornton Sharp, town planner, and park commissioner and it is so placed that, when approached from the east, it appears in the distance centrally at the end of busy Hastings Street.
The granite was supplied by the Vancouver Granite Co. Ltd. Mr. Stewart died from the effects of an accident whilst preparing the memorial. Dunlop, Esq. of the Canadian Club, as secretary, were the public-spirited sponsors. The engraved inscriptions are, Facing Hastings Street, Their name liveth for evermore and, within a stone wreath, 1914–1918. Facing Hamilton Street, Is it nothing to you Facing Pender Street, All ye that pass by The first, commencing Their name, is from Sirach, Chapter 44, the second, commencing Is it nothing, from Lamentations, Chapter 1, Verse 12
Bloody Sunday (1938)
Bloody Sunday was the conclusion of a month-long sitdowners strike by unemployed men at the main post office in Vancouver, British Columbia. It was Depression-era Vancouvers final violent clash between Communist-led unemployed protesters and police that provoked widespread criticism of police brutality, the Relief Project Workers Union was the successor to the Relief Camp Workers Union, which had led the 1935 strike that culminated in the On-to-Ottawa Trek and Regina Riot. The pay-rate was similar to the earlier camps – five dollars a month compared to the twenty-cents per day offered by the slave camps, the work was primarily seasonal work on farms. From the perspective of the government, the difference between the earlier camps established under R. B. Iron Heel Bennett and the projects under William Lyon Mackenzie Kings Liberals was that the men were comparatively isolated from each other making it more difficult to organize. In both cases, the throngs of disaffected unemployed men were out of urban centres.
In early 1938, the Prime Minister cut grants-in-aid to the provinces, premier Thomas Dufferin Pattullo closed the projects in April, claiming that British Columbia could not shoulder the burden alone. Unemployed men again flocked to Vancouver to protest government insensitivity and intransigence to their plight, the RCPU organized demonstrations and tin-canning in the city. By 1938, Communist organizers had a wealth of experience in sidestepping police spies. On the afternoon of 20 May 1938, approximately 1200 men left from four different halls in the East End of Vancouver, only when one group arrived at the corner of Granville and Hastings streets did it become evident that their destination was the post office. Over 700 men flooded into the renovated building. Police reinforcements were called from Granville and Georgia Streets, leaving the way clear for a column of 200 to enter Hotel Georgia. The owner of Hotel Georgia refused to call the police and risk property damage that would result from a forcible eviction.
This was the reaction anticipated by organizers and a reason these sites were selected for the occupation Instead, the other two groups of protesters, maintained their positions for weeks to come. The RCPU emphasized discipline among its members in order to win rather than alienate public sympathy, chief Constable Colonel W. W. Foster attempted to persuade the men to leave, telling them that they had made their point and should now go home. Brodie responded that if they had homes, they would be in them and they offered to submit to arrest peacefully, and continued to do so for the duration of the occupation. Foster refused, and instead sought to manage the situation rather than clog the local prison with 1000 demonstrators, the attorney-general agreed with Colonel Foster that the strikers would likely vacate on their own in a matter of days. But even as the strike dragged on from days into weeks, Colonel Foster had earned a reputation for diplomacy with the unemployed during the 1935 strike, which he appeared to be cultivating again in 1938
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada. It stands on the bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of southern Ontario. Ottawa borders Gatineau, the two form the core of the Ottawa–Gatineau census metropolitan area and the National Capital Region. The 2016 census reported a population of 934,243, making it the fourth-largest city in Canada, the City of Ottawa reported that the city had an estimated population of 960,754 as of December 2015. Founded in 1826 as Bytown, and incorporated as Ottawa in 1855, the city name Ottawa was chosen in reference to the Ottawa River nearby, the name of which is derived from the Algonquin Odawa, meaning to trade. The city is the most educated in Canada, and is home to a number of post-secondary and cultural institutions, including the National Arts Centre, Ottawa has the highest standard of living in the nation and low unemployment. It ranked second out of 150 worldwide in the Numbeo quality of life index 2014–2015, with the draining of the Champlain Sea around ten thousand years ago the Ottawa Valley became habitable.
The area was used for wild harvesting, fishing, travel. The Ottawa river valley has archaeological sites with arrow heads, the area has three major rivers that meet, making it an important trade and travel area for thousands of years. The Algonquins called the Ottawa River Kichi Sibi or Kichissippi meaning Great River or Grand River, Étienne Brûlé, the first European to travel up the Ottawa River, passed by Ottawa in 1610 on his way to the Great Lakes. Three years later, Samuel de Champlain wrote about the waterfalls of the area and about his encounters with the Algonquins, the early explorers and traders were followed by many missionaries. The first maps of the area used the word Ottawa to name the river, philemon Wright, a New Englander, created the first settlement in the area on 7 March 1800 on the north side of the river, across from Ottawa in Hull. He, with five other families and twenty-five labourers, set about to create a community called Wrightsville. Wright pioneered the Ottawa Valley timber trade by transporting timber by river from the Ottawa Valley to Quebec City, the following year, the town would soon be named after British military engineer Colonel John By who was responsible for the entire Rideau Waterway construction project.
Colonel By set up military barracks on the site of todays Parliament Hill and he laid out the streets of the town and created two distinct neighbourhoods named Upper Town west of the canal and Lower Town east of the canal. Similar to its Upper Canada and Lower Canada namesakes, historically Upper Town was predominantly English speaking and Protestant whereas Lower Town was predominantly French, bytowns population grew to 1,000 as the Rideau Canal was being completed in 1832. In 1855 Bytown was renamed Ottawa and incorporated as a city, William Pittman Lett was installed as the first city clerk guiding it through 36 years of development. On New Years Eve 1857, Queen Victoria, as a symbolic, in reality, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald had assigned this selection process to the Executive Branch of the Government, as previous attempts to arrive at a consensus had ended in deadlock
General Andrew George Latta McNaughton CH CB CMG DSO CD PC was a Canadian scientist, army officer, cabinet minister, and diplomat. Born in Moosomin, Saskatchewan, on 25 February 1887, McNaughton was a student at Bishops College School in Lennoxville, Quebec. He earned a B. A. from McGill University in Montreal in 1910, where he was a member of The Kappa Alpha Society, McNaughton joined the Canadian militia in 1909. He took the 4th Battery of the Canadian Expeditionary Force overseas with the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, while there he helped make advances in the science of artillery, and was wounded twice. The need to accurately pinpoint artillery targets, both stationary and moving, led to his invention of a detection technique using an oscilloscope which was the forerunner of radar. He sold the rights to that invention to the Government of Canada for only $10, in March 1916 he was promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel and returned to England to take command of the newly arrived 11 Brigade RCA, taking it to France in July.
In early 1917 he was appointed the Counter Battery Staff Officer of the Canadian Corps, on the day before the armistice he was promoted to Brigadier-General and appointed General Officer Commanding Canadian Corps Heavy Artillery. In 1920 McNaughton joined the army and in 1922 was promoted to Deputy Chief of the General Staff. During that time he worked at mechanising the army and modernising the militia, by the summer of 1932, due to the massive unemployment caused by the Great Depression, Canada had become poverty-stricken with much of the populace left destitute. McNaughton recognised that here was a situation where the possibility of revolution didnt seem unreal, in October he presented a proposal eagerly grasped by Prime Minister R. B. It would get the men off the streets, out of the cities and out of sight, in the so-called relief camps men would be fed and housed, and would work on projects of national importance—building airfields and other public works. Portions of a letter smuggled out read to the House of Commons by J. S.
Woodsworth, the bunks are filled with straw and you crawl into them from the foot end. Along the front of the bunk a narrow board is placed upon which the men may sit. The place is very meagerly lighted and ventilation by three skylights, so narrow is the passageway between the bunks that when the men are sitting on the bench there is scarcely room to pass between them. At times the place reeks of the smell and at night the air is simply fetid. The floor is dirty and the end of the shack where the men wash. is caked with black mud, the toilet is thoroughly filthy and far too small. The irony was that McNaughtons scheme for staving off revolution had the seeds of revolution inherent in it, within two years the camps that had been greeted with such applause would be known throughout the country as slave camps. The volunteer inmates were not allowed newspapers, magazines or radios, any man who left a camp, even for a visit to his family, was subsequently refused re-entry and the dole was denied to him
Sinclair Centre is an upscale shopping mall in Downtown Vancouver, British Columbia. It is located at 757 West Hastings Street between Granville and Howe streets, the centre comprises four buildings that were restored and connected by a new atrium space designed by Henriquez Partners Architects and Toby Russell Buckwell Architects in 1986. The cost for work was 38 million. The main post office was housed here from 1910 until the new one opened in 1958, the Post Office Building is in an Edwardian Baroque style, combining English and French influences. It features an atrium clock consisting of four 12-foot-diameter clocks built in 1909 and is the largest clock movement in Western Canada, in addition to the mall, the building has a seven floor office tower occupied by the federal government. The buildings that comprise the centre are the Post Office, the handsome and architecturally esteemed Winch Building, the Customs Examining Warehouse, the mall is home to elite boutiques. Sinclair is the grandfather of 23rd Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau.
Bloody Sunday List of heritage buildings in Vancouver Official website
Hudson's Bay Company
The Hudsons Bay Company, commonly referred to as The Bay, is a Canadian retail business group. HBCs head office is in the Simpson Tower in Toronto, the company is listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange under the symbol HBC. It was once the worlds largest landowner, with the area of the Hudson Bay watershed, known as Ruperts Land, having 15% of North American acreage. From its long-time headquarters at York Factory on Hudson Bay, the company controlled the fur trade throughout much of the English, undertaking early exploration, its traders and trappers forged relationships with many groups of aboriginal peoples. Its network of trading posts formed the nucleus for official authority in areas of Western Canada. By the mid-19th century, the company evolved into a business selling everything from furs to fine homeware. They quickly introduced a new type of client to the HBC – one that shopped for pleasure and not with skins, in July 2008, HBC was acquired by NRDC Equity Partners, which owns the upmarket American department store Lord & Taylor.
From 2008 to 2012, the HBC was run through a company of NRDC, Hudsons Bay Trading Company. Since 2012, the HBC directly oversees its Canadian subsidiaries Hudsons Bay and Home Outfitters, on 29 July 2013, the HBC announced its takeover of Saks, Inc. operator of the Saks Fifth Avenue brand. The merger was completed on 3 November 2013, in September 2015, HBC acquired the German department store chain Galeria Kaufhof and its Belgian subsidiary from Metro Group for $3.2 billion U. S. In May 2016, HBC announced it would expand to the Netherlands by taking over up to 20 former Vroom & Dreesmann sites by 2017, v&D was an historic Dutch department store chain that went bankrupt and shut down in early 2016. HBC said the expansion would cost CAD $340 million and create 2,500 jobs in the stores, the Dutch stores would operate under the Hudsons Bay and Saks Off Fifth brands. In January 2016, HBC announced it would expand deeper in the space with its acquisition of online flash sales site. In the 17th century the French had a de facto monopoly on the Canadian fur trade with their colony of New France.
Assuming this was Hudson Bay, they sought French backing for a plan to set up a trading post on the Bay, despite this refusal, in 1659 Radisson and Groseilliers set out for the upper Great Lakes basin. A year returned with premium furs, evidence of the potential of the Hudson Bay region. Subsequently, they were arrested for trading without a licence and fined, determined to establish trade in the Hudson Bay and Groseilliers approached a group of businessmen in Boston, Massachusetts to help finance their explorations. The Bostonians agreed on the plans merits but their speculative voyage in 1663 failed when their ship ran into pack ice in Hudson Strait, boston-based English commissioner Colonel George Cartwright learned of the expedition and brought the two to England to raise financing
The On-to-Ottawa Trek was a long journey where 1 thousand unemployed men protested the dismal conditions in federal relief camps scattered in remote areas across Western Canada. The men lived and worked in camps at a rate of twenty cents per day before walking out on strike in April 1935. After a two-month protest in Vancouver, British Columbia, camp strikers voted to bring their grievances to the federal government, the Great Depression crippled the Canadian economy and left one in nine citizens on relief. The poor working and living conditions led to general unrest in the camps, the Workers Unity League helped the men organize the Relief Camp Workers Union in 1933. A strike was held in December 1934 with the men leaving the various camps and they returned to the camps after a promise of a government commission to look into their complaints. When a commission was not appointed a second strike was approved by the members, about 1,000 strikers headed for Ottawa. Public support for the men was enormous, but the municipal and federal governments passed responsibility between themselves and they decided to take their grievances to the federal government.
On June 3,1935, hundreds of men began boarding boxcars headed east in what would become known as the “On-to-Ottawa Trek. ”The protesters reached Regina, Saskatchewan, on June 14 and met with two federal cabinet ministers in the government of Prime Minister R. B. Bennett on June 17. The remaining trekkers continued remain in the located on Regina Exhibition Grounds. The June 22nd Ottawa meeting turned into a match, with Bennett attacking the group as radicals. Evans, in turn, called the Prime Minister a liar before the delegation was escorted out of the building, the eight delegates arrived back in Regina on June 26. Attempts of the Trekkers to travel east by car or truck or train were thwarted by RCMP, a public meeting was called for July 1,1935, in Market Square in Germantown to update the public on the progress of the movement. It was attended by 1,500 to 2,000 people, most Trekkers decided to stay at the exhibition grounds. Three large moving trucks were parked on three sides of the square concealing RCMP riot squads, Regina police were in the garage of the police station which was in Market Square.
At 8,17 p. m. a whistle was blown, the attack caught the people off guard before their anger took over. They fought back with sticks and anything at hand, mounted RCMP officers started to use tear gas and fired guns. Driven from the Square, and with the RCMP blocking the roadway back to the Stadium grounds, police fired revolvers above and into groups of people. Tear gas bombs were thrown at any groups that gathered together, plate glass windows in stores and offices were smashed, but with one exception, these stores were not looted, they were burned
Arthur "Slim" Evans
Arthur Herbert Slim Evans was a leader in the industrial labor union movement in Canada and the United States. Born in Toronto, Evans travelled west in 1911 and worked in places, first as a farmer. In Minneapolis he became involved with the Industrial Workers of the World and he was present at the 1913 miners strike in Ludlow, Colorado. Two days after Evans arrived, he was shot by strikebreakers hired by John D. Rockefeller, one of the big coal company owners, Evans walked with a limp for the rest of his life as a result. Evans returned to Canada and continued his union activism and he was the leader of the One Big Union local of coal miners in Drumheller, where he was sentenced to a three-year prison term for leading a strike. In 1933 he was sentenced again to 18 months for his role leading miners, along with other former wobblies, became a member of the Communist Party of Canada after it formed in 1921. Perhaps his greatest notoriety came in 1935 when, as leader of the Communist Partys trade union umbrella, Communist activists organized workers in the government relief camps into the Relief Camp Workers Union.
Relief camp workers struck on April 4,1935 when they went to Vancouver, the first batch of strikers left Vancouver, riding on boxcars, and were joined by many others in Kamloops, Golden and Moose Jaw. By the time they reached Regina, Saskatchewan their numbers had climbed to over 2,000, Evans led a delegation to go ahead of the strikers and meet with the prime minister, R. B. The two leaders engaged in an exchange, when Bennett accused Evans of being an embezzler. Evans response received much publicity, You are a liar, dont think you can pull off anything like that. You are not intimidating me a damned bit, the meeting accomplished little more than to illustrate the intransigence of the government and the determination of the strikers, and the delegation left Ottawa to rejoin the strikers in Regina. Evans and other Trek leaders were arrested at a demonstration of strikers and supporters on July 1,1935. Evans was charged under Section 98, the section of the Criminal Code, an exhaustive government inquiry was held into causes of the riot, and its conclusions paved the way for reforming the relief camp system.
This outcome and the defeat of R. B. Bennett are two indicators that the strike was a success, even though the Trek was crushed. Evans continued his activism, organizing the miners and smelter workers in Trail, British Columbia into the CIO union, Mill. He led fundraising drives for the Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion, the contingent from Canada that fought the fascists during the Spanish Civil War. His last union position was as the steward at the Vancouver Shipyards
Thomas Dufferin Pattullo was the 22nd Premier of British Columbia, Canada from 1933 to 1941. He got a job as secretary to James Morrow Walsh, the Commissioner of the Yukon, in 1908, he moved to Prince Rupert, British Columbia and soon became mayor. He was elected to the legislature in the 1916 election. Following the defeat of the Liberals in the 1928 election, Pattullo became Liberal Party leader, in the 1933 election, with the Conservatives in disarray and not running any official candidates, Pattullo led the party back into government. The Pattullo government, elected in the midst of the Great Depression, attempted to extend government services, in the 1937 general election, his government was re-elected running on the slogan of socialized capitalism. His government was unable to secure a majority in the 1941 election due, in part and he was unwilling to form a coalition government with the Conservatives, so his Liberal Party removed him as leader and formed such a coalition despite his objections.
In the 1945 election, Pattullo lost his seat in the legislature and he died in Victoria, British Columbia in 1956. He is interred and rested in the Royal Oak Burial Park in Victoria, the Canadian Encyclopedia, Accessed August 7,2006
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, in most countries it started in 1929 and it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is commonly used as an example of how far the economy can decline. The depression originated in the United States, after a fall in stock prices that began around September 4,1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide GDP fell by an estimated 15%, by comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession. Some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s, however, in many countries, the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II. The Great Depression had devastating effects in both rich and poor. Personal income, tax revenue and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%, unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%.
Cities all around the world were hit hard, especially dependent on heavy industry. Construction was virtually halted in many countries, farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Even after the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time, john D. Rockefeller said These are days when many are discouraged. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have come, prosperity has always returned and will again. The stock market turned upward in early 1930, returning to early 1929 levels by April and this was still almost 30% below the peak of September 1929. Together and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the period of the previous year. On the other hand, many of whom had suffered losses in the stock market the previous year. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S, by mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed.
By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928, prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930
The Communist International, abbreviated as Comintern and known as the Third International, was an international communist organization that advocated world communism. The Comintern had seven World Congresses between 1919 and 1935 and it had thirteen Enlarged Plenums of its governing Executive Committee, which had much the same function as the somewhat larger and more grandiose Congresses. The Comintern was officially dissolved by Joseph Stalin in 1943, while the differences had been evident for decades, World War I proved the issue that finally divided the revolutionary and reformist wings of the workers movement. The socialist movement had been historically antimilitarist and internationalist, and therefore opposed workers serving as fodder for the bourgeois governments at war. This especially since the Triple Alliance comprised two empires, while the Triple Entente gathered France and Britain into an alliance with Russia, karl Marxs The Communist Manifesto had stated that the working class has no country and exclaimed Proletarians of all countries, unite.
Massive majorities voted in favor of resolutions for the Second International to call upon the working class to resist war if it were declared. Nevertheless, within hours of the declarations of war, almost all the socialist parties of the combatant states announced their support for the war, the only exceptions were the socialist parties of the Balkans. To Lenins surprise, even the Social Democratic Party of Germany voted in favor of war credits, Socialist parties in neutral countries mostly supported neutrality rather than total opposition to the war. The International divided into a left and a reformist right. Lenin condemned much of the center as social-pacifists for several reasons, Lenins term social-pacifist aimed in particular at Ramsay MacDonald, leader of the Independent Labour Party in Britain, who opposed the war on grounds of pacifism, but did not actively resist it. Discredited by its passivity towards world events, the Second International dissolved in the middle of the war in 1916, the victory of the Russian Communist Party in the Bolshevik Revolution of November 1917 was felt throughout the world.
An alternative path to power to parliamentary politics was demonstrated, with much of Europe on the verge of economic and political collapse in the aftermath of the carnage of the Great War, revolutionary sentiments were widespread. The Bolsheviks believed that required a new international to ferment revolution in Europe. The Comintern was founded at a Congress held in Moscow March 2–6,1919, there were 52 delegates present from 34 parties. They decided to form an Executive Committee with representatives of the most important sections, the Congress decided that the Executive Committee would elect a five-member bureau to run the daily affairs of the International. However, such a bureau was not formed and Lenin, Zinoviev was assisted by Angelica Balabanoff, acting as the secretary of the International, Victor L. Kibaltchitch and Vladmir Ossipovich Mazin. Lenin and Alexandra Kollontai presented material, the main topic of discussion was the difference between bourgeois democracy and the dictatorship of the proletariat.
The central policy of the Comintern under Lenins leadership was that Communist parties should be established across the world to aid the international proletarian revolution, in this period, the Comintern was promoted as the General Staff of the World Revolution
Spanish Civil War
Ultimately, the Nationalists won, and Franco ruled Spain for the next 36 years, from April 1939 until his death in November 1975. Sanjurjo was killed in an accident while attempting to return from exile in Portugal. The coup was supported by units in the Spanish protectorate in Morocco, Burgos, Valladolid, Cádiz, Córdoba. However, rebelling units in some important cities—such as Madrid, Valencia, and Málaga—did not gain control, Spain was thus left militarily and politically divided. The Nationalists and the Republican government fought for control of the country, the Nationalist forces received munitions and soldiers from Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, while the Republican side received support from the Communist Soviet Union and leftist populist Mexico. Other countries, such as the United Kingdom and France, operated a policy of non-intervention. The Nationalists advanced from their strongholds in the south and west and they besieged Madrid and the area to its south and west for much of the war.
Those associated with the losing Republicans were persecuted by the victorious Nationalists, with the establishment of a dictatorship led by General Franco in the aftermath of the war, all right-wing parties were fused into the structure of the Franco regime. The war became notable for the passion and political division it inspired, organized purges occurred in territory captured by Francos forces to consolidate the future regime. A significant number of killings took place in areas controlled by the Republicans, the extent to which Republican authorities took part in killings in Republican territory varied. The 19th century was a turbulent time for Spain and those in favour of reforming Spains government vied for political power with conservatives, who tried to prevent reforms from taking place. Some liberals, in a tradition that had started with the Spanish Constitution of 1812, sought to limit the power of the monarchy of Spain, the reforms of 1812 did not last after King Ferdinand VII dissolved the Constitution and ended the Trienio Liberal government.
Twelve successful coups were carried out between 1814 and 1874, until the 1850s, the economy of Spain was primarily based on agriculture. There was little development of an industrial or commercial class. The land-based oligarchy remained powerful, a number of people held large estates called latifundia as well as all the important government positions. In 1868 popular uprisings led to the overthrow of Queen Isabella II of the House of Bourbon, two distinct factors led to the uprisings, a series of urban riots and a liberal movement within the middle classes and the military concerned with the ultra-conservatism of the monarchy. In 1873 Isabellas replacement, King Amadeo I of the House of Savoy, abdicated owing to increasing pressure. After the restoration of the Bourbons in December 1874, Carlists and Anarchists emerged in opposition to the monarchy, alejandro Lerroux, Spanish politician and leader of the Radical Republican Party, helped bring republicanism to the fore in Catalonia, where poverty was particularly acute